Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

Description protein-protein interactions from low-throughput or high-throughput studies aggregated by Pathway Commons from the following databases: Reactome, NCI Pathways, PhosphoSite, HumanCyc, HPRD, PANTHER, DIP, BioGRID, IntAct, BIND, Transfac, MiRTarBase, Drugbank, Recon X, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and KEGG
Measurement association by data aggregation
Association protein-protein associations from low-throughput or high-throughput protein-protein interaction data
Category physical interactions
Resource Pathway Commons
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  1. 15747 genes
  2. 15747 interacting proteins
  3. 3527164 gene-interacting protein associations

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interacting protein Gene Sets

15747 sets of interacting proteins for proteins from the Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions dataset.

Gene Set Description
RNF14 ring finger protein 14|The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING zinc finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. This protein interacts with androgen receptor (AR) and may function as a coactivator that induces AR target gene expression in prostate. A dominant negative mutant of this gene has been demonstrated to inhibit the AR-mediated growth of prostate cancer. This protein also interacts with class III ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and may act as a ubiquitin-ligase (E3) in the ubiquitination of certain nuclear proteins. Six alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
UBE2Q1 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 1|The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s), and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s). This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein is 98% identical to the mouse counterpart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UBE2Q2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2|
RNF10 ring finger protein 10|The protein encoded by this gene contains a ring finger motif, which is known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined. EST data suggests the existence of multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, however, their full length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RNF11 ring finger protein 11|The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING-H2 finger motif, which is known to be important for protein-protein interactions. The expression of this gene has been shown to be induced by mutant RET proteins (MEN2A/MEN2B). The germline mutations in RET gene are known to be responsible for the development of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RNF13 ring finger protein 13|The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING zinc finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been reported. A pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 3, has been defined for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
REM1 RAS (RAD and GEM)-like GTP-binding 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase and member of the RAS-like GTP-binding protein family. The encoded protein is expressed in endothelial cells, where it promotes reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and morphological changes in the cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
REM2 RAS (RAD and GEM)-like GTP binding 2|
C16orf13 chromosome 16 open reading frame 13|
UCHL5 ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L5|
RNF17 ring finger protein 17|This gene is similar to a mouse gene that encodes a testis-specific protein containing a RING finger domain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
MZT2A mitotic spindle organizing protein 2A|
MZT2B mitotic spindle organizing protein 2B|
ATRX alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked|The protein encoded by this gene contains an ATPase/helicase domain, and thus it belongs to the SWI/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins. This protein is found to undergo cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation, which regulates its nuclear matrix and chromatin association, and suggests its involvement in the gene regulation at interphase and chromosomal segregation in mitosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome most often accompanied by alpha-thalassemia (ATRX) syndrome. These mutations have been shown to cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation, which may provide a link between chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, and gene expression in developmental processes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
PMM2 phosphomannomutase 2|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the isomerization of mannose 6-phosphate to mannose 1-phosphate, which is a precursor to GDP-mannose necessary for the synthesis of dolichol-P-oligosaccharides. Mutations in this gene have been shown to cause defects in glycoprotein biosynthesis, which manifests as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type I. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PMM1 phosphomannomutase 1|Phosphomannomutase catalyzes the conversion between D-mannose 6-phosphate and D-mannose 1-phosphate which is a substrate for GDP-mannose synthesis. GDP-mannose is used for synthesis of dolichol-phosphate-mannose, which is essential for N-linked glycosylation and thus the secretion of several glycoproteins as well as for the synthesis of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchored proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASS1 argininosuccinate synthase 1|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the penultimate step of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. There are approximately 10 to 14 copies of this gene including the pseudogenes scattered across the human genome, among which the one located on chromosome 9 appears to be the only functional gene for argininosuccinate synthetase. Mutations in the chromosome 9 copy of this gene cause citrullinemia. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
NCBP1 nuclear cap binding protein subunit 1, 80kDa|The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear cap-binding protein complex (CBC), which binds to the monomethylated 5' cap of nascent pre-mRNA in the nucleoplasm. The encoded protein promotes high-affinity mRNA-cap binding and associates with the CTD of RNA polymerase II. The CBC promotes pre-mRNA splicing, 3'-end processing, RNA nuclear export, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF709 zinc finger protein 709|
ZNF708 zinc finger protein 708|
ZNF879 zinc finger protein 879|
ZNF878 zinc finger protein 878|
CBX3 chromobox homolog 3|At the nuclear envelope, the nuclear lamina and heterochromatin are adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane. The protein encoded by this gene binds DNA and is a component of heterochromatin. This protein also can bind lamin B receptor, an integral membrane protein found in the inner nuclear membrane. The dual binding functions of the encoded protein may explain the association of heterochromatin with the inner nuclear membrane. This protein binds histone H3 tails methylated at Lys-9 sites. This protein is also recruited to sites of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and double-strand breaks. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein but differing in the 5' UTR, have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
NID2 nidogen 2 (osteonidogen)|This gene encodes a member of the nidogen family of basement membrane proteins. This protein is a cell-adhesion protein that binds collagens I and IV and laminin and may be involved in maintaining the structure of the basement membrane.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
CAMK1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I|Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly promotes the phosphorylation and synergistic activation of the enzyme by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF701 zinc finger protein 701|
ZNF700 zinc finger protein 700|
ZNF707 zinc finger protein 707|
ZNF706 zinc finger protein 706|
ZC3H10 zinc finger CCCH-type containing 10|
RNF114 ring finger protein 114|
RNF115 ring finger protein 115|
RNF112 ring finger protein 112|This gene encodes a member of the RING finger protein family of transcription factors. The protein is primarily expressed in brain. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZC3H14 zinc finger CCCH-type containing 14|ZC3H14 belongs to a family of poly(A)-binding proteins that influence gene expression by regulating mRNA stability, nuclear export, and translation (Kelly et al., 2007 [PubMed 17630287]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]
SPN sialophorin|The protein encoded by this gene is a major sialoglycoprotein found on the surface of thymocytes, T lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and some B lymphocytes. It may be part of a physiologic ligand-receptor complex involved in T-cell activation. During T-cell activation, this protein is actively removed from the T-cell-APC (antigen-presenting cell) contact site, suggesting a negative regulatory role in adaptive immune response. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
RNF111 ring finger protein 111|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear RING-domain containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. This protein interacts with the transforming growth factor (TGF) -beta/NODAL signaling pathway by promoting the ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation of negative regulators, like SMAD proteins, and thereby enhances TGF-beta target-gene transcription. As a modulator of the nodal signaling cascade, this gene plays a critical role in the induction of mesoderm during embryonic development. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
NACAP1 nascent-polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptide pseudogene 1|
ZC3H18 zinc finger CCCH-type containing 18|
GRIN1 glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a critical subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, members of the glutamate receptor channel superfamily which are heteromeric protein complexes with multiple subunits arranged to form a ligand-gated ion channel. These subunits play a key role in the plasticity of synapses, which is believed to underlie memory and learning. Cell-specific factors are thought to control expression of different isoforms, possibly contributing to the functional diversity of the subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DHX8 DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-His) box polypeptide 8|This gene is a member of the DEAH box polypeptide family. The encoded protein contains the DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-His) motif which is characteristic of all DEAH box proteins, and is thought to function as an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that regulates the release of spliced mRNAs from spliceosomes prior to their export from the nucleus. This protein may be required for the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
DHX9 DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-His) box helicase 9|This gene encodes a member of the DEAH-containing family of RNA helicases. The encoded protein is an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent unwinding of double-stranded RNA and DNA-RNA complexes. This protein localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm and functions as a transcriptional regulator. This protein may also be involved in the expression and nuclear export of retroviral RNAs. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 11 and 13.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
TCOF1 Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome 1|This gene encodes a nucleolar protein with a LIS1 homology domain. The protein is involved in ribosomal DNA gene transcription through its interaction with upstream binding factor (UBF). Mutations in this gene have been associated with Treacher Collins syndrome, a disorder which includes abnormal craniofacial development. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
NSRP1 nuclear speckle splicing regulatory protein 1|
NUP98 nucleoporin 98kDa|Signal-mediated nuclear import and export proceed through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which is comprised of approximately 50 unique proteins collectively known as nucleoporins. The 98 kDa nucleoporin is generated through a biogenesis pathway that involves synthesis and proteolytic cleavage of a 186 kDa precursor protein. This cleavage results in the 98 kDa nucleoporin as well as a 96 kDa nucleoporin, both of which are localized to the nucleoplasmic side of the NPC. Rat studies show that the 98 kDa nucleoporin functions as one of several docking site nucleoporins of transport substrates. The human gene has been shown to fuse to several genes following chromosome translocations in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL). This gene is one of several genes located in the imprinted gene domain of 11p15.5, an important tumor-suppressor gene region. Alterations in this region have been associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and lung, ovarian, and breast cancer. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
XPC xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group C|This gene encodes a component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. There are multiple components involved in the NER pathway, including Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) A-G and V, Cockayne syndrome (CS) A and B, and trichothiodystrophy (TTD) group A, etc. This component, XPC, plays an important role in the early steps of global genome NER, especially in damage recognition, open complex formation, and repair protein complex formation. Mutations in this gene or some other NER components result in Xeroderma pigmentosum, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased sensitivity to sunlight with the development of carcinomas at an early age. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
SP1 Sp1 transcription factor|The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor that binds to GC-rich motifs of many promoters. The encoded protein is involved in many cellular processes, including cell differentiation, cell growth, apoptosis, immune responses, response to DNA damage, and chromatin remodeling. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, and proteolytic processing significantly affect the activity of this protein, which can be an activator or a repressor. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
SP2 Sp2 transcription factor|This gene encodes a member of the Sp subfamily of Sp/XKLF transcription factors. Sp family proteins are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins characterized by an amino-terminal trans-activation domain and three carboxy-terminal zinc finger motifs. This protein contains the least conserved DNA-binding domain within the Sp subfamily of proteins, and its DNA sequence specificity differs from the other Sp proteins. It localizes primarily within subnuclear foci associated with the nuclear matrix, and can activate or in some cases repress expression from different promoters. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SP3 Sp3 transcription factor|This gene belongs to a family of Sp1 related genes that encode transcription factors that regulate transcription by binding to consensus GC- and GT-box regulatory elements in target genes. This protein contains a zinc finger DNA-binding domain and several transactivation domains, and has been reported to function as a bifunctional transcription factor that either stimulates or represses the transcription of numerous genes. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, and one has been reported to initiate translation from a non-AUG (AUA) start codon. Additional isoforms, resulting from the use of alternate downstream translation initiation sites, have also been noted. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
SP4 Sp4 transcription factor|
SP5 Sp5 transcription factor|
SP7 Sp7 transcription factor|This gene encodes a member of the Sp subfamily of Sp/XKLF transcription factors. Sp family proteins are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins characterized by an amino-terminal trans-activation domain and three carboxy-terminal zinc finger motifs. This protein is a bone specific transcription factor and is required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
SPPL3 signal peptide peptidase like 3|
GOLIM4 golgi integral membrane protein 4|The Golgi complex plays a key role in the sorting and modification of proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein encoded by this gene is a type II Golgi-resident protein. It may process proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and assist in the transport of protein cargo through the Golgi apparatus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
OPA3 optic atrophy 3 (autosomal recessive, with chorea and spastic paraplegia)|The mouse ortholog of this protein co-purifies with the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mutations in this gene have been shown to result in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III and autosomal dominant optic atrophy and cataract. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
OPA1 optic atrophy 1 (autosomal dominant)|This gene product is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein with similarity to dynamin-related GTPases. It is a component of the mitochondrial network. Mutations in this gene have been associated with optic atrophy type 1, which is a dominantly inherited optic neuropathy resulting in progressive loss of visual acuity, leading in many cases to legal blindness. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
RHEB Ras homolog enriched in brain|This gene is a member of the small GTPase superfamily and encodes a lipid-anchored, cell membrane protein with five repeats of the RAS-related GTP-binding region. This protein is vital in regulation of growth and cell cycle progression due to its role in the insulin/TOR/S6K signaling pathway. The protein has GTPase activity and shuttles between a GDP-bound form and a GTP-bound form, and farnesylation of the protein is required for this activity. Three pseudogenes have been mapped, two on chromosome 10 and one on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RAB40C RAB40C, member RAS oncogene family|
RAB40B RAB40B, member RAS oncogene family|The protein encoded by this gene has similarity to a yeast protein which suggests a role of the gene product in regulating secretory vesicles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RAB40A RAB40A, member RAS oncogene family|This gene encodes a member of the Rab40 subfamily of Rab small GTP-binding proteins that contains a C-terminal suppressors of cytokine signaling box. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
COL7A1 collagen, type VII, alpha 1|This gene encodes the alpha chain of type VII collagen. The type VII collagen fibril, composed of three identical alpha collagen chains, is restricted to the basement zone beneath stratified squamous epithelia. It functions as an anchoring fibril between the external epithelia and the underlying stroma. Mutations in this gene are associated with all forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. In the absence of mutations, however, an acquired form of this disease can result from an autoimmune response made to type VII collagen. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GTSE1 G-2 and S-phase expressed 1|The protein encoded by this gene is only expressed in the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, where it colocalizes with cytoplasmic tubulin and microtubules. In response to DNA damage, the encoded protein accumulates in the nucleus and binds the tumor suppressor protein p53, shuttling it out of the nucleus and repressing its ability to induce apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARFRP1 ADP-ribosylation factor related protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-associated GTP-ase which localizes to the plasma membrane and is related to the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and ARF-like (ARL) proteins. This gene plays a role in membrane trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
WIF1 WNT inhibitory factor 1|The protein encoded by this gene functions to inhibit WNT proteins, which are extracellular signaling molecules that play a role in embryonic development. This protein contains a WNT inhibitory factor (WIF) domain and five epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, and is thought to be involved in mesoderm segmentation. This gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene, and has been found to be epigenetically silenced in various cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
PSAP prosaposin|This gene encodes a highly conserved glycoprotein which is a precursor for 4 cleavage products: saposins A, B, C, and D. Each domain of the precursor protein is approximately 80 amino acid residues long with nearly identical placement of cysteine residues and glycosylation sites. Saposins A-D localize primarily to the lysosomal compartment where they facilitate the catabolism of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide groups. The precursor protein exists both as a secretory protein and as an integral membrane protein and has neurotrophic activities. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs disease, and metachromatic leukodystrophy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SPPL2A signal peptide peptidase like 2A|This gene encodes a member of the GXGD family of aspartic proteases, which are transmembrane proteins with two conserved catalytic motifs localized within the membrane-spanning regions, as well as a member of the signal peptide peptidase-like protease (SPPL) family. This protein is expressed in all major adult human tissues and localizes to late endosomal compartments and lysosomal membranes. A pseudogene of this gene also lies on chromosome 15. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
SPPL2B signal peptide peptidase like 2B|This gene encodes a member of the GXGD family of aspartic proteases. The GXGD proteases are transmembrane proteins with two conserved catalytic motifs localized within the membrane-spanning regions. This enzyme localizes to endosomes, lysosomes, and the plasma membrane. It cleaves the transmembrane domain of tumor necrosis factor alpha to release the intracellular domain, which triggers cytokine expression in the innate and adaptive immunity pathways. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ITGA8 integrin, alpha 8|Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptor proteins that mediate numerous cellular processes including cell adhesion, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and activation of cell signaling pathways. Integrins are composed of alpha and beta subunits. This gene encodes the alpha 8 subunit of the heterodimeric integrin alpha8beta1 protein. The encoded protein is a single-pass type 1 membrane protein that contains multiple FG-GAP repeats. This repeat is predicted to fold into a beta propeller structure. This gene regulates the recruitment of mesenchymal cells into epithelial structures, mediates cell-cell interactions, and regulates neurite outgrowth of sensory and motor neurons. The integrin alpha8beta1 protein thus plays an important role in wound-healing and organogenesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with renal hypodysplasia/aplasia-1 (RHDA1) and with several animal models of chronic kidney disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
ITGA9 integrin, alpha 9|This gene encodes an alpha integrin. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane glycoproteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. The protein encoded by this gene, when bound to the beta 1 chain, forms an integrin that is a receptor for VCAM1, cytotactin and osteopontin. Expression of this gene has been found to be upregulated in small cell lung cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UGCG UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase|This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the first glycosylation step in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, which are membrane components containing lipid and sugar moieties. The product of this reaction is glucosylceramide, which is the core structure of many glycosphingolipids. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
MYO3B myosin IIIB|This gene encodes one of the class III myosins. Myosins are ATPases, activated by actin, that move along actin filaments in the cell. This class of myosins are characterized by an amino-terminal kinase domain and shown to be present in photoreceptors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ATP2A1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, fast twitch 1|This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in muscular excitation and contraction. Mutations in this gene cause some autosomal recessive forms of Brody disease, characterized by increasing impairment of muscular relaxation during exercise. Alternative splicing results in three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
ATP2A2 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2|This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle. Mutations in this gene cause Darier-White disease, also known as keratosis follicularis, an autosomal dominant skin disorder characterized by loss of adhesion between epidermal cells and abnormal keratinization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ATP2A3 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, ubiquitous|This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in calcium sequestration associated with muscular excitation and contraction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ITGA1 integrin, alpha 1|This gene encodes the alpha 1 subunit of integrin receptors. This protein heterodimerizes with the beta 1 subunit to form a cell-surface receptor for collagen and laminin. The heterodimeric receptor is involved in cell-cell adhesion and may play a role in inflammation and fibrosis. The alpha 1 subunit contains an inserted (I) von Willebrand factor type I domain which is thought to be involved in collagen binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ITGA2 integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor)|This gene encodes the alpha subunit of a transmembrane receptor for collagens and related proteins. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a beta subunit and mediates the adhesion of platelets and other cell types to the extracellular matrix. Loss of the encoded protein is associated with bleeding disorder platelet-type 9. Antibodies against this protein are found in several immune disorders, including neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. This gene is located adjacent to a related alpha subunit gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
NOP2 NOP2 nucleolar protein|
ITGA4 integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)|The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family of proteins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an alpha 4 chain. Unlike other integrin alpha chains, alpha 4 neither contains an I-domain, nor undergoes disulfide-linked cleavage. Alpha 4 chain associates with either beta 1 chain or beta 7 chain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RIT2 Ras-like without CAAX 2|RIN belongs to the RAS (HRAS; MIM 190020) superfamily of small GTPases (Shao et al., 1999 [PubMed 10545207]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
RIT1 Ras-like without CAAX 1|This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of Ras-related GTPases. The encoded protein is involved in regulating p38 MAPK-dependent signaling cascades related to cellular stress. This protein also cooperates with nerve growth factor to promote neuronal development and regeneration. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
ITGA7 integrin, alpha 7|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. They mediate a wide spectrum of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and thus play a role in cell migration, morphologic development, differentiation, and metastasis. This protein functions as a receptor for the basement membrane protein laminin-1. It is mainly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles and may be involved in differentiation and migration processes during myogenesis. Defects in this gene are associated with congenital myopathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
TRHR thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor|This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Upon binding to TRH, this receptor activates the inositol phospholipid-calcium-protein kinase C transduction pathway. Mutations in this gene have been associated with generalized thyrotropin-releasing hormone resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
DENND4A DENN/MADD domain containing 4A|
DENND4C DENN/MADD domain containing 4C|
SWAP70 SWAP switching B-cell complex 70kDa subunit|
UFSP1 UFM1-specific peptidase 1 (non-functional)|This gene encodes a protein that is similar to other Ufm1-specific proteases. Studies in mouse determined that Ufsp1 releases Ufm1 (ubiquitin-fold modifier 1) from its bound conjugated complexes which also makes it into an active form. Because the human UFSP1 protein is shorter on the N-terminus and lacks a conserved Cys active site, it is predicted to be non-functional.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
PHLDA3 pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 3|
UFSP2 UFM1-specific peptidase 2|Like ubiquitin (see MIM 191339), ubiquitin-fold modifier-1 (UFM1; MIM 610553) must be processed by a protease before it can conjugate with its target proteins. UFSP2 is a thiol protease that specifically processes the C terminus of UFM1 (Kang et al., 2007 [PubMed 17182609]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]
GAP43 growth associated protein 43|The protein encoded by this gene has been termed a 'growth' or 'plasticity' protein because it is expressed at high levels in neuronal growth cones during development and axonal regeneration. This protein is considered a crucial component of an effective regenerative response in the nervous system. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NENF neudesin neurotrophic factor|This gene encodes a neurotrophic factor that may play a role in neuron differentiation and development. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 12. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
MDK midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2)|This gene encodes a member of a small family of secreted growth factors that binds heparin and responds to retinoic acid. The encoded protein promotes cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis, in particular during tumorigenesis. This gene has been targeted as a therapeutic for a variety of different disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
FBXL13 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 13|Members of the F-box protein family, such as FBXL13, are characterized by an approximately 40-amino acid F-box motif. SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases. F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15520277]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
FBXL12 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 12|Members of the F-box protein family, such as FBXL12, are characterized by an approximately 40-amino acid F-box motif. SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases. F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15520277]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
FBXL15 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 15|
CYP27B1 cytochrome P450, family 27, subfamily B, polypeptide 1|This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it hydroxylates 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 at the 1alpha position. This reaction synthesizes 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D3, which binds to the vitamin D receptor and regulates calcium metabolism. Thus this enzyme regulates the level of biologically active vitamin D and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. Mutations in this gene can result in vitamin D-dependent rickets type I. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FBXL17 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 17|Members of the F-box protein family, such as FBXL17, are characterized by an approximately 40-amino acid F-box motif. SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases. F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15520277]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
FBXL16 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 16|Members of the F-box protein family, such as FBXL16, are characterized by an approximately 40-amino acid F-box motif. SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases. F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15520277]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
FAM169A family with sequence similarity 169, member A|
FBXL18 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 18|Members of the F-box protein family, such as FBXL18, are characterized by an approximately 40-amino acid F-box motif. SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases. F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15520277]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
LRRC7 leucine rich repeat containing 7|
SDK1 sidekick cell adhesion molecule 1|
SDK2 sidekick cell adhesion molecule 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The protein contains two immunoglobulin domains and thirteen fibronectin type III domains. Fibronectin type III domains are present in both extracellular and intracellular proteins and tandem repeats are known to contain binding sites for DNA, heparin and the cell surface. This protein, and a homologous mouse sequence, are very similar to the Drosophila sidekick gene product but the specific function of this superfamily member is not yet known. Evidence for alternative splicing at this gene locus has been observed but the full-length nature of additional variants has not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GRP gastrin-releasing peptide|This gene encodes a member of the bombesin-like family of gastrin-releasing peptides. Its preproprotein, following cleavage of a signal peptide, is further processed to produce either the 27 aa gastrin-releasing peptide or the 10 aa neuromedin C. These smaller peptides regulate numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation. These peptides are also likely to play a role in human cancers of the lung, colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, and prostate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TPRN taperin|This locus encodes a sensory epithelial protein. It was defined by linkage analysis in three Pakistani families to lie between D9S1818 (centromeric) and D9SH6 (telomeric). Mutations at this locus have been associated with autosomal recessive deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
THSD4 thrombospondin, type I, domain containing 4|
FAM212B family with sequence similarity 212, member B|
FAM212A family with sequence similarity 212, member A|
CHST9 carbohydrate (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-0) sulfotransferase 9|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the sulfotransferase 2 family. It is localized to the golgi membrane, and catalyzes the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of non-reducing N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues in both N-glycans and O-glycans. Sulfate groups on carbohydrates confer highly specific functions to glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans, and are critical for cell-cell interaction, signal transduction, and embryonic development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
COL4A6 collagen, type IV, alpha 6|This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene, alpha 5 type IV collagen, so that the gene pair shares a common promoter. Deletions in the alpha 5 gene that extend into the alpha 6 gene result in diffuse leiomyomatosis accompanying the X-linked Alport syndrome caused by the deletion in the alpha 5 gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
COL4A5 collagen, type IV, alpha 5|This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. Mutations in this gene are associated with X-linked Alport syndrome, also known as hereditary nephritis. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
COL4A4 collagen, type IV, alpha 4|This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. This particular collagen IV subunit, however, is only found in a subset of basement membranes. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. Mutations in this gene are associated with type II autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (hereditary glomerulonephropathy) and with familial benign hematuria (thin basement membrane disease). Two transcripts, differing only in their transcription start sites, have been identified for this gene and, as is common for collagen genes, multiple polyadenylation sites are found in the 3' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
COL4A3 collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen)|Type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes, is a multimeric protein composed of 3 alpha subunits. These subunits are encoded by 6 different genes, alpha 1 through alpha 6, each of which can form a triple helix structure with 2 other subunits to form type IV collagen. This gene encodes alpha 3. In the Goodpasture syndrome, autoantibodies bind to the collagen molecules in the basement membranes of alveoli and glomeruli. The epitopes that elicit these autoantibodies are localized largely to the non-collagenous C-terminal domain of the protein. A specific kinase phosphorylates amino acids in this same C-terminal region and the expression of this kinase is upregulated during pathogenesis. This gene is also linked to an autosomal recessive form of Alport syndrome. The mutations contributing to this syndrome are also located within the exons that encode this C-terminal region. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
COL4A2 collagen, type IV, alpha 2|This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. The C-terminal portion of the protein, known as canstatin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
COL4A1 collagen, type IV, alpha 1|This gene encodes a type IV collagen alpha protein. Type IV collagen proteins are integral components of basement membranes. This gene shares a bidirectional promoter with a paralogous gene on the opposite strand. The protein consists of an amino-terminal 7S domain, a triple-helix forming collagenous domain, and a carboxy-terminal non-collagenous domain. It functions as part of a heterotrimer and interacts with other extracellular matrix components such as perlecans, proteoglycans, and laminins. In addition, proteolytic cleavage of the non-collagenous carboxy-terminal domain results in a biologically active fragment known as arresten, which has anti-angiogenic and tumor suppressor properties. Mutations in this gene cause porencephaly, cerebrovascular disease, and renal and muscular defects. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
GRN granulin|Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and PC cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. Granulin family members are important in normal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CHST3 carbohydrate (chondroitin 6) sulfotransferase 3|This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyzes the sulfation of chondroitin, a proteoglycan found in the extracellular matrix and most cells which is involved in cell migration and differentiation. Mutations in this gene are associated with spondylepiphyseal dysplasia and humerospinal dysostosis. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
CHST2 carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine-6-O) sulfotransferase 2|This locus encodes a sulfotransferase protein. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the sulfation of a nonreducing N-acetylglucosamine residue, and may play a role in biosynthesis of 6-sulfosialyl Lewis X antigen. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
CHST5 carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 5|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Gal/GalNAc/GlcNAc 6-O-sulfotransferase (GST) family, members of which catalyze the transfer of sulfate to position 6 of galactose (Gal), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues within proteoglycans, and sulfation of O-linked sugars of mucin-type acceptors. Carbohydrate sulfation plays a critical role in many biologic processes. This gene is predominantly expressed in colon and small intestine. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
CHST4 carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 4|This gene encodes an N-acetylglucosamine 6-O sulfotransferase. The encoded enzyme transfers sulfate from 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phospho-sulfate to the 6-hydroxyl group of N-acetylglucosamine on glycoproteins. This protein is localized to the Golgi and is involved in the modification of glycan structures on ligands of the lymphocyte homing receptor L-selectin. Alternate splicing in the 5' UTR results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
CHST7 carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 7|This gene is a member of the Gal/GalNAc/GlcNAc (galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine/N-acetylglucosamine) 6-O-sulfotransferase (GST) family. Members of this family encode enzymes that catalyze the specific addition of sulfate groups to distinct hydroxyl and amino groups of carbohydrates. The encoded protein catalyzes the sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group of GalNAc in chondroitin. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
CHST6 carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 6|The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a sulfate group to the GlcNAc residues of keratan. Keratan sulfate helps maintain corneal transparency. Defects in this gene are a cause of macular corneal dystrophy (MCD). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
ITGAX integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit)|This gene encodes the integrin alpha X chain protein. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This protein combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 4 (CR4). The alpha X beta 2 complex seems to overlap the properties of the alpha M beta 2 integrin in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium cells, and in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
HLX H2.0-like homeobox|
HLCS holocarboxylase synthetase (biotin-(proprionyl-CoA-carboxylase (ATP-hydrolysing)) ligase)|This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the binding of biotin to carboxylases and histones. The protein plays an important role in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis and branched chain amino acid catabolism. Defects in this gene are the cause of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
NOG noggin|The secreted polypeptide, encoded by this gene, binds and inactivates members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily signaling proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). By diffusing through extracellular matrices more efficiently than members of the TGF-beta superfamily, this protein may have a principal role in creating morphogenic gradients. The protein appears to have pleiotropic effect, both early in development as well as in later stages. It was originally isolated from Xenopus based on its ability to restore normal dorsal-ventral body axis in embryos that had been artificially ventralized by UV treatment. The results of the mouse knockout of the ortholog suggest that it is involved in numerous developmental processes, such as neural tube fusion and joint formation. Recently, several dominant human NOG mutations in unrelated families with proximal symphalangism (SYM1) and multiple synostoses syndrome (SYNS1) were identified; both SYM1 and SYNS1 have multiple joint fusion as their principal feature, and map to the same region (17q22) as this gene. All of these mutations altered evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of this human gene is highly homologous to that of Xenopus, rat and mouse. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ITGAV integrin, alpha V|This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the integrin superfamily. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This protein undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield disulfide-linked heavy and light chains that combine with multiple integrin beta chains to form different integrins. This protein has been shown to heterodimerize with beta 1, beta 3, beta 5, beta 6, and beta 8; the heterodimer of alpha v and beta 3 is the Vitronectin receptor. This protein interacts with several extracellular matrix proteins to mediate cell adhesion and may play a role in cell migration. It is proposed that this protein may regulate angiogenesis and cancer progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. Note that the integrin alpha 5 and integrin alpha V chains are produced by distinct genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
PREP prolyl endopeptidase|The protein encoded by this gene is a cytosolic prolyl endopeptidase that cleaves peptide bonds on the C-terminal side of prolyl residues within peptides that are up to approximately 30 amino acids long. Prolyl endopeptidases have been reported to be involved in the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF703 zinc finger protein 703|
ITGAL integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)|ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ITGAM integrin, alpha M (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit)|This gene encodes the integrin alpha M chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as macrophage receptor 1 ('Mac-1'), or inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 3 ('CR3'). The alpha M beta 2 integrin is important in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium, and also in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
HLF hepatic leukemia factor|This gene encodes a member of the proline and acidic-rich (PAR) protein family, a subset of the bZIP transcription factors. The encoded protein forms homodimers or heterodimers with other PAR family members and binds sequence-specific promoter elements to activate transcription. Chromosomal translocations fusing portions of this gene with the E2A gene cause a subset of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoid leukemias. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NOV nephroblastoma overexpressed|The protein encoded by this gene is a small secreted cysteine-rich protein and a member of the CCN family of regulatory proteins. CNN family proteins associate with the extracellular matrix and play an important role in cardiovascular and skeletal development, fibrosis and cancer development. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
FAM134C family with sequence similarity 134, member C|
ITGAE integrin, alpha E (antigen CD103, human mucosal lymphocyte antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)|Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an I-domain-containing alpha integrin that undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain, yielding disulfide-linked heavy and light chains. In combination with the beta 7 integrin, this protein forms the E-cadherin binding integrin known as the human mucosal lymphocyte-1 antigen. This protein is preferentially expressed in human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), and in addition to a role in adhesion, it may serve as an accessory molecule for IEL activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FAM134A family with sequence similarity 134, member A|
SERPING1 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G (C1 inhibitor), member 1|This gene encodes a highly glycosylated plasma protein involved in the regulation of the complement cascade. Its protein inhibits activated C1r and C1s of the first complement component and thus regulates complement activation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with hereditary angioneurotic oedema (HANE). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMAD9 SMAD family member 9|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SMAD family, which transduces signals from TGF-beta family members. The encoded protein is activated by bone morphogenetic proteins and interacts with SMAD4. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
TRERF1 transcriptional regulating factor 1|This gene encodes a zinc-finger transcriptional regulating protein which interacts with CBP/p300 to regulate the human gene CYP11A1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
EEF2K eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase|This gene encodes a highly conserved protein kinase in the calmodulin-mediated signaling pathway that links activation of cell surface receptors to cell division. This kinase is involved in the regulation of protein synthesis. It phosphorylates eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EEF2) and thus inhibits the EEF2 function. The activity of this kinase is increased in many cancers and may be a valid target for anti-cancer treatment. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMAD4 SMAD family member 4|This gene encodes a member of the Smad family of signal transduction proteins. Smad proteins are phosphorylated and activated by transmembrane serine-threonine receptor kinases in response to TGF-beta signaling. The product of this gene forms homomeric complexes and heteromeric complexes with other activated Smad proteins, which then accumulate in the nucleus and regulate the transcription of target genes. This protein binds to DNA and recognizes an 8-bp palindromic sequence (GTCTAGAC) called the Smad-binding element (SBE). The Smad proteins are subject to complex regulation by post-translational modifications. Mutations or deletions in this gene have been shown to result in pancreatic cancer, juvenile polyposis syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
SMAD5 SMAD family member 5|The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway that results in an inhibition of the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The encoded protein is activated by bone morphogenetic proteins type 1 receptor kinase, and may be involved in cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
SMAD6 SMAD family member 6|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD family of proteins, which are related to Drosophila 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and C. elegans Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein functions in the negative regulation of BMP and TGF-beta/activin-signalling. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
SMAD7 SMAD family member 7|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear protein that binds the E3 ubiquitin ligase SMURF2. Upon binding, this complex translocates to the cytoplasm, where it interacts with TGF-beta receptor type-1 (TGFBR1), leading to the degradation of both the encoded protein and TGFBR1. Expression of this gene is induced by TGFBR1. Variations in this gene are a cause of susceptibility to colorectal cancer type 3 (CRCS3). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
GOLPH3L golgi phosphoprotein 3-like|The Golgi complex plays a key role in the sorting and modification of proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein encoded by this gene is localized at the Golgi stack and may have a regulatory role in Golgi trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMAD1 SMAD family member 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signals of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in a range of biological activities including cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. In response to BMP ligands, this protein can be phosphorylated and activated by the BMP receptor kinase. The phosphorylated form of this protein forms a complex with SMAD4, which is important for its function in the transcription regulation. This protein is a target for SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, such as SMURF1 and SMURF2, and undergoes ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AFTPH aftiphilin|
CAMK4 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV|The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RFK riboflavin kinase|Riboflavin kinase (RFK; EC 2.7.1.26) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to form flavin mononucleotide (FMN), an obligatory step in vitamin B2 utilization and flavin cofactor synthesis (Karthikeyan et al., 2003 [PubMed 12623014]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2009]
AMMECR1L AMMECR1-like|
CYFIP1 cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 1|
IGF2R insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor|This gene encodes a receptor for both insulin-like growth factor 2 and mannose 6-phosphate, although the binding sites for either are located on different segments of the receptor. This receptor functions in the intracellular trafficking of lysosomal enzymes, the activation of transforming growth factor beta, and the degradation of insulin-like growth factor 2. While the related mouse gene shows exclusive expression from the maternal allele, imprinting of the human gene appears to be polymorphic, with only a minority of individuals showing expression from the maternal allele. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]
TMPRSS11D transmembrane protease, serine 11D|This gene encodes a trypsin-like serine protease released from the submucosal serous glands onto mucous membrane. It is a type II integral membrane protein and has 29-38% identity in the sequence of the catalytic region with human hepsin, enteropeptidase, acrosin, and mast cell tryptase. The noncatalytic region has little similarity to other known proteins. This protein may play some biological role in the host defense system on the mucous membrane independently of or in cooperation with other substances in airway mucous or bronchial secretions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TMPRSS11E transmembrane protease, serine 11E|
HRH2 histamine receptor H2|Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. Histamine receptor H2 belongs to the family 1 of G protein-coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane protein and stimulates gastric acid secretion. It also regulates gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion and is thought to be involved in regulating cell growth and differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
RAD21L1 RAD21-like 1 (S. pombe)|
PLRG1 pleiotropic regulator 1|This gene encodes a core component of the cell division cycle 5-like (CDC5L) complex. The CDC5L complex is part of the spliceosome and is required for pre-mRNA splicing. The encoded protein plays a critical role in alternative splice site selection. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ZC3H13 zinc finger CCCH-type containing 13|
ZC3H15 zinc finger CCCH-type containing 15|
ERICH2 glutamate-rich 2|
ERICH1 glutamate-rich 1|
C14orf119 chromosome 14 open reading frame 119|
ART1 ADP-ribosyltransferase 1|ADP-ribosyltransferase catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of arginine residues in proteins. Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins that is interfered with by a variety of bacterial toxins including cholera, pertussis, and heat-labile enterotoxins of E. coli. The amino acid sequence consists of predominantly hydrophobic N- and C-terminal regions, which is characteristic of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. This gene was previously designated ART2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HRH3 histamine receptor H3|Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. This gene encodes one of the histamine receptors (H3) which belongs to the family 1 of G protein-coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane protein and can regulate neurotransmitter release. This receptor can also increase voltage-dependent calcium current in smooth muscles and innervates the blood vessels and the heart in cardiovascular system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ART3 ADP-ribosyltransferase 3|This gene encodes an arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. The encoded protein catalyzes a reversible reaction which modifies proteins by the addition or removal of ADP-ribose to an arginine residue to regulate the function of the modified protein. An ADP-ribosyltransferase pseudogene is located on chromosome 11. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ART4 ADP-ribosyltransferase 4 (Dombrock blood group)|This gene encodes a protein that contains a mono-ADP-ribosylation (ART) motif. It is a member of the ADP-ribosyltransferase gene family but enzymatic activity has not been demonstrated experimentally. Antigens of the Dombrock blood group system are located on the gene product, which is glycosylphosphatidylinosotol-anchored to the erythrocyte membrane. Allelic variants, some of which lead to adverse transfusion reactions, are known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DRAP1 DR1-associated protein 1 (negative cofactor 2 alpha)|Transcriptional repression is a general mechanism for regulating transcriptional initiation in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Accurate initiation of transcription from eukaryotic protein-encoding genes requires the assembly of a large multiprotein complex consisting of RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors such as TFIIA, TFIIB, and TFIID. DR1 is a repressor that interacts with the TATA-binding protein (TBP) of TFIID and prevents the formation of an active transcription complex by precluding the entry of TFIIA and/or TFIIB into the preinitiation complex. The protein encoded by this gene is a corepressor of transcription that interacts with DR1 to enhance DR1-mediated repression. The interaction between this corepressor and DR1 is required for corepressor function and appears to stabilize the TBP-DR1-DNA complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TCEA2 transcription elongation factor A (SII), 2|The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus, where it functions as an SII class transcription elongation factor. Elongation factors in this class are responsible for releasing RNA polymerase II ternary complexes from transcriptional arrest at template-encoded arresting sites. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with general transcription factor IIB, a basal transcription factor. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TCEA3 transcription elongation factor A (SII), 3|
TCEA1 transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1|
COX4I2 cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 2 (lung)|Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. It is a heteromeric complex consisting of 3 catalytic subunits encoded by mitochondrial genes and multiple structural subunits encoded by nuclear genes. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits function in electron transfer, and the nuclear-encoded subunits may be involved in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This nuclear gene encodes isoform 2 of subunit IV. Isoform 1 of subunit IV is encoded by a different gene, however, the two genes show a similar structural organization. Subunit IV is the largest nuclear encoded subunit which plays a pivotal role in COX regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
COX4I1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1|Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It is a multi-subunit enzyme complex that couples the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen and contributes to a proton electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The complex consists of 13 mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded subunits. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits perform the electron transfer and proton pumping activities. The functions of the nuclear-encoded subunits are unknown but they may play a role in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This gene encodes the nuclear-encoded subunit IV isoform 1 of the human mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme. It is located at the 3' of the NOC4 (neighbor of COX4) gene in a head-to-head orientation, and shares a promoter with it. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BFAR bifunctional apoptosis regulator|
CRTAM cytotoxic and regulatory T cell molecule|The CRTAM gene is upregulated in CD4 (see MIM 186940)-positive and CD8 (see CD8A; MIM 186910)-positive T cells and encodes a type I transmembrane protein with V and C1-like Ig domains (Yeh et al., 2008 [PubMed 18329370]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2009]
KDM2B lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2B|This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
COL18A1 collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1|This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix proteins that contain multiple triple-helix domains (collagenous domains) interrupted by non-collagenous domains. A long isoform of the protein has an N-terminal domain that is homologous to the extracellular part of frizzled receptors. Proteolytic processing at several endogenous cleavage sites in the C-terminal domain results in production of endostatin, a potent antiangiogenic protein that is able to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Mutations in this gene are associated with Knobloch syndrome. The main features of this syndrome involve retinal abnormalities, so type XVIII collagen may play an important role in retinal structure and in neural tube closure. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
MPRIP myosin phosphatase Rho interacting protein|
CCDC116 coiled-coil domain containing 116|
CCDC117 coiled-coil domain containing 117|
CCDC114 coiled-coil domain containing 114|This gene encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein that is a component of the outer dynein arm docking complex in cilia cells. Mutations in this gene may cause primary ciliary dyskinesia 20. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
CCDC115 coiled-coil domain containing 115|
CCDC112 coiled-coil domain containing 112|
CCDC113 coiled-coil domain containing 113|
CCDC110 coiled-coil domain containing 110|
LEO1 Leo1, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae)|LEO1, parafibromin (CDC73; MIM 607393), CTR9 (MIM 609366), and PAF1 (MIM 610506) form the PAF protein complex that associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A (MIM 180660) and with a histone methyltransferase complex (Rozenblatt-Rosen et al., 2005 [PubMed 15632063]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ATP1A4 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 4 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 4 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP1A3 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 3 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 3 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ATP1A2 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 2 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 2 subunit. Mutations in this gene result in familial basilar or hemiplegic migraines, and in a rare syndrome known as alternating hemiplegia of childhood. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ATP1A1 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 1 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 1 subunit. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
MGRN1 mahogunin ring finger 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|Mahogunin (MGRN1) is a C3HC4 RING-containing protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]
MDH2 malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (mitochondrial)|Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate, utilizing the NAD/NADH cofactor system in the citric acid cycle. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the mitochondria and may play pivotal roles in the malate-aspartate shuttle that operates in the metabolic coordination between cytosol and mitochondria. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
SIRPG signal-regulatory protein gamma|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the signal-regulatory protein (SIRP) family, and also belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. SIRP family members are receptor-type transmembrane glycoproteins known to be involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SPHK1 sphingosine kinase 1|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the phosphorylation of sphingosine to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator with both intra- and extracellular functions. Intracellularly, S1P regulates proliferation and survival, and extracellularly, it is a ligand for cell surface G protein-coupled receptors. This protein, and its product S1P, play a key role in TNF-alpha signaling and the NF-kappa-B activation pathway important in inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and immune processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
DPT dermatopontin|Dermatopontin is an extracellular matrix protein with possible functions in cell-matrix interactions and matrix assembly. The protein is found in various tissues and many of its tyrosine residues are sulphated. Dermatopontin is postulated to modify the behavior of TGF-beta through interaction with decorin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CUEDC1 CUE domain containing 1|
CUEDC2 CUE domain containing 2|
CBLB Cbl proto-oncogene B, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|
CPEB4 cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4|
CPEB1 cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1|This gene encodes a member of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein family. This highly conserved protein binds to a specific RNA sequence, called the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element, found in the 3' untranslated region of some mRNAs. The encoded protein functions in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It is involved in the regulation of mRNA translation, as well as processing of the 3' untranslated region, and may play a role in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
CPEB3 cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 3|
SBSPON somatomedin B and thrombospondin, type 1 domain containing|
RBMXL1 RNA binding motif protein, X-linked-like 1|This gene represents a retrogene of RNA binding motif protein, X-linked (RBMX), which is located on chromosome X. While all introns in the coding sequence have been processed out compared to the RBMX locus, the ORF is intact and there is specific evidence for transcription at this location. The preservation of the ORF by purifying selection in all Old World monkeys carrying it suggests that this locus is likely to be functional, possibly during male meiosis when X chromosomal genes are silenced or during haploid stages of spermatogenesis. This gene shares 5' exon structure with the cysteine conjugate-beta lyase 2 locus on chromosome 1, but the coding sequences are non-overlapping. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
RBMXL3 RNA binding motif protein, X-linked-like 3|
SIRPD signal-regulatory protein delta|
ABAT 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase|4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT) is responsible for catabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important, mostly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, into succinic semialdehyde. The active enzyme is a homodimer of 50-kD subunits complexed to pyridoxal-5-phosphate. The protein sequence is over 95% similar to the pig protein. GABA is estimated to be present in nearly one-third of human synapses. ABAT in liver and brain is controlled by 2 codominant alleles with a frequency in a Caucasian population of 0.56 and 0.44. The ABAT deficiency phenotype includes psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, lethargy, refractory seizures, and EEG abnormalities. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein isoform have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TLN2 talin 2|This gene encodes a protein related to talin 1, a cytoskeletal protein that plays a significant role in the assembly of actin filaments and in spreading and migration of various cell types, including fibroblasts and osteoclasts. This protein has a different pattern of expression compared to talin 1 but, like talin 1, is thought to associate with unique transmembrane receptors to form novel linkages between extracellular matrices and the actin cytoskeleton. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BBOX1 butyrobetaine (gamma), 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase) 1|This gene encodes gamma butyrobetaine hydroxylase which catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine, the last step in the L-carnitine biosynthetic pathway. Carnitine is essential for the transport of activated fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane during mitochondrial beta-oxidation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FRG1 FSHD region gene 1|This gene maps to a location 100 kb centromeric of the repeat units on chromosome 4q35 which are deleted in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). It is evolutionarily conserved and has related sequences on multiple human chromosomes but DNA sequence analysis did not reveal any homology to known genes. In vivo studies demonstrate the encoded protein is localized to the nucleolus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TP53TG5 TP53 target 5|
RHEBL1 Ras homolog enriched in brain like 1|
C2CD5 C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 5|
IFT80 intraflagellar transport 80|The protein encoded by this gene is part of the intraflagellar transport complex B and is necessary for the function of motile and sensory cilia. Defects in this gene are a cause of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 2 (ATD2). Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
IFT81 intraflagellar transport 81|
IFT88 intraflagellar transport 88|This gene encodes a member of the tetratrico peptide repeat (TPR) family. Mutations of a similar gene in mouse can cause polycystic kidney disease. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IL10RA interleukin 10 receptor, alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for interleukin 10. This protein is structurally related to interferon receptors. It has been shown to mediate the immunosuppressive signal of interleukin 10, and thus inhibits the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. This receptor is reported to promote survival of progenitor myeloid cells through the insulin receptor substrate-2/PI 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Activation of this receptor leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1 and TYK2 kinases. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
SARDH sarcosine dehydrogenase|This gene encodes an enzyme localized to the mitochondrial matrix which catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of sarcosine. This enzyme is distinct from another mitochondrial matrix enzyme, dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes a reaction resulting in the formation of sarcosine. Mutations in this gene are associated with sarcosinemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ZNF439 zinc finger protein 439|
XPA xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A|This gene encodes a zinc finger protein involved in DNA excision repair. The encoded protein is part of the NER (nucleotide excision repair) complext which is responsible for repair of UV radiation-induced photoproducts and DNA adducts induced by chemical carcinogens. Mutations in this gene are associated with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
ADCY6 adenylate cyclase 6|This gene encodes a member of the adenylyl cyclase family of proteins, which are required for the synthesis of cyclic AMP. All members of this family have an intracellular N-terminus, a tandem repeat of six transmembrane domains separated by a cytoplasmic loop, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The two cytoplasmic regions bind ATP and form the catalytic core of the protein. Adenylyl cyclases are important effectors of transmembrane signaling pathways and are regulated by the activity of G protein coupled receptor signaling. This protein belongs to a small subclass of adenylyl cyclase proteins that are functionally related and are inhibited by protein kinase A, calcium ions and nitric oxide. A mutation in this gene is associated with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]
KISS1R KISS1 receptor|The protein encoded by this gene is a galanin-like G protein-coupled receptor that binds metastin, a peptide encoded by the metastasis suppressor gene KISS1. The tissue distribution of the expressed gene suggests that it is involved in the regulation of endocrine function, and this is supported by the finding that this gene appears to play a role in the onset of puberty. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and central precocious puberty. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MCM10 minichromosome maintenance complex component 10|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and it may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein can interact with MCM2 and MCM6, as well as with the origin recognition protein ORC2. It is regulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Studies of a similar protein in Xenopus suggest that the chromatin binding of this protein at the onset of DNA replication is after pre-RC assembly and before origin unwinding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NUP93 nucleoporin 93kDa|
IGFBPL1 insulin-like growth factor binding protein-like 1|
C10orf95 chromosome 10 open reading frame 95|
ATG4C autophagy related 4C, cysteine peptidase|Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding the same protein, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATG4B autophagy related 4B, cysteine peptidase|Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATG4A autophagy related 4A, cysteine peptidase|Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KYNU kynureninase|Kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine into anthranilic and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acids, respectively. Kynureninase is involved in the biosynthesis of NAD cofactors from tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
CDH22 cadherin 22, type 2|This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily. The gene product is composed of five cadherin repeat domains and a cytoplasmic tail similar to the highly conserved cytoplasmic region of classical cadherins. Expressed predominantly in the brain, this putative calcium-dependent cell adhesion protein may play an important role in morphogenesis and tissue formation in neural and non-neural cells during development and maintenance of the brain and neuroendocrine organs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATG4D autophagy related 4D, cysteine peptidase|Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene belongs to the autophagy-related protein 4 (Atg4) family of C54 endopeptidases. Members of this family encode proteins that play a role in the biogenesis of autophagosomes, which sequester the cytosol and organelles for degradation by lysosomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PHOX2A paired-like homeobox 2a|The protein encoded by this gene contains a paired-like homeodomain most similar to that of the Drosophila aristaless gene product. The encoded protein plays a central role in development of the autonomic nervous system. It regulates the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase, two catecholaminergic biosynthetic enzymes essential for the differentiation and maintenance of the noradrenergic neurotransmitter phenotype. The encoded protein has also been shown to regulate transcription of the alpha3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PHOX2B paired-like homeobox 2b|The DNA-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the paired family of homeobox proteins localized to the nucleus. The protein functions as a transcription factor involved in the development of several major noradrenergic neuron populations and the determination of neurotransmitter phenotype. The gene product is linked to enhancement of second messenger-mediated activation of the dopamine beta-hydroylase, c-fos promoters and several enhancers, including cyclic amp-response element and serum-response element. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UPK2 uroplakin 2|This gene encodes one of the proteins of the highly conserved urothelium-specific integral membrane proteins of the asymmetric unit membrane which forms urothelium apical plaques in mammals. The asymmetric unit membrane is believed to strengthen the urothelium by preventing cell rupture during bladder distention. The encoded protein is expressed in the peripheral blood of bladder cancer patients with transitional cell carcinomas.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
CFH complement factor H|This gene is a member of the Regulator of Complement Activation (RCA) gene cluster and encodes a protein with twenty short consensus repeat (SCR) domains. This protein is secreted into the bloodstream and has an essential role in the regulation of complement activation, restricting this innate defense mechanism to microbial infections. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and chronic hypocomplementemic nephropathy. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
GPT2 glutamic pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase) 2|This gene encodes a mitochondrial alanine transaminase, a pyridoxal enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to generate pyruvate and glutamate. Alanine transaminases play roles in gluconeogenesis and amino acid metabolism in many tissues including skeletal muscle, kidney, and liver. Activating transcription factor 4 upregulates this gene under metabolic stress conditions in hepatocyte cell lines. A loss of function mutation in this gene has been associated with developmental encephalopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
FBXO3 F-box protein 3|This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbxs class. Alternative splicing of this gene generates 2 transcript variants diverging at the 3' end. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PNP purine nucleoside phosphorylase|This gene encodes an enzyme which reversibly catalyzes the phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides. The enzyme is trimeric, containing three identical subunits. Mutations which result in nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency result in defective T-cell (cell-mediated) immunity but can also affect B-cell immunity and antibody responses. Neurologic disorders may also be apparent in patients with immune defects. A known polymorphism at aa position 51 that does not affect enzyme activity has been described. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SLC4A7 solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, member 7|This locus encodes a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter. The encoded transmembrane protein appears to transport sodium and bicarbonate ions in a 1:1 ratio, and is thus considered an electroneutral cotransporter. The encoded protein likely plays a critical role in regulation of intracellular pH involved in visual and auditory sensory transmission. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
CFB complement factor B|This gene encodes complement factor B, a component of the alternative pathway of complement activation. Factor B circulates in the blood as a single chain polypeptide. Upon activation of the alternative pathway, it is cleaved by complement factor D yielding the noncatalytic chain Ba and the catalytic subunit Bb. The active subunit Bb is a serine protease which associates with C3b to form the alternative pathway C3 convertase. Bb is involved in the proliferation of preactivated B lymphocytes, while Ba inhibits their proliferation. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. This cluster includes several genes involved in regulation of the immune reaction. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with a reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration. The polyadenylation site of this gene is 421 bp from the 5' end of the gene for complement component 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CLEC2D C-type lectin domain family 2, member D|This gene encodes a member of the natural killer cell receptor C-type lectin family. The encoded protein inhibits osteoclast formation and contains a transmembrane domain near the N-terminus as well as the C-type lectin-like extracellular domain. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
MLLT4 myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (trithorax homolog, Drosophila); translocated to, 4|This gene encodes a multi-domain protein involved in signaling and organization of cell junctions during embryogenesis. It has also been identified as the fusion partner of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL-1) gene, involved in acute myeloid leukemias with t(6;11)(q27;q23) translocation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, however, not all have been fully characterized.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
CREBBP CREB binding protein|This gene is ubiquitously expressed and is involved in the transcriptional coactivation of many different transcription factors. First isolated as a nuclear protein that binds to cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), this gene is now known to play critical roles in embryonic development, growth control, and homeostasis by coupling chromatin remodeling to transcription factor recognition. The protein encoded by this gene has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and also acts as a scaffold to stabilize additional protein interactions with the transcription complex. This protein acetylates both histone and non-histone proteins. This protein shares regions of very high sequence similarity with protein p300 in its bromodomain, cysteine-histidine-rich regions, and histone acetyltransferase domain. Mutations in this gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). Chromosomal translocations involving this gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
PNN pinin, desmosome associated protein|
ATP6V0E1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 9kDa, V0 subunit e1|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c", and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This encoded protein is possibly part of the V0 subunit. Since two nontranscribed pseudogenes have been found in dog, it is possible that the localization to chromosome 2 for this gene by radiation hybrid mapping is representing a pseudogene. Genomic mapping puts the chromosomal location on 5q35.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V0E2 ATPase, H+ transporting V0 subunit e2|Multisubunit vacuolar-type proton pumps, or H(+)-ATPases, acidify various intracellular compartments, such as vacuoles, clathrin-coated and synaptic vesicles, endosomes, lysosomes, and chromaffin granules. H(+)-ATPases are also found in plasma membranes of specialized cells, where they play roles in urinary acidification, bone resorption, and sperm maturation. Multiple subunits form H(+)-ATPases, with proteins of the V1 class hydrolyzing ATP for energy to transport H+, and proteins of the V0 class forming an integral membrane domain through which H+ is transported. ATP6V0E2 encodes an isoform of the H(+)-ATPase V0 e subunit, an essential proton pump component (Blake-Palmer et al., 2007 [PubMed 17350184]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CFP complement factor properdin|This gene encodes a plasma glycoprotein that positively regulates the alternative complement pathway of the innate immune system. This protein binds to many microbial surfaces and apoptotic cells and stabilizes the C3- and C5-convertase enzyme complexes in a feedback loop that ultimately leads to formation of the membrane attack complex and lysis of the target cell. Mutations in this gene result in two forms of properdin deficiency, which results in high susceptibility to meningococcal infections. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
AAAS achalasia, adrenocortical insufficiency, alacrimia|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the WD-repeat family of regulatory proteins and may be involved in normal development of the peripheral and central nervous system. The encoded protein is part of the nuclear pore complex and is anchored there by NDC1. Defects in this gene are a cause of achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome (AAAS), also called triple-A syndrome or Allgrove syndrome. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
HAMP hepcidin antimicrobial peptide|The product encoded by this gene is involved in the maintenance of iron homeostasis, and it is necessary for the regulation of iron storage in macrophages, and for intestinal iron absorption. The preproprotein is post-translationally cleaved into mature peptides of 20, 22 and 25 amino acids, and these active peptides are rich in cysteines, which form intramolecular bonds that stabilize their beta-sheet structures. These peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Mutations in this gene cause hemochromatosis type 2B, also known as juvenile hemochromatosis, a disease caused by severe iron overload that results in cardiomyopathy, cirrhosis, and endocrine failure. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
EDC3 enhancer of mRNA decapping 3|EDC3 is associated with an mRNA-decapping complex required for removal of the 5-prime cap from mRNA prior to its degradation from the 5-prime end (Fenger-Gron et al., 2005 [PubMed 16364915]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
SIDT2 SID1 transmembrane family, member 2|
CDH24 cadherin 24, type 2|
NUP188 nucleoporin 188kDa|The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is found on the nuclear envelope and forms a gateway that regulates the flow of proteins and RNAs between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. The NPC is comprised of approximately 30 distinct proteins collectively known as nucleoporins. Nucleoporins are pore-complex-specific glycoproteins which often have cytoplasmically oriented O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues and numerous repeats of the pentapeptide sequence XFXFG. However, the nucleoporin protein encoded by this gene does not contain the typical FG repeat sequences found in most vertebrate nucleoporins. This nucleoporin is thought to form part of the scaffold for the central channel of the nuclear pore. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
SIX4 SIX homeobox 4|This gene encodes a member of the homeobox family, subfamily SIX. The drosophila homolog is a nuclear homeoprotein required for eye development. Studies in mouse show that this gene product functions as a transcription factor, and may have a role in the differentiation or maturation of neuronal cells. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
SIX5 SIX homeobox 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that appears to function in the regulation of organogenesis. This gene is located downstream of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase gene. Mutations in this gene are a cause of branchiootorenal syndrome type 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
SIX6 SIX homeobox 6|The protein encoded by this gene is a homeobox protein that is similar to the Drosophila 'sine oculis' gene product. This gene is found in a cluster of related genes on chromosome 14 and is thought to be involved in eye development. Defects in this gene are a cause of isolated microphthalmia with cataract type 2 (MCOPCT2). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MR1 major histocompatibility complex, class I-related|
SIX2 SIX homeobox 2|This gene is a member of the vertebrate gene family which encode proteins homologous to the Drosophila 'sine oculis' homeobox protein. The encoded protein is a transcription factor which, like other members of this gene family, may be involved in limb or eye development. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
SIX3 SIX homeobox 3|This gene encodes a member of the sine oculis homeobox transcription factor family. The encoded protein plays a role in eye development. Mutations in this gene have been associated with holoprosencephaly type 2. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
PAOX polyamine oxidase (exo-N4-amino)|
CNPY4 canopy FGF signaling regulator 4|
CNPY3 canopy FGF signaling regulator 3|PRAT4A is associated with the immature form of TLR4 (MIM 603030) and regulates its cell surface expression (Wakabayashi et al., 2006 [PubMed 16849487]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CNPY2 canopy FGF signaling regulator 2|
NODAL nodal growth differentiation factor|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggested that this gene may be essential for mesoderm formation and subsequent organization of axial structures in early embryonic development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
COPG2 coatomer protein complex, subunit gamma 2|
KNDC1 kinase non-catalytic C-lobe domain (KIND) containing 1|
HMG20A high mobility group 20A|
HMG20B high mobility group 20B|
LINC00305 long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 305|
AAGAB alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin subunits of complexes involved in clathrin-coated vesicle trafficking. Mutations in this gene are associated with type I punctate palmoplantar keratoderma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
DYNC1I1 dynein, cytoplasmic 1, intermediate chain 1|
RAB12 RAB12, member RAS oncogene family|
C4orf19 chromosome 4 open reading frame 19|
COPG1 coatomer protein complex, subunit gamma 1|
MRO maestro|This gene is specifically transcribed in males before and after differentiation of testis, and the encoded protein may play an important role in a mammalian sex determination. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZFP82 ZFP82 zinc finger protein|
CHFR checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase required for the maintenance of the antephase checkpoint that regulates cell cycle entry into mitosis and, therefore, may play a key role in cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. The encoded protein has an N-terminal forkhead-associated domain, a central RING-finger domain, and a cysteine-rich C-terminal region. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
SMDT1 single-pass membrane protein with aspartate-rich tail 1|
TIGD1 tigger transposable element derived 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the tigger subfamily of the pogo superfamily of DNA-mediated transposons in humans. These proteins are related to DNA transposons found in fungi and nematodes, and more distantly to the Tc1 and mariner transposases. They are also very similar to the major mammalian centromere protein B. The exact function of this gene is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SYPL2 synaptophysin-like 2|
RFPL4AL1 ret finger protein-like 4A-like 1|
RCOR2 REST corepressor 2|
RFX4 regulatory factor X, 4 (influences HLA class II expression)|This gene is a member of the regulatory factor X gene family, which encodes transcription factors that contain a highly-conserved winged helix DNA binding domain. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to regulatory factors X1, X2, X3, and X5. It has been shown to interact with itself as well as with regulatory factors X2 and X3, but it does not interact with regulatory factor X1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
RFX5 regulatory factor X, 5 (influences HLA class II expression)|A lack of MHC-II expression results in a severe immunodeficiency syndrome called MHC-II deficiency, or the bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS; MIM 209920). At least 4 complementation groups have been identified in B-cell lines established from patients with BLS. The molecular defects in complementation groups B, C, and D all lead to a deficiency in RFX, a nuclear protein complex that binds to the X box of MHC-II promoters. The lack of RFX binding activity in complementation group C results from mutations in the RFX5 gene encoding the 75-kD subunit of RFX (Steimle et al., 1995). RFX5 is the fifth member of the growing family of DNA-binding proteins sharing a novel and highly characteristic DNA-binding domain called the RFX motif. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found but the full-length natures of only two have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APP amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein|This gene encodes a cell surface receptor and transmembrane precursor protein that is cleaved by secretases to form a number of peptides. Some of these peptides are secreted and can bind to the acetyltransferase complex APBB1/TIP60 to promote transcriptional activation, while others form the protein basis of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease. In addition, two of the peptides are antimicrobial peptides, having been shown to have bacteriocidal and antifungal activities. Mutations in this gene have been implicated in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease and cerebroarterial amyloidosis (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
RFX7 regulatory factor X, 7|RFX7 is a member of the regulatory factor X (RFX) family of transcription factors (see RFX1, MIM 600006) (Aftab et al., 2008 [PubMed 18673564]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]
NRXN3 neurexin 3|This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that function in the nervous system as receptors and cell adhesion molecules. Extensive alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms for this gene, but the full-length nature of many of these variants has not been determined. Transcripts that initiate from an upstream promoter encode alpha isoforms, which contain epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) sequences and laminin G domains. Transcripts initiating from the downstream promoter encode beta isoforms, which lack EGF-like sequences. Genetic variation at this locus has been associated with a range of behavioral phenotypes, including alcohol dependence and autism spectrum disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
RFX1 regulatory factor X, 1 (influences HLA class II expression)|This gene is a member of the regulatory factor X gene family, which encodes transcription factors that contain a highly-conserved winged helix DNA binding domain. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to regulatory factors X2, X3, X4, and X5. It is a transcriptional activator that can bind DNA as a monomer or as a heterodimer with RFX family members X2, X3, and X5, but not with X4. This protein binds to the X-boxes of MHC class II genes and is essential for their expression. Also, it can bind to an inverted repeat that is required for expression of hepatitis B virus genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RFX2 regulatory factor X, 2 (influences HLA class II expression)|This gene is a member of the regulatory factor X gene family, which encodes transcription factors that contain a highly-conserved winged helix DNA binding domain. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to regulatory factors X1, X3, X4, and X5. It is a transcriptional activator that can bind DNA as a monomer or as a heterodimer with other RFX family members. This protein can bind to cis elements in the promoter of the IL-5 receptor alpha gene. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, and both variants utilize alternative polyadenylation sites. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RFX3 regulatory factor X, 3 (influences HLA class II expression)|This gene is a member of the regulatory factor X gene family, which encodes transcription factors that contain a highly-conserved winged helix DNA binding domain. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to regulatory factors X1, X2, X4, and X5. It is a transcriptional activator that can bind DNA as a monomer or as a heterodimer with other RFX family members. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
YDJC YdjC homolog (bacterial)|
IBA57 IBA57, iron-sulfur cluster assembly homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
APC adenomatous polyposis coli|This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that acts as an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway. It is also involved in other processes including cell migration and adhesion, transcriptional activation, and apoptosis. Defects in this gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominant pre-malignant disease that usually progresses to malignancy. Disease-associated mutations tend to be clustered in a small region designated the mutation cluster region (MCR) and result in a truncated protein product. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TMEM179B transmembrane protein 179B|
ABCE1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family E (OABP), member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the OABP subfamily. Alternatively referred to as the RNase L inhibitor, this protein functions to block the activity of ribonuclease L. Activation of ribonuclease L leads to inhibition of protein synthesis in the 2-5A/RNase L system, the central pathway for viral interferon action. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UQCRC2 ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein II|
XPNPEP1 X-prolyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase P) 1, soluble|This gene encodes the cytosolic form of a metalloaminopeptidase that catalyzes the cleavage of the N-terminal amino acid adjacent to a proline residue. The gene product may play a role in degradation and maturation of tachykinins, neuropeptides, and peptide hormones. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
XPNPEP3 X-prolyl aminopeptidase 3, mitochondrial|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of X-pro-aminopeptidases that utilize a metal cofactor, and remove the N-terminal amino acid from peptides with a proline residue in the penultimate position. This protein has been shown to localize to the mitochondria of renal cells, and have a role in ciliary function. Mutations in this gene are associated with nephronophthisis-like nephropathy-1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene, however, expression of some of these isoforms in vivo is not known.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
SLC4A2 solute carrier family 4 (anion exchanger), member 2|
GGCX gamma-glutamyl carboxylase|This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyzes the posttranslational modification of vitamin K-dependent protein. Many of these vitamin K-dependent proteins are involved in coagulation so the function of the encoded enzyme is essential for hemostasis. Mutations in this gene are associated with vitamin K-dependent coagulation defect and PXE-like disorder with multiple coagulation factor deficiency. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
SLC6A20 solute carrier family 6 (proline IMINO transporter), member 20|Transport of small hydrophilic substances across cell membranes is mediated by substrate-specific transporter proteins which have been classified into several families of related genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the subgroup of transporter with unidentified substrates within the Na+ and Cl- coupled transporter family. This gene is expressed in kidney, and its alternative splicing generates 2 transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RETSAT retinol saturase (all-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase)|
ZNF57 zinc finger protein 57|
KHDRBS1 KH domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1|This gene encodes a member of the K homology domain-containing, RNA-binding, signal transduction-associated protein family. The encoded protein appears to have many functions and may be involved in a variety of cellular processes, including alternative splicing, cell cycle regulation, RNA 3'-end formation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of human immunodeficiency virus gene expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
KHDRBS3 KH domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 3|
GGCT gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides, the penultimate step in glutathione catabolism, and may play a critical role in glutathione homeostasis. The encoded protein may also play a role in cell proliferation, and the expression of this gene is a potential marker for cancer. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the long arm of chromosome 5 and the short arm of chromosomes 2 and 20. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
ZNF395 zinc finger protein 395|
ZNHIT6 zinc finger, HIT-type containing 6|
TBL1Y transducin (beta)-like 1, Y-linked|The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. This gene is highly similar to TBL1X gene in nucleotide sequence and protein sequence, but the TBL1X gene is located on chromosome X and this gene is on chromosome Y. This gene has three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LHCGR luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor|This gene encodes the receptor for both luteinizing hormone and choriogonadotropin. This receptor belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family, and its activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase. Mutations in this gene result in disorders of male secondary sexual character development, including familial male precocious puberty, also known as testotoxicosis, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, Leydig cell adenoma with precocious puberty, and male pseudohermaphtoditism with Leydig cell hypoplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GPR78 G protein-coupled receptor 78|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family, which contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins. This is an orphan receptor, which displays significant level of constitutive activity. Association analysis shows preliminary evidence for the involvement of this gene in susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
LRFN2 leucine rich repeat and fibronectin type III domain containing 2|
MIB2 mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2|
C11orf1 chromosome 11 open reading frame 1|
TARS2 threonyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)|This gene encodes a member of the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. The encoded protein is a mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
DPYSL2 dihydropyrimidinase-like 2|This gene encodes a member of the collapsin response mediator protein family. Collapsin response mediator proteins form homo- and hetero-tetramers and facilitate neuron guidance, growth and polarity. The encoded protein promotes microtubule assembly and is required for Sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse, and also plays a role in synaptic signaling through interactions with calcium channels. This gene has been implicated in multiple neurological disorders, and hyperphosphorylation of the encoded protein may play a key role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
DPYSL3 dihydropyrimidinase-like 3|
ADAMTS2 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 2|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The enzyme encoded by this gene excises the N-propeptide of type I, type II and type V procollagens. Mutations in this gene cause Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC, a recessively inherited connective-tissue disorder. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
ACHE acetylcholinesterase (Yt blood group)|Acetylcholinesterase hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions and brain cholinergic synapses, and thus terminates signal transmission. It is also found on the red blood cell membranes, where it constitutes the Yt blood group antigen. Acetylcholinesterase exists in multiple molecular forms which possess similar catalytic properties, but differ in their oligomeric assembly and mode of cell attachment to the cell surface. It is encoded by the single ACHE gene, and the structural diversity in the gene products arises from alternative mRNA splicing, and post-translational associations of catalytic and structural subunits. The major form of acetylcholinesterase found in brain, muscle and other tissues is the hydrophilic species, which forms disulfide-linked oligomers with collagenous, or lipid-containing structural subunits. The other, alternatively spliced form, expressed primarily in the erythroid tissues, differs at the C-terminal end, and contains a cleavable hydrophobic peptide with a GPI-anchor site. It associates with the membranes through the phosphoinositide (PI) moieties added post-translationally. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IGFBP2 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, 36kDa|
IGFBP3 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3|This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein forms a ternary complex with insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit (IGFALS) and either insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I or II. In this form, it circulates in the plasma, prolonging the half-life of IGFs and altering their interaction with cell surface receptors. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IGFBP1 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1|This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein binds both insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II and circulates in the plasma. Binding of this protein prolongs the half-life of the IGFs and alters their interaction with cell surface receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HBE1 hemoglobin, epsilon 1|The epsilon globin gene (HBE) is normally expressed in the embryonic yolk sac: two epsilon chains together with two zeta chains (an alpha-like globin) constitute the embryonic hemoglobin Hb Gower I; two epsilon chains together with two alpha chains form the embryonic Hb Gower II. Both of these embryonic hemoglobins are normally supplanted by fetal, and later, adult hemoglobin. The five beta-like globin genes are found within a 45 kb cluster on chromosome 11 in the following order: 5'-epsilon - G-gamma - A-gamma - delta - beta-3' [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IGFBP7 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7|This gene encodes a member of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein (IGFBP) family. IGFBPs bind IGFs with high affinity, and regulate IGF availability in body fluids and tissues and modulate IGF binding to its receptors. This protein binds IGF-I and IGF-II with relatively low affinity, and belongs to a subfamily of low-affinity IGFBPs. It also stimulates prostacyclin production and cell adhesion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, and one variant has been associated with retinal arterial macroaneurysm (PMID:21835307). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
IGFBP4 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4|This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein binds both insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II and circulates in the plasma in both glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms. Binding of this protein prolongs the half-life of the IGFs and alters their interaction with cell surface receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IGFBP5 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5|
ARF1 ADP-ribosylation factor 1|ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a member of the human ARF gene family. The family members encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and play a role in vesicular trafficking as activators of phospholipase D. The gene products, including 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins, constitute a family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized as class I (ARF1, ARF2 and ARF3), class II (ARF4 and ARF5) and class III (ARF6), and members of each class share a common gene organization. The ARF1 protein is localized to the Golgi apparatus and has a central role in intra-Golgi transport. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SKP2 S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 10 tandem leucine-rich repeats. This protein is an essential element of the cyclin A-CDK2 S-phase kinase. It specifically recognizes phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also referred to as p27 or KIP1) predominantly in S phase and interacts with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 or p19). In addition, this gene is established as a protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Alternative splicing of this gene generates three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
P2RX4 purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 4|The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel with high calcium permeability. The main pharmacological distinction between the members of the purinoceptor family is the relative sensitivity to the antagonists suramin and PPADS. The product of this gene has the lowest sensitivity for these antagonists. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
CYP2R1 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1|This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This enzyme is a microsomal vitamin D hydroxylase that converts vitamin D into the active ligand for the vitamin D receptor. A mutation in this gene has been associated with selective 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CKLF chemokine-like factor|The product of this gene is a cytokine. Cytokines are small proteins that have an essential role in the immune and inflammatory responses. This gene is one of several chemokine-like factor genes located in a cluster on chromosome 16. The protein encoded by this gene is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. It also can stimulate the proliferation of skeletal muscle cells. This protein may play important roles in inflammation and in the regeneration of skeletal muscle. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. Naturally occurring read-through transcription occurs between this locus and the neighboring locus CMTM1 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 1).[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
HNRNPA1L2 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1-like 2|
GJA1 gap junction protein, alpha 1, 43kDa|This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of arrays of intercellular channels that provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. The encoded protein is the major protein of gap junctions in the heart that are thought to have a crucial role in the synchronized contraction of the heart and in embryonic development. A related intronless pseudogene has been mapped to chromosome 5. Mutations in this gene have been associated with oculodentodigital dysplasia, autosomal recessive craniometaphyseal dysplasia and heart malformations. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
GJA3 gap junction protein, alpha 3, 46kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is a connexin and is a component of lens fiber gap junctions. Defects in this gene are a cause of zonular pulverulent cataract type 3 (CZP3). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
GJA4 gap junction protein, alpha 4, 37kDa|This gene encodes a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of arrays of intercellular channels that provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. Mutations in this gene have been associated with atherosclerosis and a higher risk of myocardial infarction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GJA5 gap junction protein, alpha 5, 40kDa|This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of arrays of intercellular channels that provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. Mutations in this gene may be associated with atrial fibrillation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GJA8 gap junction protein, alpha 8, 50kDa|This gene encodes a transmembrane connexin protein that is necessary for lens growth and maturation of lens fiber cells. The encoded protein is a component of gap junction channels and functions in a calcium and pH-dependent manner. Mutations in this gene have been associated with zonular pulverulent cataracts, nuclear progressive cataracts, and cataract-microcornea syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
GJA9 gap junction protein, alpha 9, 59kDa|Connexins, such as GJA9, are involved in the formation of gap junctions, intercellular conduits that directly connect the cytoplasms of contacting cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of 2 hemichannels, each of which contains 6 connexin subunits (Sohl et al., 2003 [PubMed 12881038]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CHERP calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein|
KDM3B lysine (K)-specific demethylase 3B|
ZNF117 zinc finger protein 117|
KDM3A lysine (K)-specific demethylase 3A|This gene encodes a zinc finger protein that contains a jumonji domain and may play a role in hormone-dependent transcriptional activation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
PPP6R3 protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 3|Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS3, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS3 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
TMC4 transmembrane channel-like 4|
TMC5 transmembrane channel-like 5|
TMC6 transmembrane channel-like 6|Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is an autosomal recessive dermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and a high rate of progression to squamous cell carcinoma on sun-exposed skin. EV is caused by mutations in either of two adjacent genes located on chromosome 17q25.3. Both of these genes encode integral membrane proteins that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and are predicted to form transmembrane channels. This gene encodes a transmembrane channel-like protein with 10 transmembrane domains and 2 leucine zipper motifs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TMC7 transmembrane channel-like 7|
APIP APAF1 interacting protein|APIP is an APAF1 (MIM 602233)-interacting protein that acts as a negative regulator of ischemic/hypoxic injury (Cho et al., 2004 [PubMed 15262985]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]
TMC1 transmembrane channel-like 1|This gene is considered a member of a gene family predicted to encode transmembrane proteins. The specific function of this gene is unknown; however, it is known to be required for normal function of cochlear hair cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with progressive postlingual hearing loss and profound prelingual deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GPR15 G protein-coupled receptor 15|This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that acts as a chemokine receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2. The encoded protein localizes to the cell membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
WASF1 WAS protein family, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-family, plays a critical role downstream of Rac, a Rho-family small GTPase, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton required for membrane ruffling. It has been shown to associate with an actin nucleation core Arp2/3 complex while enhancing actin polymerization in vitro. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a disease of the immune system, likely due to defects in regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EIF2B4 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 4 delta, 67kDa|Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (EIF2B), which is necessary for protein synthesis, is a GTP exchange factor composed of five different subunits. The protein encoded by this gene is the fourth, or delta, subunit. Defects in this gene are a cause of leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) and ovarioleukodystrophy. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EIF2B5 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 5 epsilon, 82kDa|This gene encodes one of five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (EIF2B), a GTP exchange factor for eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and an essential regulator for protein synthesis. Mutations in this gene and the genes encoding other EIF2B subunits have been associated with leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
EIF2B2 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 2 beta, 39kDa|This gene encodes the beta subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2B (EIF2B). EIF2B is involved in protein synthesis and exchanges GDP and GTP for its activation and deactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
EIF2B3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 3 gamma, 58kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the subunits of initiation factor eIF2B, which catalyzes the exchange of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-bound GDP for GTP. It has also been found to function as a cofactor of hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with leukodystrophy with vanishing white matter. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
EIF2B1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 1 alpha, 26kDa|This gene encodes one of five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (EIF2B), a GTP exchange factor for eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and an essential regulator for protein synthesis. Mutations in this gene and the genes encoding other EIF2B subunits have been associated with leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
PRKAR2A protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha|cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRKAR2B protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta|cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C20orf57 chromosome 20 open reading frame 57|
MAGT1 magnesium transporter 1|This gene encodes a magnesium cation transporter protein that localizes to the cell membrane. This protein also associates with N-oligosaccharyl transferase and therefore may have a role in N-glycosylation. Mutations in this gene cause mental retardation X-linked type 95 (MRX95). This gene may have multiple in-frame translation initiation sites, one of which would encode a shorter protein with an N-terminus containing a signal peptide at amino acids 1-29. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
TXNIP thioredoxin interacting protein|
MLF1 myeloid leukemia factor 1|This gene encodes an oncoprotein which is thought to play a role in the phenotypic determination of hemopoetic cells. Translocations between this gene and nucleophosmin have been associated with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
QPRT quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase|This gene encodes a key enzyme in catabolism of quinolinate, an intermediate in the tryptophan-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide pathway. Quinolinate acts as a most potent endogenous exitotoxin to neurons. Elevation of quinolinate levels in the brain has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IFT140 intraflagellar transport 140|This gene encodes one of the subunits of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex A. Intraflagellar transport is involved in the genesis, resorption and signaling of primary cilia. The primary cilium is a microtubule-based sensory organelle at the surface of most quiescent mammalian cells, that receives signals from its environment, such as the flow of fluid, light or odors, and transduces those signals to the nucleus. Loss of the corresponding protein in mouse results in renal cystic disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
RSPH9 radial spoke head 9 homolog (Chlamydomonas)|This gene encodes a protein thought to be a component of the radial spoke head in motile cilia and flagella. Mutations in this gene are associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
TMEM14C transmembrane protein 14C|
TMEM14B transmembrane protein 14B|
TMEM14A transmembrane protein 14A|
CFLAR CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator|The protein encoded by this gene is a regulator of apoptosis and is structurally similar to caspase-8. However, the encoded protein lacks caspase activity and appears to be itself cleaved into two peptides by caspase-8. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, and partial evidence for several more variants exists. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
MECOM MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional regulator and oncoprotein that may be involved in hematopoiesis, apoptosis, development, and cell differentiation and proliferation. The encoded protein can interact with CTBP1, SMAD3, CREBBP, KAT2B, MAPK8, and MAPK9. This gene can undergo translocation with the AML1 gene, resulting in overexpression of this gene and the onset of leukemia. Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
RSPH3 radial spoke 3 homolog (Chlamydomonas)|
IFI16 interferon, gamma-inducible protein 16|This gene encodes a member of the HIN-200 (hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear antigens with 200 amino acid repeats) family of cytokines. The encoded protein contains domains involved in DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, and protein-protein interactions. The protein localizes to the nucleoplasm and nucleoli, and interacts with p53 and retinoblastoma-1. It modulates p53 function, and inhibits cell growth in the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
ZNF396 zinc finger protein 396|
LURAP1 leucine rich adaptor protein 1|
TPBGL trophoblast glycoprotein-like|
MYT1L myelin transcription factor 1-like|
SHOX2 short stature homeobox 2|This gene is a member of the homeobox family of genes that encode proteins containing a 60-amino acid residue motif that represents a DNA binding domain. Homeobox genes have been characterized extensively as transcriptional regulators involved in pattern formation in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. Several human genetic disorders are caused by aberrations in human homeobox genes. This locus represents a pseudoautosomal homeobox gene that is thought to be responsible for idiopathic short stature, and it is implicated in the short stature phenotype of Turner syndrome patients. This gene is considered to be a candidate gene for Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
CEPT1 choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1|Cholinephosphotransferase catalyses the final step in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine by the transfer of phosphocholine from CDP-choline to diacylglycerol. The synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine by ethanolaminephosphotransferase occurs using an analogous reaction. This gene codes for a choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase. The protein can synthesize either choline- or ethanolamine- containing phospholipids. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding the same isoform have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CFHR2 complement factor H-related 2|
PHACTR4 phosphatase and actin regulator 4|This gene encodes a member of the phosphatase and actin regulator (PHACTR) family. Other PHACTR family members have been shown to inhibit protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity, and the homolog of this gene in the mouse has been shown to interact with actin and PP1. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CLIC4 chloride intracellular channel 4|Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 4 (CLIC4) protein, encoded by the CLIC4 gene, is a member of the p64 family; the gene is expressed in many tissues and exhibits a intracellular vesicular pattern in Panc-1 cells (pancreatic cancer cells). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CLIC5 chloride intracellular channel 5|This gene encodes a member of the chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) family of chloride ion channels. The encoded protein associates with actin-based cytoskeletal structures and may play a role in multiple processes including hair cell stereocilia formation, myoblast proliferation and glomerular podocyte and endothelial cell maintenance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
PHACTR1 phosphatase and actin regulator 1|
CLIC3 chloride intracellular channel 3|Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 3 is a member of the p64 family and is predominantly localized in the nucleus and stimulates chloride ion channel activity. In addition, this protein may participate in cellular growth control, based on its association with ERK7, a member of the MAP kinase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LRSAM1 leucine rich repeat and sterile alpha motif containing 1|This gene encodes a ring finger protein involved in a variety of functions, including regulation of signaling pathways and cell adhesion, mediation of self-ubiquitylation, and involvement in cargo sorting during receptor endocytosis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
PHACTR2 phosphatase and actin regulator 2|
KIAA0020 KIAA0020|
ITGA5 integrin, alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide)|The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes the integrin alpha 5 chain. Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 to form a fibronectin receptor. In addition to adhesion, integrins are known to participate in cell-surface mediated signalling. Integrin alpha 5 and integrin alpha V chains are produced by distinct genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
TMEM147 transmembrane protein 147|
ENY2 enhancer of yellow 2 homolog (Drosophila)|
TMEM145 transmembrane protein 145|
CASP5 caspase 5, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase|This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. Overexpression of the active form of this enzyme induces apoptosis in fibroblasts. Max, a central component of the Myc/Max/Mad transcription regulation network important for cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, is cleaved by this protein; this process requires Fas-mediated dephosphorylation of Max. The expression of this gene is regulated by interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
TMEM143 transmembrane protein 143|
ITGA6 integrin, alpha 6|The ITGA6 protein product is the integrin alpha chain alpha 6. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. A given chain may combine with multiple partners resulting in different integrins. For example, alpha 6 may combine with beta 4 in the integrin referred to as TSP180, or with beta 1 in the integrin VLA-6. Integrins are known to participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TMEM141 transmembrane protein 141|
TMEM140 transmembrane protein 140|
SF1 splicing factor 1|This gene encodes a nuclear pre-mRNA splicing factor. The encoded protein specifically recognizes the intron branch point sequence and is required for the early stages of spliceosome assembly. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
BPNT1 3'(2'), 5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase 1|BPNT1, also called bisphosphate 3-prime-nucleotidase, or BPntase, is a member of a magnesium-dependent phosphomonoesterase family. Lithium, a major drug used to treat manic depression, acts as an uncompetitive inhibitor of BPntase. The predicted human protein is 92% identical to mouse BPntase. BPntase's physiologic role in nucleotide metabolism may be regulated by inositol signaling pathways. The inhibition of human BPntase may account for lithium-induced nephrotoxicity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
API5 apoptosis inhibitor 5|This gene encodes an apoptosis inhibitory protein whose expression prevents apoptosis after growth factor deprivation. This protein suppresses the transcription factor E2F1-induced apoptosis and also interacts with, and negatively regulates Acinus, a nuclear factor involved in apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Its depletion enhances the cytotoxic action of the chemotherapeutic drugs. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
LRFN4 leucine rich repeat and fibronectin type III domain containing 4|
UBE2NL ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N-like (gene/pseudogene)|This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The protein product is 91% identical to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N, a multi-exon gene product. This locus represents a polymorphic pseudogene, where some individuals contain an allele that can encode a full-length protein, while others have a non-functional allele containing a premature stop codon (reference SNP rs237520) that truncates the coding sequence. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
RNF180 ring finger protein 180|
SECISBP2L SECIS binding protein 2-like|
SOWAHC sosondowah ankyrin repeat domain family member C|
FANCI Fanconi anemia, complementation group I|The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group I. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HLA-DPA1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1|HLA-DPA1 belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DPA) and a beta (DPB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa and its gene contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DP molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to 4 different molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FAM32A family with sequence similarity 32, member A|
KIAA1191 KIAA1191|
FER1L6 fer-1-like family member 6|
VMP1 vacuole membrane protein 1|
PCDHA9 protocadherin alpha 9|This gene is a member of the protocadherin alpha gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five that demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The alpha gene cluster is composed of 15 cadherin superfamily genes related to the mouse CNR genes and consists of 13 highly similar and 2 more distantly related coding sequences. The tandem array of 15 N-terminal exons, or variable exons, are followed by downstream C-terminal exons, or constant exons, which are shared by all genes in the cluster. The large, uninterrupted N-terminal exons each encode six cadherin ectodomains while the C-terminal exons encode the cytoplasmic domain. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins that most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been observed and additional variants have been suggested but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
VWA1 von Willebrand factor A domain containing 1|VWA1 belongs to the von Willebrand factor (VWF; MIM 613160) A (VWFA) domain superfamily of extracellular matrix proteins and appears to play a role in cartilage structure and function (Fitzgerald et al., 2002 [PubMed 12062410]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
PRPH2 peripherin 2 (retinal degeneration, slow)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein found in the outer segment of both rod and cone photoreceptor cells. It may function as an adhesion molecule involved in stabilization and compaction of outer segment disks or in the maintenance of the curvature of the rim. This protein is essential for disk morphogenesis. Defects in this gene are associated with both central and peripheral retinal degenerations. Some of the various phenotypically different disorders are autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, progressive macular degeneration, macular dystrophy and retinitis pigmentosa digenic. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZMAT3 zinc finger, matrin-type 3|This gene encodes a protein containing three zinc finger domains and a nuclear localization signal. The mRNA and the protein of this gene are upregulated by wildtype p53 and overexpression of this gene inhibits tumor cell growth, suggesting that this gene may have a role in the p53-dependent growth regulatory pathway. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding two isoforms differing in only one amino acid. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZMAT2 zinc finger, matrin-type 2|
C19orf26 chromosome 19 open reading frame 26|
ZMAT4 zinc finger, matrin-type 4|
C19orf25 chromosome 19 open reading frame 25|
MYBL1 v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 1|
NR1D1 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the nuclear receptor subfamily 1. The encoded protein is a ligand-sensitive transcription factor that negatively regulates the expression of core clock proteins. In particular this protein represses the circadian clock transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (ARNTL). This protein may also be involved in regulating genes that function in metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular processes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
NR1D2 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 2|This gene encodes a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, specifically the NR1 subfamily of receptors. The encoded protein functions as a transcriptional repressor and may play a role in circadian rhythms and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
MYBL2 v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2|The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the MYB family of transcription factor genes, is a nuclear protein involved in cell cycle progression. The encoded protein is phosphorylated by cyclin A/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 during the S-phase of the cell cycle and possesses both activator and repressor activities. It has been shown to activate the cell division cycle 2, cyclin D1, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 genes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
ITGB1BP1 integrin beta 1 binding protein 1|The cytoplasmic domains of integrins are essential for cell adhesion. The protein encoded by this gene binds to the beta1 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The interaction between this protein and beta1 integrin is highly specific. Two isoforms of this protein are derived from alternatively spliced transcripts. The shorter form of this protein does not interact with the beta1 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The longer form is a phosphoprotein and the extent of its phosphorylation is regulated by the cell-matrix interaction, suggesting an important role of this protein during integrin-dependent cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MUC20 mucin 20, cell surface associated|This gene encodes a member of the mucin protein family. Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins secreted by many epithelial tissues to form an insoluble mucous barrier. The C-terminus of this family member associates with the multifunctional docking site of the MET proto-oncogene and suppresses activation of some downstream MET signaling cascades. The protein features a mucin tandem repeat domain that varies between two and six copies in most individuals. Multiple variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 3, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
ITGB1BP2 integrin beta 1 binding protein (melusin) 2|
ZNF7 zinc finger protein 7|
ZNF2 zinc finger protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family. The exact function of this gene is not known, however, zinc-finger proteins are known to interact with DNA and function as transcription regulators. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
ZNF3 zinc finger protein 3|
CTCFL CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein)-like|CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), an 11-zinc-finger factor involved in gene regulation, utilizes different zinc fingers to bind varying DNA target sites. CTCF forms methylation-sensitive insulators that regulate X-chromosome inactivation. This gene is a paralog of CTCF and appears to be expressed primarily in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes, unlike CTCF which is expressed primarily in the nucleus of somatic cells. CTCF and the protein encoded by this gene are normally expressed in a mutually exclusive pattern that correlates with resetting of methylation marks during male germ cell differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
PHLDA1 pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1|This gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved proline-histidine rich nuclear protein. The encoded protein may play an important role in the anti-apoptotic effects of insulin-like growth factor-1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMAD3 SMAD family member 3|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein functions as a transcriptional modulator activated by transforming growth factor-beta and is thought to play a role in the regulation of carcinogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
ZNF8 zinc finger protein 8|
PCP4L1 Purkinje cell protein 4 like 1|
SFRP2 secreted frizzled-related protein 2|This gene encodes a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. SFRPs act as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. Methylation of this gene is a potential marker for the presence of colorectal cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C11orf16 chromosome 11 open reading frame 16|
ZAP70 zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa|This gene encodes an enzyme belonging to the protein tyrosine kinase family, and it plays a role in T-cell development and lymphocyte activation. This enzyme, which is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) stimulation, functions in the initial step of TCR-mediated signal transduction in combination with the Src family kinases, Lck and Fyn. This enzyme is also essential for thymocyte development. Mutations in this gene cause selective T-cell defect, a severe combined immunodeficiency disease characterized by a selective absence of CD8-positive T-cells. Two transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BCL9 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9|BCL9 is associated with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It may be a target of translocation in B-cell malignancies with abnormalities of 1q21. Its function is unknown. The overexpression of BCL9 may be of pathogenic significance in B-cell malignancies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PHLDA2 pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2|This gene is located in a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15.5, which is considered to be an important tumor suppressor gene region. Alterations in this region may be associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and lung, ovarian, and breast cancer. This gene has been shown to be imprinted, with preferential expression from the maternal allele in placenta and liver. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
SYNDIG1 synapse differentiation inducing 1|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the interferon-induced transmembrane family of proteins. A similar protein in rat is thought to regulate the development of excitatory synapses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
OGFR opioid growth factor receptor|The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for opioid growth factor (OGF), also known as [Met(5)]-enkephalin. OGF is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and tissue organization in a variety of processes. The encoded unbound receptor for OGF has been localized to the outer nuclear envelope, where it binds OGF and is translocated into the nucleus. The coding sequence of this gene contains a polymorphic region of 60 nt tandem imperfect repeat units. Several transcripts containing between zero and eight repeat units have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EPM2AIP1 EPM2A (laforin) interacting protein 1|The EPM2A gene, which encodes laforin, is mutated in an autosomal recessive form of adolescent progressive myoclonus epilepsy. The protein encoded by this gene binds to laforin, but its function is not known. This gene is intronless. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
BCAP31 B-cell receptor-associated protein 31|This gene encodes a member of the B-cell receptor associated protein 31 superfamily. The encoded protein is a multi-pass transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that is involved in the anterograde transport of membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and in caspase 8-mediated apoptosis. Microdeletions in this gene are associated with contiguous ABCD1/DXS1375E deletion syndrome (CADDS), a neonatal disorder. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Two related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
CDC5L cell division cycle 5-like|The protein encoded by this gene shares a significant similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc5 gene product, which is a cell cycle regulator important for G2/M transition. This protein has been demonstrated to act as a positive regulator of cell cycle G2/M progression. It was also found to be an essential component of a non-snRNA spliceosome, which contains at least five additional protein factors and is required for the second catalytic step of pre-mRNA splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RAC2 ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2)|This gene encodes a member of the Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-metabolizing proteins. The encoded protein localizes to the plasma membrane, where it regulates diverse processes, such as secretion, phagocytosis, and cell polarization. Activity of this protein is also involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Mutations in this gene are associated with neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
RAC3 ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3)|The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GABRQ gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, theta|The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes the theta subunit of the GABA A receptor. The gene is mapped to chromosome Xq28 in a cluster of genes including those that encode the alpha 3 and epsilon subunits of the GABA A receptor. This gene location is also the candidate region of two different neurologic diseases: early-onset parkinsonism (Waisman syndrome) and X-linked mental retardation (MRX3). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
RAC1 ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)|The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
SBDS Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome|This gene encodes a member of a highly conserved protein family that exists from archaea to vertebrates and plants. The encoded protein may function in RNA metabolism. Mutations within this gene are associated with Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome. An alternative transcript has been described, but its biological nature has not been determined. This gene has a closely linked pseudogene that is distally located. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FIGNL2 fidgetin-like 2|
VCL vinculin|Vinculin is a cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, where it is thought to function as one of several interacting proteins involved in anchoring F-actin to the membrane. Defects in VCL are the cause of cardiomyopathy dilated type 1W. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
VCP valosin containing protein|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family that includes putative ATP-binding proteins involved in vesicle transport and fusion, 26S proteasome function, and assembly of peroxisomes. This protein, as a structural protein, is associated with clathrin, and heat-shock protein Hsc70, to form a complex. It has been implicated in a number of cellular events that are regulated during mitosis, including homotypic membrane fusion, spindle pole body function, and ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CPLX1 complexin 1|Proteins encoded by the complexin/synaphin gene family are cytosolic proteins that function in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. These proteins bind syntaxin, part of the SNAP receptor. The protein product of this gene binds to the SNAP receptor complex and disrupts it, allowing transmitter release. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit|This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins (alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms. A third transcript variant has been described, but its full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP2A2 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit|
VCY variable charge, Y-linked|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of human VCX/Y genes. This gene family has multiple members on both X and Y chromosomes, and all are expressed exclusively in male germ cells. Members of the VCX/Y family share a high degree of sequence identity, with the exception that a 30-bp unit is tandemly repeated in X-linked members but occurs only once in Y-linked members. VCX/Y genes encode small and highly charged proteins of unknown function. This gene encodes a small, positively charged protein. The presence of a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal suggests that this gene encodes a nuclear protein. The genome has two identical copies of this gene within a palindromic region; this record represents the more centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CADPS Ca++-dependent secretion activator|This gene encodes a novel neural/endocrine-specific cytosolic and peripheral membrane protein required for the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of secretory vesicles. The protein acts at a stage in exocytosis that follows ATP-dependent priming, which involves the essential synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and three variants, encoding distinct isoforms, are described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
MRPS18C mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18C|Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S18P family. The encoded protein is one of three that has significant sequence similarity to bacterial S18 proteins. The primary sequences of the three human mitochondrial S18 proteins are no more closely related to each other than they are to the prokaryotic S18 proteins. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 8p, 12p, 15q, and 22q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PBX2 pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 2|This gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed member of the TALE/PBX homeobox family. It was identified by its similarity to a homeobox gene which is involved in t(1;19) translocation in acute pre-B-cell leukemias. This protein is a transcriptional activator which binds to the TLX1 promoter. The gene is located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PBX3 pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 3|
PBX1 pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1|This gene encodes a nuclear protein that belongs to the PBX homeobox family of transcriptional factors. Studies in mice suggest that this gene may be involved in the regulation of osteogenesis, and required for skeletal patterning and programming. A chromosomal translocation, t(1;19) involving this gene and TCF3/E2A gene, is associated with pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The resulting fusion protein, in which the DNA binding domain of E2A is replaced by the DNA binding domain of this protein, transforms cells by constitutively activating transcription of genes regulated by the PBX protein family. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
ELMOD1 ELMO/CED-12 domain containing 1|
BCL6 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6|The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor and contains an N-terminal POZ domain. This protein acts as a sequence-specific repressor of transcription, and has been shown to modulate the transcription of START-dependent IL-4 responses of B cells. This protein can interact with a variety of POZ-containing proteins that function as transcription corepressors. This gene is found to be frequently translocated and hypermutated in diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL), and may be involved in the pathogenesis of DLCL. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
AIRE autoimmune regulator|This gene encodes a transcriptional regulator that forms nuclear bodies and interacts with the transcriptional coactivator CREB binding protein. The encoded protein plays an important role in immunity by regulating the expression of autoantigens and negative selection of autoreactive T-cells in the thymus. Mutations in this gene cause the rare autosomal-recessive systemic autoimmune disease termed autoimmune polyendocrinopathy with candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
NSUN3 NOP2/Sun domain family, member 3|
NSUN2 NOP2/Sun RNA methyltransferase family, member 2|This gene encodes a methyltransferase that catalyzes the methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (m5C) at position 34 of intron-containing tRNA(Leu)(CAA) precursors. This modification is necessary to stabilize the anticodon-codon pairing and correctly translate the mRNA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
NSUN5 NOP2/Sun domain family, member 5|This gene encodes a member of an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that may function as methyltransferases. This gene is located in a larger region of chromosome 7 that is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a multisystem developmental disorder. There are two pseudogenes for this gene located in the same region of chromosome 7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
NSUN4 NOP2/Sun domain family, member 4|
NSUN6 NOP2/Sun domain family, member 6|
TUBG1 tubulin, gamma 1|This gene encodes a member of the tubulin superfamily. The encoded protein localizes to the centrosome where it binds to microtubules as part of a complex referred to as the gamma-tubulin ring complex. The protein mediates microtubule nucleation and is required for microtubule formation and progression of the cell cycle. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
TUBG2 tubulin, gamma 2|
FAM71F1 family with sequence similarity 71, member F1|
PRAMEF1 PRAME family member 1|This gene is a member of the PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma) gene family which is expressed in many cancers but may function in reproductive tissues during development. Alternative promoter usage generates two transcript variants, which encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
PRAMEF2 PRAME family member 2|
TARS threonyl-tRNA synthetase|Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PTCH1 patched 1|This gene encodes a member of the patched gene family. The encoded protein is the receptor for sonic hedgehog, a secreted molecule implicated in the formation of embryonic structures and in tumorigenesis, as well as the desert hedgehog and indian hedgehog proteins. This gene functions as a tumor suppressor. Mutations of this gene have been associated with basal cell nevus syndrome, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, trichoepitheliomas, transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder, as well as holoprosencephaly. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional splice variants have been described, but their full length sequences and biological validity cannot be determined currently. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PCDHGA2 protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 2|This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TIMM44 translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 44 homolog (yeast)|
TUFM Tu translation elongation factor, mitochondrial|This gene encodes a protein which participates in protein translation in mitochondria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency resulting in lactic acidosis and fatal encephalopathy. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZXDA zinc finger, X-linked, duplicated A|This gene encodes one of two duplicated zinc finger genes on chromosome Xp11. This gene is the telomeric copy; GeneID 158586 ZXDB is the more centromeric copy. The two genes have 98% nucleotide sequence similarity, and the predicted proteins contain 10 tandem zinc finger motifs. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
RAD9B RAD9 homolog B (S. pombe)|
RAD9A RAD9 homolog A (S. pombe)|This gene product is highly similar to Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad9, a cell cycle checkpoint protein required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair. This protein possesses 3' to 5' exonuclease activity, which may contribute to its role in sensing and repairing DNA damage. It forms a checkpoint protein complex with RAD1 and HUS1. This complex is recruited by checkpoint protein RAD17 to the sites of DNA damage, which is thought to be important for triggering the checkpoint-signaling cascade. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
NPAS2 neuronal PAS domain protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS family of transcription factors. A similar mouse protein may play a regulatory role in the acquisition of specific types of memory. It also may function as a part of a molecular clock operative in the mammalian forebrain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ERGIC2 ERGIC and golgi 2|ERGIC2, or PTX1, is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that is downregulated in prostate carcinoma (Kwok et al., 2001 [PubMed 11445006]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]
RRP7A ribosomal RNA processing 7 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)|
CDR2L cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2-like|
ERGIC1 endoplasmic reticulum-golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) 1|This gene encodes a cycling membrane protein which is an endoplasmic reticulum-golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) protein which interacts with other members of this protein family to increase their turnover. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CEP78 centrosomal protein 78kDa|
PDF peptide deformylase (mitochondrial)|Protein synthesis proceeds after formylation of methionine by methionyl-tRNA formyl transferase (FMT) and transfer of the charged initiator f-met tRNA to the ribosome. In eubacteria and eukaryotic organelles the product of this gene, peptide deformylase (PDF), removes the formyl group from the initiating methionine of nascent peptides. In eubacteria, deformylation of nascent peptides is required for subsequent cleavage of initiating methionines by methionine aminopeptidase. The discovery that a natural inhibitor of PDF, actinonin, acts as an antimicrobial agent in some bacteria has spurred intensive research into the design of bacterial-specific PDF inhibitors. In human cells, only mitochondrial proteins have N-formylation of initiating methionines. Protein inhibitors of PDF or siRNAs of PDF block the growth of cancer cell lines but have no effect on normal cell growth. In humans, PDF function may therefore be restricted to rapidly growing cells. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
B3GAT3 beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glucuronyltransferase gene family, enzymes that exhibit strict acceptor specificity, recognizing nonreducing terminal sugars and their anomeric linkages. This gene product catalyzes the formation of the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage by way of a glucuronyl transfer reaction in the final step of the biosynthesis of the linkage region of proteoglycans. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
B3GAT2 beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 2|The product of this gene is a transmembrane protein belonging to the glucuronyltransferase family, and catalyzes the transfer of a beta-1,3 linked glucuronic acid to a terminal galactose in different glycoproteins or glycolipids containing a Gal-beta-1-4GlcNAc or Gal-beta-1-3GlcNAc residue. The encoded protein is involved in the synthesis of the human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate epitope, a sulfated trisaccharide implicated in cellular migration and adhesion in the nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GAT1 beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glucuronyltransferase gene family. These enzymes exhibit strict acceptor specificity, recognizing nonreducing terminal sugars and their anomeric linkages. This gene product functions as the key enzyme in a glucuronyl transfer reaction during the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate epitope HNK-1 (human natural killer-1, also known as CD57 and LEU7). Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SRSF11 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 11|This gene encodes 54-kD nuclear protein that contains an arginine/serine-rich region similar to segments found in pre-mRNA splicing factors. Although the function of this protein is not yet known, structure and immunolocalization data suggest that it may play a role in pre-mRNA processing. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different proteins. In addition, a pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 12.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
CPPED1 calcineurin-like phosphoesterase domain containing 1|
UXT ubiquitously-expressed, prefoldin-like chaperone|The protein encoded by this gene functions as a cofactor that modulates androgen receptor-dependent transcription, and also plays a critical role in tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. Expression of this gene may play a role in tumorigenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
TTC30A tetratricopeptide repeat domain 30A|
SPG21 spastic paraplegia 21 (autosomal recessive, Mast syndrome)|The protein encoded by this gene binds to the hydrophobic C-terminal amino acids of CD4 which are involved in repression of T cell activation. The interaction with CD4 is mediated by the noncatalytic alpha/beta hydrolase fold domain of this protein. It is thus proposed that this gene product modulates the stimulatory activity of CD4. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia 21 (SPG21), also known as mast syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
SPG20 spastic paraplegia 20 (Troyer syndrome)|This gene encodes a protein containing a MIT (Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking molecule) domain, and is implicated in regulating endosomal trafficking and mitochondria function. The protein localizes to mitochondria and partially co-localizes with microtubules. Stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) results in protein translocation to the plasma membrane, and the protein functions in the degradation and intracellular trafficking of EGF receptor. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. Mutations associated with this gene cause autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia 20 (Troyer syndrome). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
GSDMA gasdermin A|
GSDMB gasdermin B|This gene encodes a member of the gasdermin-domain containing protein family. Other gasdermin-family genes are implicated in the regulation of apoptosis in epithelial cells, and are linked to cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Additional variants have been described, but they are candidates for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and are unlikely to be protein-coding. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
NANOS1 nanos homolog 1 (Drosophila)|
GSDMD gasdermin D|Gasdermin D is a member of the gasdermin family. Members of this family appear to play a role in regulation of epithelial proliferation. Gasdermin D has been suggested to act as a tumor suppressor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
HRH4 histamine receptor H4|Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by a family of histamine receptors, which are a subset of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. This gene encodes a histamine receptor that is predominantly expressed in haematopoietic cells. The protein is thought to play a role in inflammation and allergy reponses. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
UPK1B uroplakin 1B|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is found in the asymmetrical unit membrane (AUM) where it can form a complex with other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. It may play a role in normal bladder epithelial physiology, possibly in regulating membrane permeability of superficial umbrella cells or in stabilizing the apical membrane through AUM/cytoskeletal interactions. The use of alternate polyadenylation sites has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DLGAP2 discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 2|The product of this gene is a membrane-associated protein that may play a role in synapse organization and signalling in neuronal cells. This gene is biallelically expressed in the brain, however, only the paternal allele is expressed in the testis (PMID:18055845). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
DLGAP3 discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 3|
DLGAP1 discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 1|
DLGAP4 discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 4|The product of this gene is a membrane-associated guanylate kinase found at the postsynaptic density in neuronal cells. It is a signaling molecule that can interact with potassium channels and receptors, as well as other signaling molecules. The protein encoded by this gene can interact with PSD-95 through its guanylate kinase domain and may be involved in clustering PSD-95 in the postsynaptic density region. The encoded protein is one of at least four similar proteins that have been found. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DLGAP5 discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 5|
BRDT bromodomain, testis-specific|BRDT is similar to the RING3 protein family. It possesses 2 bromodomain motifs and a PEST sequence (a cluster of proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine residues), characteristic of proteins that undergo rapid intracellular degradation. The bromodomain is found in proteins that regulate transcription. Several transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
TIPRL TOR signaling pathway regulator|TIPRL is an inhibitory regulator of protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) (see PPP2CA; MIM 176915), PP4 (see PPP4C; MIM 602035), and PP6 (see PPP6C; MIM 612725) (McConnell et al., 2007 [PubMed 17384681]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
MBNL2 muscleblind-like splicing regulator 2|This gene is a member of the muscleblind protein family which was initially described in Drosophila melanogaster. This gene encodes a C3H-type zinc finger protein that modulates alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Muscleblind proteins bind specifically to expanded dsCUG RNA but not to normal size CUG repeats and may thereby play a role in the pathophysiology of myotonic dystrophy. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described but the full-length natures of only some have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
MBNL3 muscleblind-like splicing regulator 3|This gene encodes a member of the muscleblind-like family of proteins. The encoded protein may function in regulation of alternative splicing and may play a role in the pathophysiology of myotonic dystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
FBXL14 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 14|Members of the F-box protein family, such as FBXL14, are characterized by an approximately 40-amino acid F-box motif. SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases. F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15520277]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CDX2 caudal type homeobox 2|This gene is a member of the caudal-related homeobox transcription factor gene family. The encoded protein is a major regulator of intestine-specific genes involved in cell growth an differentiation. This protein also plays a role in early embryonic development of the intestinal tract. Aberrant expression of this gene is associated with intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
OIP5 Opa interacting protein 5|
CLCN3 chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 3|This gene encodes a member of the voltage-gated chloride channel (ClC) family. The encoded protein is present in all cell types and localized in plasma membranes and in intracellular vesicles. It is a multi-pass membrane protein which contains a ClC domain and two additional C-terminal CBS (cystathionine beta-synthase) domains. The ClC domain catalyzes the selective flow of Cl- ions across cell membranes, and the CBS domain may have a regulatory function. This protein plays a role in both acidification and transmitter loading of GABAergic synaptic vesicles, and in smooth muscle cell activation and neointima formation. This protein is required for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-activated Cl- current activity and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. The protein activity is regulated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in glioma cells. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
CLCN2 chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 2|This gene encodes a voltage-gated chloride channel. The encoded protein is a transmembrane protein that maintains chloride ion homeostasis in various cells. Defects in this gene may be a cause of certain epilepsies. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
CLCN1 chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 1|The CLCN family of voltage-dependent chloride channel genes comprises nine members (CLCN1-7, Ka and Kb) which demonstrate quite diverse functional characteristics while sharing significant sequence homology. The protein encoded by this gene regulates the electric excitability of the skeletal muscle membrane. Mutations in this gene cause two forms of inherited human muscle disorders: recessive generalized myotonia congenita (Becker) and dominant myotonia (Thomsen). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
HRH1 histamine receptor H1|Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. It mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, the increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, the release of catecholamine from adrenal medulla, and neurotransmission in the central nervous system. It has been associated with multiple processes, including memory and learning, circadian rhythm, and thermoregulation. It is also known to contribute to the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis and allergic rhinitis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
CLCN7 chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7|The product of this gene belongs to the CLC chloride channel family of proteins. Chloride channels play important roles in the plasma membrane and in intracellular organelles. This gene encodes chloride channel 7. Defects in this gene are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 4 (OPTB4), also called infantile malignant osteopetrosis type 2 as well as the cause of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type 2 (OPTA2), also called autosomal dominant Albers-Schonberg disease or marble disease autosoml dominant. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. OPTA2 is the most common form of osteopetrosis, occurring in adolescence or adulthood. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CLCN6 chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 6|This gene encodes a member of the voltage-dependent chloride channel protein family. Members of this family can function as either chloride channels or antiporters. This protein is primarily localized to late endosomes and functions as a chloride/proton antiporter. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding variants. Additional alternately spliced variants have been described but their full-length structure is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
CLCN5 chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 5|This gene encodes a member of the ClC family of chloride ion channels and ion transporters. The encoded protein is primarily localized to endosomal membranes and may function to facilitate albumin uptake by the renal proximal tubule. Mutations in this gene have been found in Dent disease and renal tubular disorders complicated by nephrolithiasis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
CLCN4 chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 4|The CLCN family of voltage-dependent chloride channel genes comprises nine members (CLCN1-7, Ka and Kb) which demonstrate quite diverse functional characteristics while sharing significant sequence homology. Chloride channel 4 has an evolutionary conserved CpG island and is conserved in both mouse and hamster. This gene is mapped in close proximity to APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), which are both located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3. The physiological role of chloride channel 4 remains unknown but may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuronal disorders. Alternate splicing results in two transcript variants that encode different proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
FBXL19 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 19|This gene encodes a member of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. The encoded protein is reported to bind to the transmembrane receptor interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 and regulate its ubiquitination and degradation. This protein has been linked to the regulation of pulmonary inflammation and psoriasis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
BRD8 bromodomain containing 8|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with thyroid hormone receptor in a ligand-dependent manner and enhances thyroid hormone-dependent activation from thyroid response elements. This protein contains a bromodomain and is thought to be a nuclear receptor coactivator. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
BRD9 bromodomain containing 9|
BRD4 bromodomain containing 4|The protein encoded by this gene is homologous to the murine protein MCAP, which associates with chromosomes during mitosis, and to the human RING3 protein, a serine/threonine kinase. Each of these proteins contains two bromodomains, a conserved sequence motif which may be involved in chromatin targeting. This gene has been implicated as the chromosome 19 target of translocation t(15;19)(q13;p13.1), which defines an upper respiratory tract carcinoma in young people. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BRD7 bromodomain containing 7|This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the bromodomain-containing protein family. The product of this gene has been identified as a component of one form of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, and as a protein which interacts with p53 and is required for p53-dependent oncogene-induced senescence which prevents tumor growth. Pseudogenes have been described on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 13 and 14. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
BRD1 bromodomain containing 1|This gene encodes a bromodomain-containing protein that localizes to the nucleus and can interact with DNA and histone tails. The encoded protein is a component of the MOZ/MORF acetyltransferase complex and can stimulate acetylation of histones H3 and H4, thereby potentially playing a role in gene activation. Variation in this gene is associated with schozophrenia and bipolar disorder in some study populations. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]
BRD2 bromodomain containing 2|This gene encodes a transcriptional regulator that belongs to the BET (bromodomains and extra terminal domain) family of proteins. This protein associates with transcription complexes and with acetylated chromatin during mitosis, and it selectively binds to the acetylated lysine-12 residue of histone H4 via its two bromodomains. The gene maps to the major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II region on chromosome 6p21.3, but sequence comparison suggests that the protein is not involved in the immune response. This gene has been implicated in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, a common form of epilepsy that becomes apparent in adolescence. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
BRD3 bromodomain containing 3|This gene was identified based on its homology to the gene encoding the RING3 protein, a serine/threonine kinase. The gene localizes to 9q34, a region which contains several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. The function of the encoded protein is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DNAJA2 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily A, member 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the evolutionarily conserved DNAJ/HSP40 family of proteins, which regulate molecular chaperone activity by stimulating ATPase activity. DNAJ proteins may have up to 3 distinct domains: a conserved 70-amino acid J domain, usually at the N terminus; a glycine/phenylalanine (G/F)-rich region; and a cysteine-rich domain containing 4 motifs resembling a zinc finger domain. The product of this gene works as a cochaperone of Hsp70s in protein folding and mitochondrial protein import in vitro. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DNAJA3 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily A, member 3|This gene encodes a member of the DNAJ/Hsp40 protein family. DNAJ/Hsp40 proteins stimulate the ATPase activity of Hsp70 chaperones and play critical roles in protein folding, degradation, and multimeric complex assembly. The encoded protein is localized to mitochondria and mediates several cellular processes including proliferation, survival and apoptotic signal transduction. The encoded protein also plays a critical role in tumor suppression through interactions with oncogenic proteins including ErbB2 and the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
PTPN18 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18 (brain-derived)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, the mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a PEST motif, which often serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein intracellular half-live. This protein can differentially dephosphorylate autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in tumor tissues, and it appears to regulate HER2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
TGFBR3 transforming growth factor, beta receptor III|This locus encodes the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta type III receptor. The encoded receptor is a membrane proteoglycan that often functions as a co-receptor with other TGF-beta receptor superfamily members. Ectodomain shedding produces soluble TGFBR3, which may inhibit TGFB signaling. Decreased expression of this receptor has been observed in various cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
DNAJA4 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily A, member 4|
AKT1 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1|The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The activation is rapid and specific, and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It was shown that the activation occurs through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In the developing nervous system AKT is a critical mediator of growth factor-induced neuronal survival. Survival factors can suppress apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner by activating the serine/threonine kinase AKT1, which then phosphorylates and inactivates components of the apoptotic machinery. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the Proteus syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
PTPN13 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP is a large intracellular protein. It has a catalytic PTP domain at its C-terminus and two major structural domains: a region with five PDZ domains and a FERM domain that binds to plasma membrane and cytoskeletal elements. This PTP was found to interact with, and dephosphorylate, Fas receptor and IkappaBalpha through the PDZ domains. This suggests it has a role in Fas mediated programmed cell death. This PTP was also shown to interact with GTPase-activating protein, and thus may function as a regulator of Rho signaling pathways. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
PTPN12 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 12|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a C-terminal PEST motif, which serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may regulate protein intracellular half-life. This PTP was found to bind and dephosphorylate the product of the oncogene c-ABL and thus may play a role in oncogenesis. This PTP was also shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate, various products related to cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion, such as p130 (Cas), CAKbeta/PTK2B, PSTPIP1, and paxillin. This suggests it has a regulatory role in controlling cell shape and mobility. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
PTPN11 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains two tandem Src homology-2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is widely expressed in most tissues and plays a regulatory role in various cell signaling events that are important for a diversity of cell functions, such as mitogenic activation, metabolic control, transcription regulation, and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Noonan syndrome as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
LYRM1 LYR motif containing 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the mitochondrial leucine/tyrosine/arginine motif family of proteins. Proteins of this family are short polypeptides that contain a leucine/tyrosine/arginine motif near the N-terminus. This gene is widely expressed with high levels in omental adipose tissue of obese individuals. In adipose tissue, the protein is localized to the nucleus where it promotes preadipocyte proliferation and lowers the rate of apoptosis to regulate adipose tissue homeostasis. Overexpression of this gene in adipocytes causes abnormal mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial dysfunction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
MYCBP MYC binding protein|The protein encoded by this gene binds to the N-terminus of the oncogenic protein C-MYC, enhancing the ability of C-MYC to activate E box-dependent transcription. The encoded protein is normally found in the cytoplasm, but it translocates to the nucleus during S phase of the cell cycle and associates with C-MYC. This protein may be involved in spermatogenesis. This gene can be silenced by microRNA-22. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other probably not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
PTPN14 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 14|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal noncatalytic domain similar to that of band 4.1 superfamily cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which suggested the membrane or cytoskeleton localization of this protein. It appears to regulate lymphatic development in mammals, and a loss of function mutation has been found in a kindred with a lymphedema-choanal atresia. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
GALR3 galanin receptor 3|The neuropeptide galanin modulates a variety of physiologic processes including cognition/memory, sensory/pain processing, hormone secretion, and feeding behavior. The human galanin receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that functionally couple to their intracellular effector through distinct signaling pathways. GALR3 is found in many tissues and may be expressed as 1.4-, 2.4-, and 5-kb transcripts [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GALR2 galanin receptor 2|Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary axis. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane receptors that are members of the 7-transmembrane family of G protein-coupled receptors. GALR2 interacts with the N-terminal residues of the galanin peptide. The primary signaling mechanism for GALR2 is through the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via Gq), in contrast to GALR1, which communicates its intracellular signal by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. However, it has been demonstrated that GALR2 couples efficiently to both the Gq and Gi proteins to simultaneously activate 2 independent signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GALR1 galanin receptor 1|The neuropeptide galanin elicits a range of biological effects by interaction with specific G-protein-coupled receptors. Galanin receptors are seven-transmembrane proteins shown to activate a variety of intracellular second-messenger pathways. GALR1 inhibits adenylyl cyclase via a G protein of the Gi/Go family. GALR1 is widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, as well as in peripheral sites such as the small intestine and heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKT3 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the AKT, also called PKB, serine/threonine protein kinase family. AKT kinases are known to be regulators of cell signaling in response to insulin and growth factors. They are involved in a wide variety of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, as well as glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake. This kinase has been shown to be stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Alternatively splice transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LYAR Ly1 antibody reactive|
ABHD16A abhydrolase domain containing 16A|A cluster of genes, BAT1-BAT5, has been localized in the vicinity of the genes for tumor necrosis factor alpha and tumor necrosis factor beta. These genes are all within the human major histocompatibility complex class III region. The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be involved in some aspects of immunity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
CH25H cholesterol 25-hydroxylase|This is an intronless gene that is involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The encoded protein is a membrane protein and contains clusters of histidine residues essential for catalytic activity. Unlike most other sterol hydroxylases, this enzyme is a member of a small family of enzymes that utilize diiron cofactors to catalyze the hydroxylation of hydrophobic substrates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CSF2RB colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage)|The protein encoded by this gene is the common beta chain of the high affinity receptor for IL-3, IL-5 and CSF. Defects in this gene have been reported to be associated with protein alveolar proteinosis (PAP). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MRPL24 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L24|Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein which is more than twice the size of its E.coli counterpart (EcoL24). Sequence analysis identified two transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MRPL27 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L27|Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CSF2RA colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, alpha, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage)|The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit of the heterodimeric receptor for colony stimulating factor 2, a cytokine which controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. The encoded protein is a member of the cytokine family of receptors. This gene is found in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, with some of the isoforms being membrane-bound and others being soluble. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C16orf70 chromosome 16 open reading frame 70|
MRPL20 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L20|Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 21q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C16orf72 chromosome 16 open reading frame 72|
MRPL22 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L22|Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the L22 ribosomal protein family. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 4q. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HTN3 histatin 3|This gene encodes a member of the histatin family of small, histidine-rich, cationic proteins. They function as antimicrobial peptides and are important components of the innate immune system. Histatins are found in saliva and exhibit antibacterial, antifungal activities and function in wound healing. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
GAB4 GRB2-associated binding protein family, member 4|
FAAH2 fatty acid amide hydrolase 2|This gene encodes a fatty acid amide hydrolase that shares a conserved protein motif with the amidase signature family of enzymes. The encoded enzyme is able to catalyze the hydrolysis of a broad range of bioactive lipids, including those from the three main classes of fatty acid amides; N-acylethanolamines, fatty acid primary amides and N-acyl amino acids. This enzyme has a preference for monounsaturated acyl chains as a substrate.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
C16orf78 chromosome 16 open reading frame 78|
GAB3 GRB2-associated binding protein 3|This gene is a member of the GRB2-associated binding protein gene family. These proteins are scaffolding/docking proteins that are involved in several growth factor and cytokine signaling pathways, and they contain a pleckstrin homology domain, and bind SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase and GRB2 adapter protein. The protein encoded by this gene facilitates macrophage differentiation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
GAB1 GRB2-associated binding protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the IRS1-like multisubstrate docking protein family. It is an important mediator of branching tubulogenesis and plays a central role in cellular growth response, transformation and apoptosis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
HABP4 hyaluronan binding protein 4|
DMRTB1 DMRT-like family B with proline-rich C-terminal, 1|
ZSCAN9 zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 9|
ZNF852 zinc finger protein 852|
NPTX1 neuronal pentraxin I|NPTX1 is a member of the neuronal pentraxin gene family. Neuronal pentraxin 1 is similar to the rat NP1 gene which encodes a binding protein for the snake venom toxin taipoxin. Human NPTX1 mRNA is exclusively localized to the nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF850 zinc finger protein 850|
ZSCAN4 zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4|The ZSCAN4 gene encodes a protein involved in telomere maintenance and with a key role in the critical feature of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, namely, defying cellular senescence and maintaining normal karyotype for many cell divisions in culture (Zalzman et al., 2010 [PubMed 20336070]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2010]
NDRG2 NDRG family member 2|This gene is a member of the N-myc downregulated gene family which belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily. The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic protein that may play a role in neurite outgrowth. This gene may be involved in glioblastoma carcinogenesis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NDRG3 NDRG family member 3|
ZSCAN1 zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 1|
ZSCAN2 zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 2|The protein encoded by this gene contains several copies of zinc finger motif, which is commonly found in transcriptional regulatory proteins. Studies in mice show that this gene is expressed during embryonic development, and specifically in the testis in adult mice, suggesting that it may play a role in regulating genes in germ cells. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SRSF5 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
SRSF4 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 4|This gene encodes a member of the arginine/serine-rich splicing factor family. The encoded protein likely functions in mRNA processing. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
PRAP1 proline-rich acidic protein 1|
SRSF6 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 6|The protein encoded by this gene is involved in mRNA splicing and may play a role in the determination of alternative splicing. The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another member of the family, SFRS12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. In addition, two pseudogenes, one on chromosome 17 and the other on the X chromosome, have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
SRSF1 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1|This gene encodes a member of the arginine/serine-rich splicing factor protein family. The encoded protein can either activate or repress splicing, depending on its phosphorylation state and its interaction partners. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. There is a pseudogene of this gene on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
RPL7A ribosomal protein L7a|Cytoplasmic ribosomes, organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L7AE family of ribosomal proteins. It can interact with a subclass of nuclear hormone receptors, including thyroid hormone receptor, and inhibit their ability to transactivate by preventing their binding to their DNA response elements. This gene is included in the surfeit gene cluster, a group of very tightly linked genes that do not share sequence similarity. It is co-transcribed with the U24, U36a, U36b, and U36c small nucleolar RNA genes, which are located in its second, fifth, fourth, and sixth introns, respectively. This gene rearranges with the trk proto-oncogene to form the chimeric oncogene trk-2h, which encodes an oncoprotein consisting of the N terminus of ribosomal protein L7a fused to the receptor tyrosine kinase domain of trk. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SRSF3 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other non-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
HOXA6 homeobox A6|In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor which may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LOXL3 lysyl oxidase-like 3|This gene encodes a member of the lysyl oxidase gene family. The prototypic member of the family is essential to the biogenesis of connective tissue, encoding an extracellular copper-dependent amine oxidase that catalyses the first step in the formation of crosslinks in collagens and elastin. A highly conserved amino acid sequence at the C-terminus end appears to be sufficient for amine oxidase activity, suggesting that each family member may retain this function. The N-terminus is poorly conserved and may impart additional roles in developmental regulation, senescence, tumor suppression, cell growth control, and chemotaxis to each member of the family. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported but their full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MZB1 marginal zone B and B1 cell-specific protein|
SRSF9 serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two pseudogenes, one on chromosome 15 and the other on chromosome 21, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
TRAPPC6B trafficking protein particle complex 6B|TRAPPC6B is a component of TRAPP complexes, which are tethering complexes involved in vesicle transport (Kummel et al., 2005 [PubMed 16025134]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
RNF130 ring finger protein 130|The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger motif and is similar to g1, a Drosophila zinc-finger protein that is expressed in mesoderm and involved in embryonic development. The expression of the mouse counterpart was found to be upregulated in myeloblastic cells following IL3 deprivation, suggesting that this gene may regulate growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis of myeloid precursor cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
RAPH1 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) and pleckstrin homology domains 1|
DNAJB11 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 11|This gene encodes a soluble glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen that functions as a co-chaperone of binding immunoglobulin protein, a 70 kilodalton heat shock protein chaperone required for the proper folding and assembly of proteins in the ER. The encoded protein contains a highly conserved J domain of about 70 amino acids with a characteristic His-Pro-Asp (HPD) motif and may regulate the activity of binding immunoglobulin protein by stimulating ATPase activity. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
RNF133 ring finger protein 133|The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger domain, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. This gene has no intron. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HLA-DQB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1|HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogs. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and it contains six exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DQ molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to four different molecules. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
RNF135 ring finger protein 135|The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger domain, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. This gene is located in a chromosomal region known to be frequently deleted in patients with neurofibromatosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DNAJB14 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 14|
RNF138 ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RNF139 ring finger protein 139|The protein encoded by this gene is a multi-membrane spanning protein containing a RING-H2 finger. This protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, and has been shown to possess ubiquitin ligase activity. This gene was found to be interrupted by a t(3:8) translocation in a family with hereditary renal and non-medulary thyroid cancer. Studies of the Drosophila counterpart suggested that this protein may interact with tumor suppressor protein VHL, as well as with COPS5/JAB1, a protein responsible for the degradation of tumor suppressor CDKN1B/P27KIP. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SNTG2 syntrophin, gamma 2|This gene encodes a protein belonging to the syntrophin family. Syntrophins are cytoplasmic peripheral membrane proteins that bind to components of mechanosenstive sodium channels and the extreme carboxy-terminal domain of dystrophin and dystrophin-related proteins. The PDZ domain of this protein product interacts with a protein component of a mechanosensitive sodium channel that affects channel gating. Absence or reduction of this protein product has been associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. There is evidence of alternative splicing yet the full-length nature of these variants has not been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NKX2-5 NK2 homeobox 5|This gene encodes a homeobox-containing transcription factor. This transcription factor functions in heart formation and development. Mutations in this gene cause atrial septal defect with atrioventricular conduction defect, and also tetralogy of Fallot, which are both heart malformation diseases. Mutations in this gene can also cause congenital hypothyroidism non-goitrous type 5, a non-autoimmune condition. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
CDK5 cyclin-dependent kinase 5|This gene encodes a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of proteins. Unlike other members of the family, the protein encoded by this gene does not directly control cell cycle regulation. Instead the protein, which is predominantly expressed at high levels in mammalian postmitotic central nervous system neurons, functions in diverse processes such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration through phosphorylation of proteins required for cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis and exocytosis, and apoptosis. In humans, an allelic variant of the gene that results in undetectable levels of the protein has been associated with lethal autosomal recessive lissencephaly-7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]
GID4 GID complex subunit 4|The multiprotein Mediator complex is a coactivator required for activation of RNA polymerase II transcription by DNA bound transcription factors. The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be a subunit of the Mediator complex. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CISD3 CDGSH iron sulfur domain 3|CISD3 is a member of the CDGSH domain-containing family, which may play a role in regulating electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation (Wiley et al., 2007 [PubMed 17376863]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2008]
CISD1 CDGSH iron sulfur domain 1|This gene encodes a protein with a CDGSH iron-sulfur domain and has been shown to bind a redox-active [2Fe-2S] cluster. The encoded protein has been localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria and is thought to play a role in regulation of oxidation. Genes encoding similar proteins are located on chromosomes 4 and 17, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
CLNS1A chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A|This gene encodes a protein that functions in multiple regulatory pathways. The encoded protein complexes with numerous cytosolic proteins and performs diverse functions including regulation of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein biosynthesis, platelet activation and cytoskeletal organization. The protein is also found associated with the plasma membrane where it functions as a chloride current regulator. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 4 and 6. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
SUPT20H suppressor of Ty 20 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
TRMT11 tRNA methyltransferase 11 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
TSHZ2 teashirt zinc finger homeobox 2|
TSHZ3 teashirt zinc finger homeobox 3|
TSHZ1 teashirt zinc finger homeobox 1|This gene encodes a colon cancer antigen that was defined by serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries. The encoded protein is a member of the teashirt C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family and may be involved in transcriptional regulation of developmental processes. Mutations in this gene may be associated with congenital aural atresia syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
GID8 GID complex subunit 8|
TRMT12 tRNA methyltransferase 12 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|Wybutosine (yW) is a hypermodified guanosine at the 3-prime position adjacent to the anticodon of phenylalanine tRNA that stabilizes codon-anticodon interactions during decoding on the ribosome. TRMT12 is the human homolog of a yeast gene essential for yW synthesis (Noma and Suzuki, 2006).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
FOXS1 forkhead box S1|The forkhead family of transcription factors belongs to the winged helix class of DNA-binding proteins. The protein encoded by this intronless gene contains a forkhead domain and is found predominantly in aorta and kidney. The function of the encoded protein is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF581 zinc finger protein 581|
LPAR2 lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2|This gene encodes a member of family I of the G protein-coupled receptors, as well as the EDG family of proteins. This protein functions as a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor and contributes to Ca2+ mobilization, a critical cellular response to LPA in cells, through association with Gi and Gq proteins. An alternative splice variant has been described but its full length sequence has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF583 zinc finger protein 583|
ZNF582 zinc finger protein 582|
TIPARP TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase|This gene encodes a member of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase superfamily. Studies of the mouse ortholog have shown that the encoded protein catalyzes histone poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and may be involved in T-cell function. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
ZNF584 zinc finger protein 584|
ZNF587 zinc finger protein 587|
ZNF586 zinc finger protein 586|
ZNF589 zinc finger protein 589|
THSD1 thrombospondin, type I, domain containing 1|The protein encoded by this gene contains a type 1 thrombospondin domain, which is found in a number of proteins involved in the complement pathway, as well as in extracellular matrix proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
BCL9L B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9-like|
ASUN asunder spermatogenesis regulator|
IGLL5 immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5|This gene encodes one of the immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptides. It is located within the immunoglobulin lambda locus but it does not require somatic rearrangement for expression. The first exon of this gene is unrelated to immunoglobulin variable genes; the second and third exons are the immunoglobulin lambda joining 1 and the immunoglobulin lambda constant 1 gene segments. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
PSD pleckstrin and Sec7 domain containing|This gene encodes a Plekstrin homology and SEC7 domains-containing protein that functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The encoded protein regulates signal transduction by activating ADP-ribosylation factor 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
CAMKK2 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta|The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. The major isoform of this gene plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade by phosphorylating the downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4. Protein products of this gene also phosphorylate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This gene has its strongest expression in the brain and influences signalling cascades involved with learning and memory, neuronal differentiation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. The identified isoforms differ in their ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate downstream kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
CAMKK1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha|The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade. Three transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NPTXR neuronal pentraxin receptor|This gene encodes a protein similar to the rat neuronal pentraxin receptor. The rat pentraxin receptor is an integral membrane protein that is thought to mediate neuronal uptake of the snake venom toxin, taipoxin, and its transport into the synapses. Studies in rat indicate that translation of this mRNA initiates at a non-AUG (CUG) codon. This may also be true for mouse and human, based on strong sequence conservation amongst these species. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MTRF1L mitochondrial translational release factor 1-like|The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in mitochondrial translation termination, and is thought to be a release factor that is involved in the dissociation of the complete protein from the final tRNA, the ribosome, and the cognate mRNA. This protein acts upon UAA and UAG stop codons, but has no in vitro activity against UGA, which encodes tryptophan in human mitochondrion, or, the mitochondrial non-cognate stop codons, AGA and AGG. This protein shares sequence similarity to bacterial release factors. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 4, 8, and 11. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
MYO1G myosin IG|MYO1G is a plasma membrane-associated class I myosin (see MIM 601478) that is abundant in T and B lymphocytes and mast cells (Pierce et al., 2001 [PubMed 11544309]; Patino-Lopez et al., 2010 [PubMed 20071333]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2010]
MYO1F myosin IF|
MYO1E myosin IE|This gene encodes a member of the nonmuscle class I myosins which are a subgroup of the unconventional myosin protein family. The unconventional myosin proteins function as actin-based molecular motors. Class I myosins are characterized by a head (motor) domain, a regulatory domain and a either a short or long tail domain. Among the class I myosins, this protein is distinguished by a long tail domain that is involved in crosslinking actin filaments. This protein localizes to the cytoplasm and may be involved in intracellular movement and membrane trafficking. Mutations in this gene are the cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-6. This gene has been referred to as myosin IC in the literature but is distinct from the myosin IC gene located on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
MYO1D myosin ID|
MYO1C myosin IC|This gene encodes a member of the unconventional myosin protein family, which are actin-based molecular motors. The protein is found in the cytoplasm, and one isoform with a unique N-terminus is also found in the nucleus. The nuclear isoform associates with RNA polymerase I and II and functions in transcription initiation. The mouse ortholog of this protein also functions in intracellular vesicle transport to the plasma membrane. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The related gene myosin IE has been referred to as myosin IC in the literature, but it is a distinct locus on chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MYO1B myosin IB|
MYO1A myosin IA|This gene encodes a member of the myosin superfamily. The protein represents an unconventional myosin; it should not be confused with the conventional skeletal muscle myosin-1 (MYH1). Unconventional myosins contain the basic domains characteristic of conventional myosins and are further distinguished from class members by their tail domains. They function as actin-based molecular motors. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal dominant deafness. Alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
CHST1 carbohydrate (keratan sulfate Gal-6) sulfotransferase 1|This locus encodes a member of the keratin sulfotransferase family of proteins. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the sulfation of the proteoglycan keratin. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
CHMP3 charged multivesicular body protein 3|This gene encodes a protein that sorts transmembrane proteins into lysosomes/vacuoles via the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. This protein, along with other soluble coiled-coil containing proteins, forms part of the ESCRT-III protein complex that binds to the endosomal membrane and recruits additional cofactors for protein sorting into the MVB. This protein may also co-immunoprecipitate with a member of the IFG-binding protein superfamily. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the upstream ring finger protein 103 (RNF103) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
RPL36AL ribosomal protein L36a-like|Cytoplasmic ribosomes, organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein, which shares sequence similarity with yeast ribosomal protein L44, belongs to the L44E (L36AE) family of ribosomal proteins. This gene and the human gene officially named ribosomal protein L36a (RPL36A) encode nearly identical proteins; however, they are distinct genes. Although the name of this gene has been referred to as ribosomal protein L36a (RPL36A), its official name is ribosomal protein L36a-like (RPL36AL). As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KIAA0391 KIAA0391|
CHMP7 charged multivesicular body protein 7|
CHMP6 charged multivesicular body protein 6|This gene encodes a member of the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein family. Proteins in this family are part of the ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III) which degrades surface receptors, and in biosynthesis of endosomes. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
BCR breakpoint cluster region|A reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 22 and 9 produces the Philadelphia chromosome, which is often found in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The chromosome 22 breakpoint for this translocation is located within the BCR gene. The translocation produces a fusion protein which is encoded by sequence from both BCR and ABL, the gene at the chromosome 9 breakpoint. Although the BCR-ABL fusion protein has been extensively studied, the function of the normal BCR gene product is not clear. The protein has serine/threonine kinase activity and is a GTPase-activating protein for p21rac. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DENND6A DENN/MADD domain containing 6A|
PGBD5 piggyBac transposable element derived 5|The piggyBac family of proteins, found in diverse animals, are transposases related to the transposase of the canonical piggyBac transposon from the moth, Trichoplusia ni. This family also includes genes in several genomes, including human, that appear to have been derived from the piggyBac transposons. This gene belongs to the subfamily of piggyBac transposable element derived (PGBD) genes. The PGBD proteins appear to be novel, with no obvious relationship to other transposases, or other known protein families. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
CTPS2 CTP synthase 2|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of CTP from UTP with the concomitant deamination of glutamine to glutamate. This protein is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cytosine nucleotides, which play an important role in various metabolic processes and provide the precursors necessary for the synthesis of RNA and DNA. Cancer cells that exhibit increased cell proliferation also exhibit an increased activity of this encoded protein. Thus, this protein is an attractive target for selective chemotherapy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
NDC80 NDC80 kinetochore complex component|This gene encodes a component of the NDC80 kinetochore complex. The encoded protein consists of an N-terminal microtubule binding domain and a C-terminal coiled-coiled domain that interacts with other components of the complex. This protein functions to organize and stabilize microtubule-kinetochore interactions and is required for proper chromosome segregation. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
LGALSL lectin, galactoside-binding-like|
LY6G6C lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C|LY6G6C belongs to a cluster of leukocyte antigen-6 (LY6) genes located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Members of the LY6 superfamily typically contain 70 to 80 amino acids, including 8 to 10 cysteines. Most LY6 proteins are attached to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that is directly involved in signal transduction (Mallya et al., 2002 [PubMed 12079290]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
HOXA13 homeobox A13|In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor which may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. Expansion of a polyalanine tract in the encoded protein can cause hand-foot-uterus syndrome, also known as hand-foot-genital syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SIAE sialic acid acetylesterase|This gene encodes an enzyme which removes 9-O-acetylation modifications from sialic acids. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune disease 6. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms, found either in the cytosol or in the lysosome, have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
HOXA11 homeobox A11|In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor which may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. This gene is involved in the regulation of uterine development and is required for female fertility. Mutations in this gene can cause radio-ulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HOXA10 homeobox A10|In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor that may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. More specifically, it may function in fertility, embryo viability, and regulation of hematopoietic lineage commitment. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream homeobox A9 (HOXA9) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
BPI bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein|This gene encodes a lipopolysaccharide binding protein. It is associated with human neutrophil granules and has antimicrobial activity against gram-negative organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
PPIAL4B peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A)-like 4A|
PPIAL4D peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A)-like 4D|
CEP57 centrosomal protein 57kDa|This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein called Translokin. This protein localizes to the centrosome and has a function in microtubular stabilization. The N-terminal half of this protein is required for its centrosome localization and for its multimerization, and the C-terminal half is required for nucleating, bundling and anchoring microtubules to the centrosomes. This protein specifically interacts with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), sorting nexin 6, Ran-binding protein M and the kinesins KIF3A and KIF3B, and thus mediates the nuclear translocation and mitogenic activity of the FGF2. It also interacts with cyclin D1 and controls nucleocytoplasmic distribution of the cyclin D1 in quiescent cells. This protein is crucial for maintaining correct chromosomal number during cell division. Mutations in this gene cause mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
FAM160B1 family with sequence similarity 160, member B1|
FAM160B2 family with sequence similarity 160, member B2|
ATAT1 alpha tubulin acetyltransferase 1|
TSSK6 testis-specific serine kinase 6|This intronless gene encodes a member of the CAMK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent) serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded kinase has a broad expression pattern but is described as testis-specific due to effects on fertility. Male mice which lack the gene encoding a highly similar protein are sterile and have morphologically abnormal sperm. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
SRC SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase|This gene is highly similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. The protein encoded by this gene is a tyrosine-protein kinase whose activity can be inhibited by phosphorylation by c-SRC kinase. Mutations in this gene could be involved in the malignant progression of colon cancer. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NEMF nuclear export mediator factor|
ZNF326 zinc finger protein 326|
TSSK2 testis-specific serine kinase 2|TSSK2 belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases highly expressed in testis (Hao et al., 2004 [PubMed 15044604]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ZNF320 zinc finger protein 320|ZNF320 encodes a Kruppel-like zinc finger protein. Members of this protein family are involved in activation or repression of transcription.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]
ZNF322 zinc finger protein 322|ZNF322A is a member of the zinc-finger transcription factor family and may regulate transcriptional activation in MAPK (see MAPK1; MIM 176948) signaling pathways (Li et al., 2004 [PubMed 15555580]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
FAM214A family with sequence similarity 214, member A|
FAM214B family with sequence similarity 214, member B|
SRI sorcin|This gene encodes a calcium-binding protein with multiple E-F hand domains that relocates from the cytoplasm to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in response to elevated calcium levels. In addition to regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis it also modulates excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. Multiple pseudogenes exist for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
ZNF329 zinc finger protein 329|
SRM spermidine synthase|The polyamines putrescine, spermine, and spermidine are ubiquitous polycationic mediators of cell growth and differentiation. Spermidine synthase is one of four enzymes in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway and carries out the final step of spermidine biosynthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of putrescine to spermidine using decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine as the cofactor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SRR serine racemase|
ADCY8 adenylate cyclase 8 (brain)|Adenylate cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP. The enzymatic activity is under the control of several hormones, and different polypeptides participate in the transduction of the signal from the receptor to the catalytic moiety. Stimulatory or inhibitory receptors (Rs and Ri) interact with G proteins (Gs and Gi) that exhibit GTPase activity and they modulate the activity of the catalytic subunit of the adenylyl cyclase [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RIBC2 RIB43A domain with coiled-coils 2|
LGALS8 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 8|This gene encodes a member of the galectin family. Galectins are beta-galactoside-binding animal lectins with conserved carbohydrate recognition domains. The galectins have been implicated in many essential functions including development, differentiation, cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix interaction, growth regulation, apoptosis, and RNA splicing. This gene is widely expressed in tumoral tissues and seems to be involved in integrin-like cell interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SF3B3 splicing factor 3b, subunit 3, 130kDa|This gene encodes subunit 3 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and a 12S RNA unit, forms the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins complex (U2 snRNP). The splicing factor 3b/3a complex binds pre-mRNA upstream of the intron's branch site in a sequence independent manner and may anchor the U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 3b is also a component of the minor U12-type spliceosome. Subunit 3 has also been identified as a component of the STAGA (SPT3-TAF(II)31-GCN5L acetylase) transcription coactivator-HAT (histone acetyltransferase) complex, and the TFTC (TATA-binding-protein-free TAF(II)-containing complex). These complexes may function in chromatin modification, transcription, splicing, and DNA repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LGALS3 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3|This gene encodes a member of the galectin family of carbohydrate binding proteins. Members of this protein family have an affinity for beta-galactosides. The encoded protein is characterized by an N-terminal proline-rich tandem repeat domain and a single C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain. This protein can self-associate through the N-terminal domain allowing it to bind to multivalent saccharide ligands. This protein localizes to the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm and the nucleus. This protein plays a role in numerous cellular functions including apoptosis, innate immunity, cell adhesion and T-cell regulation. The protein exhibits antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
LGALS2 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a soluble beta-galactoside binding lectin. The encoded protein is found as a homodimer and can bind to lymphotoxin-alpha. A single nucleotide polymorphism in an intron of this gene can alter the transcriptional level of the protein, with a resultant increased risk of myocardial infarction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LGALS1 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1|The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. This gene product may act as an autocrine negative growth factor that regulates cell proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SRY sex determining region Y|This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA-binding proteins. This protein is the testis-determining factor (TDF), which initiates male sex determination. Mutations in this gene give rise to XY females with gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome); translocation of part of the Y chromosome containing this gene to the X chromosome causes XX male syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SFRP5 secreted frizzled-related protein 5|Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. SFRPs act as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. SFRP5 and SFRP1 may be involved in determining the polarity of photoreceptor cells in the retina. SFRP5 is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium, and moderately expressed in the pancreas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LGALS4 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 4|The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The expression of this gene is restricted to small intestine, colon, and rectum, and it is underexpressed in colorectal cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RUVBL1 RuvB-like AAA ATPase 1|
AKIRIN2 akirin 2|
AKIRIN1 akirin 1|
EIF2AK1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 1|The protein encoded by this gene acts at the level of translation initiation to downregulate protein synthesis in response to stress. The encoded protein is a kinase that can be inactivated by hemin. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
EIF2AK3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3|The protein encoded by this gene phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation-initiation factor 2 (EIF2), leading to its inactivation, and thus to a rapid reduction of translational initiation and repression of global protein synthesis. It is a type I membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is induced by ER stress caused by malfolded proteins. Mutations in this gene are associated with Wolcott-Rallison syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
KRTAP11-1 keratin associated protein 11-1|
TDG thymine-DNA glycosylase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the TDG/mug DNA glycosylase family. Thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) removes thymine moieties from G/T mismatches by hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bond between the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and the mispaired thymine. With lower activity, this enzyme also removes thymine from C/T and T/T mispairings. TDG can also remove uracil and 5-bromouracil from mispairings with guanine. This enzyme plays a central role in cellular defense against genetic mutation caused by the spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine. This gene may have a pseudogene in the p arm of chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EIF2AK4 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4|This gene encodes a member of a family of kinases that phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (EIF2), resulting in the downregulaton of protein synthesis. The encoded protein responds to amino acid deprivation by binding uncharged transfer RNAs. It may also be activated by glucose deprivation and viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been found in individuals suffering from autosomal recessive pulmonary venoocclusive-disease-2. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ADCY9 adenylate cyclase 9|Adenylate cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP. It is regulated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors, protein kinases, and calcium. The type 9 adenylyl cyclase is a widely distributed adenylyl cyclase, and it is stimulated by beta-adrenergic receptor activation but is insensitive to forskolin, calcium, and somatostatin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HN1 hematological and neurological expressed 1|
LIMS1 LIM and senescent cell antigen-like domains 1|The protein encoded by this gene is an adaptor protein which contains five LIM domains, or double zinc fingers. The protein is likely involved in integrin signaling through its LIM domain-mediated interaction with integrin-linked kinase, found in focal adhesion plaques. It is also thought to act as a bridge linking integrin-linked kinase to NCK adaptor protein 2, which is involved in growth factor receptor kinase signaling pathways. Its localization to the periphery of spreading cells also suggests that this protein may play a role in integrin-mediated cell adhesion or spreading. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
NMB neuromedin B|
EREG epiregulin|Epiregulin is a member of the epidermal growth factor family. Epiregulin can function as a ligand of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), as well as a ligand of most members of the ERBB (v-erb-b2 oncogene homolog) family of tyrosine-kinase receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MYO19 myosin XIX|
AVPI1 arginine vasopressin-induced 1|
MYO16 myosin XVI|
TRNT1 tRNA nucleotidyl transferase, CCA-adding, 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a CCA-adding enzyme which belongs to the tRNA nucleotidyltransferase/poly(A) polymerase family. This essential enzyme functions by catalyzing the addition of the conserved nucleotide triplet CCA to the 3' terminus of tRNA molecules. Mutations in this gene result in sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ASAP1 ArfGAP with SH3 domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1|This gene encodes an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein. The GTPase-activating activity is stimulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2), and is greater towards ARF1 and ARF5, and lesser for ARF6. This gene maybe involved in regulation of membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodeling. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
ASAP2 ArfGAP with SH3 domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2|This gene encodes a multidomain protein containing an N-terminal alpha-helical region with a coiled-coil motif, followed by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, an Arf-GAP domain, an ankyrin homology region, a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. The protein localizes in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane, where it colocalizes with protein tyrosine kinase 2-beta (PYK2). The encoded protein forms a stable complex with PYK2 in vivo. This interaction appears to be mediated by binding of its SH3 domain to the C-terminal proline-rich domain of PYK2. The encoded protein is tyrosine phosphorylated by activated PYK2. It has catalytic activity for class I and II ArfGAPs in vitro, and can bind the class III Arf ARF6 without immediate GAP activity. The encoded protein is believed to function as an ARF GAP that controls ARF-mediated vesicle budding when recruited to Golgi membranes. In addition, it functions as a substrate and downstream target for PYK2 and SRC, a pathway that may be involved in the regulation of vesicular transport. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
MYO10 myosin X|This gene encodes a member of the myosin superfamily. The protein represents an unconventional myosin; it should not be confused with the conventional non-muscle myosin-10 (MYH10). Unconventional myosins contain the basic domains of conventional myosins and are further distinguished from class members by their tail domains. This gene functions as an actin-based molecular motor and plays a role in integration of F-actin and microtubule cytoskeletons during meiosis. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
OCRL oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe|This gene encodes a phosphatase enzyme that is involved in actin polymerization and is found in the trans-Golgi network. Mutations in this gene cause oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe and also Dent disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PLAUR plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor|This gene encodes the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator and, given its role in localizing and promoting plasmin formation, likely influences many normal and pathological processes related to cell-surface plasminogen activation and localized degradation of the extracellular matrix. It binds both the proprotein and mature forms of urokinase plasminogen activator and permits the activation of the receptor-bound pro-enzyme by plasmin. The protein lacks transmembrane or cytoplasmic domains and may be anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety following cleavage of the nascent polypeptide near its carboxy-terminus. However, a soluble protein is also produced in some cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. The proprotein experiences several post-translational cleavage reactions that have not yet been fully defined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ENTPD5 ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5|The protein encoded by this gene is similar to E-type nucleotidases (NTPases)/ecto-ATPase/apyrases. NTPases, such as CD39, mediate catabolism of extracellular nucleotides. ENTPD5 contains 4 apyrase-conserved regions which is characteristic of NTPases. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
HILPDA hypoxia inducible lipid droplet-associated|
LRRC27 leucine rich repeat containing 27|
LRRC26 leucine rich repeat containing 26|
LRRC25 leucine rich repeat containing 25|
LRRC24 leucine rich repeat containing 24|
KIAA1522 KIAA1522|
MPDU1 mannose-P-dolichol utilization defect 1|This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein that is required for utilization of the mannose donor mannose-P-dolichol in the synthesis of lipid-linked oligosaccharides and glycosylphosphatidylinositols. Mutations in this gene result in congenital disorder of glycosylation type If. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
LRRC20 leucine rich repeat containing 20|
LOX lysyl oxidase|The protein encoded by this gene is an extracellular copper enzyme that initiates the crosslinking of collagens and elastin. The enzyme catalyzes oxidative deamination of the epsilon-amino group in certain lysine and hydroxylysine residues of collagens and lysine residues of elastin. In addition to crosslinking extracellular matrix proteins, the encoded protein may have a role in tumor suppression. Defects in this gene are a cause of autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I (CL type I). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
LPGAT1 lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase 1|Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylglycerol (LPG) acyltransferase catalyzes the reacylation of LPG to phosphatidylglycerol, a membrane phospholipid that is an important precursor for the synthesis of cardiolipin (Yang et al., 2004 [PubMed 15485873]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
SEMA6D sema domain, transmembrane domain (TM), and cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 6D|Semaphorins are a large family, including both secreted and membrane associated proteins, many of which have been implicated as inhibitors or chemorepellents in axon pathfinding, fasciculation and branching, and target selection. All semaphorins possess a semaphorin (Sema) domain and a PSI domain (found in plexins, semaphorins and integrins) in the N-terminal extracellular portion. Additional sequence motifs C-terminal to the semaphorin domain allow classification into distinct subfamilies. Results demonstrate that transmembrane semaphorins, like the secreted ones, can act as repulsive axon guidance cues. This gene encodes a class 6 vertebrate transmembrane semaphorin that demonstrates alternative splicing. Several transcript variants have been identified and expression of the distinct encoded isoforms is thought to be regulated in a tissue- and development-dependent manner. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
LRRC28 leucine rich repeat containing 28|
TIMM17B translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 17 homolog B (yeast)|This gene encodes a multipass transmembrane protein that forms an integral component of the mitochondrial translocase TIM23 complex. This complex facilitates the transport of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol across the mitochondrial inner membrane and into the mitochondrion. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
ITCH itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This gene encodes a member of the Nedd4 family of HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases. HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin from E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes to protein substrates, thus targeting specific proteins for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a role in multiple cellular processes including erythroid and lymphoid cell differentiation and the regulation of immune responses. Mutations in this gene are a cause of syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
GCNT7 glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase family member 7|
TIMM17A translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 17 homolog A (yeast)|
GCNT1 glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 1, core 2|This gene is a member of the beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase gene family. It is essential to the formation of Gal beta 1-3(GlcNAc beta 1-6)GalNAc structures and the core 2 O-glycan branch. The gene coding this enzyme was originally mapped to 9q21, but was later localized to 9q13. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GCNT3 glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 3, mucin type|This gene encodes a member of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. The encoded protein is a beta-6-N-acetylglucosamine-transferase that catalyzes the formation of core 2 and core 4 O-glycans on mucin-type glycoproteins.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
GCNT2 glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 2, I-branching enzyme (I blood group)|This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for formation of the blood group I antigen. The i and I antigens are distinguished by linear and branched poly-N-acetyllactosaminoglycans, respectively. The encoded protein is the I-branching enzyme, a beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase responsible for the conversion of fetal i antigen to adult I antigen in erythrocytes during embryonic development. Mutations in this gene have been associated with adult i blood group phenotype. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PARD6B par-6 family cell polarity regulator beta|This gene is a member of the PAR6 family and encodes a protein with a PSD95/Discs-large/ZO1 (PDZ) domain, an OPR domain and a semi-Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain. This cytoplasmic protein is involved in asymmetrical cell division and cell polarization processes as a member of a multi-protein complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LPCAT4 lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 4|Members of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) family, such as AGPAT7, catalyze the conversion of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor in the biosynthesis of all glycerolipids. Both LPA and PA are involved in signal transduction (Ye et al., 2005 [PubMed 16243729]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]
LPCAT2 lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2|This gene encodes a member of the lysophospholipid acyltransferase family. The encoded enzyme may function in two ways: to catalyze the biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) from 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and to catalyze the synthesis of glycerophospholipid precursors from arachidonyl-CoA and lysophosphatidylcholine. The encoded protein may function in membrane biogenesis and production of platelet-activating factor in inflammatory cells. The enzyme may localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
LPCAT3 lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3|
LPCAT1 lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1|Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) acyltransferase (LPCAT; EC 2.3.1.23) catalyzes the conversion of LPC to phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the remodeling pathway of PC biosynthesis (Nakanishi et al., 2006 [PubMed 16704971]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]
SEMA6A sema domain, transmembrane domain (TM), and cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 6A|The transmembrane semaphorin SEMA6A is expressed in developing neural tissue and is required for proper development of the thalamocortical projection (Leighton et al., 2001 [PubMed 11242070]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2011]
KRT20 keratin 20, type I|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. The type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains. This cytokeratin is a major cellular protein of mature enterocytes and goblet cells and is specifically expressed in the gastric and intestinal mucosa. The type I cytokeratin genes are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MID1IP1 MID1 interacting protein 1|
PIGA phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class A|This gene encodes a protein required for synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl phosphatidylinositol (GlcNAc-PI), the first intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of GPI anchor. The GPI anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and which serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, an acquired hematologic disorder, has been shown to result from mutations in this gene. Alternate splice variants have been characterized. A related pseudogene is located on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
PIGB phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class B|This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in GPI-anchor biosynthesis. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This gene is thought to encode a member of a family of dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man) dependent mannosyltransferases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGC phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class C|This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum associated protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid anchor biosynthesis. The GPI lipid anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. The encoded protein is one subunit of the GPI N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc) transferase that transfers GlcNAc to phosphatidylinositol (PI) on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Two alternatively spliced transcripts that encode the same protein have been found for this gene. A pseudogene on chromosome 11 has also been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGF phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class F|This gene encodes a protein involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor, a glycolipid containing three mannose molecules in its core backbone, is found on many blood cells where it serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. The encoded protein and another GPI synthesis protein, PIGO, function in the transfer of ethanolaminephosphate to the third mannose in GPI. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGG phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class G|
PIGH phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class H|This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum associated protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and which serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the GPI N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc) transferase that transfers GlcNAc to phosphatidylinositol (PI) on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGK phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class K|This gene encodes a member of the cysteine protease family C13 that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is a member of the multisubunit enzyme, GPI transamidase and is thought to be its enzymatic component. GPI transamidase mediates GPI anchoring in the endoplasmic reticulum, by catalyzing the transfer of fully assembled GPI units to proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGM phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class M|This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in GPI-anchor biosynthesis. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor is a glycolipid which contains three mannose molecules in its core backbone. The GPI-anchor is found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This gene encodes a mannosyltransferase, GPI-MT-I, that transfers the first mannose to GPI on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGN phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class N|This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum and transfers phosphoethanolamine (EtNP) to the first mannose of the GPI anchor. Two alternatively spliced variants, which encode an identical isoform, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGO phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class O|This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid which contains three mannose molecules in its core backbone. The GPI-anchor is found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is involved in the transfer of ethanolaminephosphate (EtNP) to the third mannose in GPI. At least three alternatively spliced transcripts encoding two distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
PIGP phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class P|This gene encodes an enzyme involved in the first step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells that serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. The encoded protein is a component of the GPI-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase complex that catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from UDP-GlcNAc to phosphatidylinositol (PI). This gene is located in the Down Syndrome critical region on chromosome 21 and is a candidate for the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGQ phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class Q|This gene is involved in the first step in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This gene encodes a N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase component that is part of the complex that catalyzes transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from UDP-GlcNAc to phosphatidylinositol (PI). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
PIGR polymeric immunoglobulin receptor|This gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The encoded poly-Ig receptor binds polymeric immunoglobulin molecules at the basolateral surface of epithelial cells; the complex is then transported across the cell to be secreted at the apical surface. A significant association was found between immunoglobulin A nephropathy and several SNPs in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
TMEM194B transmembrane protein 194B|
ILKAP integrin-linked kinase-associated serine/threonine phosphatase|The protein encoded by this gene is a protein serine/threonine phosphatase of the PP2C family. This protein can interact with integrin-linked kinase (ILK/ILK1), a regulator of integrin mediated signaling, and regulate the kinase activity of ILK. Through the interaction with ILK, this protein may selectively affect the signaling process of ILK-mediated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3beta), and thus participate in Wnt signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGU phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class U|The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc91, a predicted integral membrane protein that may function in cell division control. The protein encoded by this gene is the fifth subunit of GPI transamidase that attaches GPI-anchors to proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGV phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class V|This gene encodes a mannosyltransferase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). GPI is a complex glycolipid that functions as a membrane anchor for many proteins and plays a role in multiple cellular processes including protein sorting and signal transduction. The encoded protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and transfers the second mannose to the GPI backbone. Mutations in this gene are associated with hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
PIGW phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class W|Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a complex glycolipid that anchors many proteins to the cell surface. PIGW acts in the third step of GPI biosynthesis and acylates the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol (Murakami et al., 2003 [PubMed 14517336]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
PIGX phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class X|This gene encodes a type I transmembrane protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The protein is an essential component of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-mannosyltransferase I, which transfers the first of the four mannoses in the GPI-anchor precursors during GPI-anchor biosynthesis. Studies in rat indicate that the protein is translated from a non-AUG translation initiation site. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
PIGY phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class Y|The protein encoded by this gene is part of the GPI-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GIP-GnT) complex which initiates the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). GPI is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and serves as an anchor for many surface proteins. Proteins containing GPI anchors can have an important role in cell-cell interactions. The transcript for this gene is bicistronic. The downstream open reading frame encodes this GPI-GnT complex protein, while the upstream open reading frame encodes a protein with unknown function, as represented by GeneID:100996939. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
RMND1 required for meiotic nuclear division 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the evolutionary conserved sif2 family of proteins that share the DUF155 domain in common. This protein is thought to be localized in the mitochondria and involved in mitochondrial translation. Mutations in this gene are associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-11. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
ANKLE1 ankyrin repeat and LEM domain containing 1|
SERPINB9 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 9|This gene encodes a member of the serine protease inhibitor family which are also known as serpins. The encoded protein belongs to a subfamily of intracellular serpins. This protein inhibits the activity of the effector molecule granzyme B. Overexpression of this protein may prevent cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from eliminating certain tumor cells. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
OSGEP O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase|
ALPP alkaline phosphatase, placental|The protein encoded by this gene is an alkaline phosphatase, a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoric acid monoesters. It belongs to a multigene family composed of four alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. The enzyme functions as a homodimer and has a catalytic site containing one magnesium and two zinc ions, which are required for its enzymatic function. The protein is primarily expressed in placental and endometrial tissue; however, strong ectopic expression has been detected in ovarian adenocarcinoma, serous cystadenocarcinoma, and other ovarian cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
FOXR2 forkhead box R2|
INPPL1 inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1|The protein encoded by this gene is an SH2-containing 5'-inositol phosphatase that is involved in the regulation of insulin function. The encoded protein also plays a role in the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor turnover and actin remodelling. Additionally, this gene supports metastatic growth in breast cancer and is a valuable biomarker for breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
OLR1 oxidized low density lipoprotein (lectin-like) receptor 1|This gene encodes a low density lipoprotein receptor that belongs to the C-type lectin superfamily. This gene is regulated through the cyclic AMP signaling pathway. The encoded protein binds, internalizes and degrades oxidized low-density lipoprotein. This protein may be involved in the regulation of Fas-induced apoptosis. This protein may play a role as a scavenger receptor. Mutations of this gene have been associated with atherosclerosis, risk of myocardial infarction, and may modify the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
RHPN2 rhophilin, Rho GTPase binding protein 2|This gene encodes a member of the rhophilin family of Ras-homologous (Rho)-GTPase binding proteins. The encoded protein binds both GTP- and GDP-bound RhoA and GTP-bound RhoB and may be involved in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
SRRM1 serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1|
CCDC171 coiled-coil domain containing 171|
CCDC172 coiled-coil domain containing 172|
SRRM2 serine/arginine repetitive matrix 2|
CCDC174 coiled-coil domain containing 174|
SRRM4 serine/arginine repetitive matrix 4|SRRM4 promotes alternative splicing and inclusion of neural-specific exons in target mRNAs (Calarco et al., 2009 [PubMed 19737518]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]
CCDC176 coiled-coil domain containing 176|
FAM134B family with sequence similarity 134, member B|The protein encoded by this gene is a cis-Golgi transmembrane protein that may be necessary for the long-term survival of nociceptive and autonomic ganglion neurons. Mutations in this gene are a cause of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IIB (HSAN IIB), and this gene may also play a role in susceptibility to vascular dementia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
PDK1 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 1|Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and is one of the major enzymes responsible for the regulation of homeostasis of carbohydrate fuels in mammals. The enzymatic activity is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle. Phosphorylation of PDH by a specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) results in inactivation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
SUN2 Sad1 and UNC84 domain containing 2|SUN1 (MIM 607723) and SUN2 are inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins that play a major role in nuclear-cytoplasmic connection by formation of a 'bridge' across the nuclear envelope, known as the LINC complex, via interaction with the conserved luminal KASH domain of nesprins (e.g., SYNE1; MIM 608441) located in the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). The LINC complex provides a direct connection between the nuclear lamina and the cytoskeleton, which contributes to nuclear positioning and cellular rigidity (summary by Haque et al., 2010 [PubMed 19933576]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
PDK3 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 3|The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and thus is one of the major enzymes responsible for the regulation of glucose metabolism. The enzymatic activity of PDH is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle, and phosphorylation results in inactivation of PDH. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the three pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases that inhibits the PDH complex by phosphorylation of the E1 alpha subunit. This gene is predominantly expressed in the heart and skeletal muscles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
PDK2 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 2|This gene encodes a member of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase family. The encoded protein phosphorylates pyruvate dehydrogenase, down-regulating the activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Overexpression of this gene may play a role in both cancer and diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
EBP emopamil binding protein (sterol isomerase)|The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. It is a high affinity binding protein for the antiischemic phenylalkylamine Ca2+ antagonist [3H]emopamil and the photoaffinity label [3H]azidopamil. It is similar to sigma receptors and may be a member of a superfamily of high affinity drug-binding proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum of different tissues. This protein shares structural features with bacterial and eukaryontic drug transporting proteins. It has four putative transmembrane segments and contains two conserved glutamate residues which may be involved in the transport of cationic amphiphilics. Another prominent feature of this protein is its high content of aromatic amino acid residues (>23%) in its transmembrane segments. These aromatic amino acid residues have been suggested to be involved in the drug transport by the P-glycoprotein. Mutations in this gene cause Chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2; also known as Conradi-Hunermann syndrome). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PDK4 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4|This gene is a member of the PDK/BCKDK protein kinase family and encodes a mitochondrial protein with a histidine kinase domain. This protein is located in the matrix of the mitrochondria and inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylating one of its subunits, thereby contributing to the regulation of glucose metabolism. Expression of this gene is regulated by glucocorticoids, retinoic acid and insulin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LNPEP leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase|This gene encodes a zinc-dependent aminopeptidase that cleaves vasopressin, oxytocin, lys-bradykinin, met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and other peptide hormones. The protein can be secreted in maternal serum, reside in intracellular vesicles with the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4, or form a type II integral membrane glycoprotein. The protein catalyzes the final step in the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin IV (AT4) and is also a receptor for AT4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALPI alkaline phosphatase, intestinal|There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme. This enzyme is a component of the gut mucosal defense system and is thought to function in the detoxification of lipopolysaccharide, and in the prevention of bacterial translocation in the gut. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ZNF292 zinc finger protein 292|
SEC61A1 Sec61 alpha 1 subunit (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SECY/SEC61- alpha family. It appears to play a crucial role in the insertion of secretory and membrane polypeptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein found to be tightly associated with membrane-bound ribosomes, either directly or through adaptor proteins. This gene encodes an alpha subunit of the heteromeric SEC61 complex, which also contains beta and gamma subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SEC61A2 Sec61 alpha 2 subunit (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene has similarity to a mouse protein which suggests a role in the insertion of secretory and membrane polypeptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. It may also be required for the assembly of membrane and secretory proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
ALPL alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney|There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The first three are located together on chromosome 2, while the tissue non-specific form is located on chromosome 1. The product of this gene is a membrane bound glycosylated enzyme that is not expressed in any particular tissue and is, therefore, referred to as the tissue-nonspecific form of the enzyme. The exact physiological function of the alkaline phosphatases is not known. A proposed function of this form of the enzyme is matrix mineralization; however, mice that lack a functional form of this enzyme show normal skeletal development. This enzyme has been linked directly to hypophosphatasia, a disorder that is characterized by hypercalcemia and includes skeletal defects. The character of this disorder can vary, however, depending on the specific mutation since this determines age of onset and severity of symptoms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
SPAG4 sperm associated antigen 4|The mammalian sperm flagellum contains two cytoskeletal structures associated with the axoneme: the outer dense fibers surrounding the axoneme in the midpiece and principal piece and the fibrous sheath surrounding the outer dense fibers in the principal piece of the tail. Defects in these structures are associated with abnormal tail morphology, reduced sperm motility, and infertility. In the rat, the protein encoded by this gene associates with an outer dense fiber protein via a leucine zipper motif and localizes to the microtubules of the manchette and axoneme during sperm tail development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TM2D1 TM2 domain containing 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a beta-amyloid peptide-binding protein. It contains a structural module related to that of the seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and known to be important in heterotrimeric G protein activation. Beta-amyloid peptide has been established to be a causative factor in neuron death and the consequent diminution of cognitive abilities observed in Alzheimer's disease. This protein may be a target of neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptide, and may mediate cellular vulnerability to beta-amyloid peptide toxicity through a G protein-regulated program of cell death. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
TM2D2 TM2 domain containing 2|The protein encoded by this gene contains a structural module related to that of the seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This protein has sequence and structural similarities to the beta-amyloid binding protein (BBP), but, unlike BBP, it does not regulate a response to beta-amyloid peptide. This protein may have regulatory roles in cell death or proliferation signal cascades. This gene has multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants which encode two different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TM2D3 TM2 domain containing 3|The protein encoded by this gene contains a structural module related to that of the seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This protein has sequence and structural similarities to the beta-amyloid binding protein (BBP), but, unlike BBP, it does not regulate a response to beta-amyloid peptide. This protein may have regulatory roles in cell death or proliferation signal cascades. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene are described but the full length nature of some variants has not been determined. Multiple polyadenylation sites have been found in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TBC1D5 TBC1 domain family, member 5|
ZFAND6 zinc finger, AN1-type domain 6|
ZFAND5 zinc finger, AN1-type domain 5|
ZFAND4 zinc finger, AN1-type domain 4|
ZFAND3 zinc finger, AN1-type domain 3|
ZFAND1 zinc finger, AN1-type domain 1|
MYO5B myosin VB|The protein encoded by this gene, together with other proteins, may be involved in plasma membrane recycling. Mutations in this gene are associated with microvillous inclusion disease. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
SUPT3H suppressor of Ty 3 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
PLVAP plasmalemma vesicle associated protein|
CEP128 centrosomal protein 128kDa|
SLC39A10 solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 10|Zinc is an essential cofactor for hundreds of enzymes. It is involved in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, as well as in the control of gene transcription, growth, development, and differentiation. SLC39A10 belongs to a subfamily of proteins that show structural characteristics of zinc transporters (Taylor and Nicholson, 2003 [PubMed 12659941]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
SLC39A11 solute carrier family 39, member 11|
NUP133 nucleoporin 133kDa|The nuclear envelope creates distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in eukaryotic cells. It consists of two concentric membranes perforated by nuclear pores, large protein complexes that form aqueous channels to regulate the flow of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. These complexes are composed of at least 100 different polypeptide subunits, many of which belong to the nucleoporin family. The nucleoporin protein encoded by this gene displays evolutionarily conserved interactions with other nucleoporins. This protein, which localizes to both sides of the nuclear pore complex at interphase, remains associated with the complex during mitosis and is targeted at early stages to the reforming nuclear envelope. This protein also localizes to kinetochores of mitotic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SLC39A14 solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 14|Zinc is an essential cofactor for hundreds of enzymes. It is involved in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, as well as in the control of gene transcription, growth, development, and differentiation. SLC39A14 belongs to a subfamily of proteins that show structural characteristics of zinc transporters (Taylor and Nicholson, 2003 [PubMed 12659941]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
SCN2B sodium channel, voltage gated, type II beta subunit|
CEP120 centrosomal protein 120kDa|This gene encodes a protein that functions in the microtubule-dependent coupling of the nucleus and the centrosome. A similar protein in mouse plays a role in both interkinetic nuclear migration, which is a characteristic pattern of nuclear movement in neural progenitors, and in neural progenitor self-renewal. Mutations in this gene are predicted to result in neurogenic defects. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
EIF1AX eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A, X-linked|This gene encodes an essential eukaryotic translation initiation factor. The protein is required for the binding of the 43S complex (a 40S subunit, eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAi and eIF3) to the 5' end of capped RNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NTRK1 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1|This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTKR) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. The presence of this kinase leads to cell differentiation and may play a role in specifying sensory neuron subtypes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital insensitivity to pain, anhidrosis, self-mutilating behavior, mental retardation and cancer. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been found, but only three have been characterized to date. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NTRK2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2|This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. Signalling through this kinase leads to cell differentiation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with obesity and mood disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
NTRK3 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3|This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. Signalling through this kinase leads to cell differentiation and may play a role in the development of proprioceptive neurons that sense body position. Mutations in this gene have been associated with medulloblastomas, secretory breast carcinomas and other cancers. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
EIF1AD eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A domain containing|
ARHGAP22 Rho GTPase activating protein 22|This gene encodes a member of the GTPase activating protein family which activates a GTPase belonging to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. The encoded protein is insulin-responsive, is dependent on the kinase Akt and requires the Akt-dependent 14-3-3 binding protein which binds sequentially to two serine residues. The result of these interactions is regulation of cell motility. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ARHGAP21 Rho GTPase activating protein 21|ARHGAP21 functions preferentially as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for CDC42 (MIM 116952) and regulates the ARP2/3 complex (MIM 604221) and F-actin dynamics at the Golgi through control of CDC42 activity (Dubois et al., 2005 [PubMed 15793564]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARHGAP20 Rho GTPase activating protein 20|
ARHGAP27 Rho GTPase activating protein 27|This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein may pay a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
ARHGAP26 Rho GTPase activating protein 26|Interaction of a cell with the extracellular matrix triggers integrin cell surface receptors to begin signaling cascades that regulate the organization of the actin-cytoskeleton. One of the proteins involved in these cascades is focal adhesion kinase. The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase activating protein that binds to focal adhesion kinase and mediates the activity of the GTP binding proteins RhoA and Cdc42. Defects in this gene are a cause of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ARHGAP25 Rho GTPase activating protein 25|ARHGAPs, such as ARHGAP25, encode negative regulators of Rho GTPases (see ARHA; MIM 165390), which are implicated in actin remodeling, cell polarity, and cell migration (Katoh and Katoh, 2004 [PubMed 15254788]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
EVI5 ecotropic viral integration site 5|
MTX3 metaxin 3|
ARHGAP29 Rho GTPase activating protein 29|
ARHGAP28 Rho GTPase activating protein 28|
CHST12 carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 12|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the sulfotransferase 2 family. It is localized to the golgi membrane, and catalyzes the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of the N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residue of chondroitin and desulfated dermatan sulfate. Chondroitin sulfate constitutes the predominant proteoglycan present in cartilage, and is distributed on the surfaces of many cells and extracellular matrices. Alternatively spliced transcript variants differing only in their 5' UTRs have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
TBX4 T-box 4|This gene is a member of a phylogenetically conserved family of genes that share a common DNA-binding domain, the T-box. T-box genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. This gene is the human homolog of mouse Tbx4, which is closely linked to Tbx2 on mouse chromosome 11. Similarly this gene, like TBX2, maps to human chromosome 17. Expression studies in mouse and chicken show that Tbx4 is expressed in developing hindlimb, but not in forelimb buds, suggesting a role for this gene in regulating limb development and specification of limb identity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HHAT hedgehog acyltransferase|'Skinny hedgehog' (SKI1) encodes an enzyme that acts within the secretory pathway to catalyze amino-terminal palmitoylation of 'hedgehog' (see MIM 600725).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]
MICALCL MICAL C-terminal like|
NFKBIL1 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-like 1|This gene encodes a divergent member of the I-kappa-B family of proteins. Its function has not been determined. The gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region on chromosome 6. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
RBFA ribosome binding factor A (putative)|
PCGF3 polycomb group ring finger 3|The protein encoded by this gene contains a C3HC4 type RING finger, which is a motif known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NKRF NFKB repressing factor|This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that interacts with specific negative regulatory elements to mediate transcriptional repression of certain nuclear factor kappa B responsive genes. The protein localizes predominantly to the nucleolus with a small fraction found in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
SMAD2 SMAD family member 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signal of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulates multiple cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. This protein is recruited to the TGF-beta receptors through its interaction with the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. In response to TGF-beta signal, this protein is phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptors. The phosphorylation induces the dissociation of this protein with SARA and the association with the family member SMAD4. The association with SMAD4 is important for the translocation of this protein into the nucleus, where it binds to target promoters and forms a transcription repressor complex with other cofactors. This protein can also be phosphorylated by activin type 1 receptor kinase, and mediates the signal from the activin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
MYSM1 Myb-like, SWIRM and MPN domains 1|
PPIB peptidylprolyl isomerase B (cyclophilin B)|The protein encoded by this gene is a cyclosporine-binding protein and is mainly located within the endoplasmic reticulum. It is associated with the secretory pathway and released in biological fluids. This protein can bind to cells derived from T- and B-lymphocytes, and may regulate cyclosporine A-mediated immunosuppression. Variants have been identified in this protein that give rise to recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
ATG2A autophagy related 2A|
ATG2B autophagy related 2B|
GPR3 G protein-coupled receptor 3|This gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and is found in the cell membrane. G protein-coupled receptors, characterized by a seven transmembrane domain motif, are involved in translating outside signals into G protein mediated intracellular effects. The encoded protein activates adenylate cyclase and modulates amyloid-beta production in a mouse model, suggesting that it may play a role in Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]
BMP6 bone morphogenetic protein 6|The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. Many BMPs are part of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) superfamily. BMPs were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. Based on its expression early in embryogenesis, the BMP encoded by this gene has a proposed role in early development. In addition, the fact that this BMP is closely related to BMP5 and BMP7 has lead to speculation of possible bone inductive activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BMP5 bone morphogenetic protein 5|This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. This protein may act as an important signaling molecule within the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head, and may play a potential role in glaucoma pathogenesis. This gene is differentially regulated during the formation of various tumors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. This particular family member plays an important role in the onset of endochondral bone formation in humans, and a reduction in expression has been associated with a variety of bone diseases, including the heritable disorder Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva. Alternative splicing in the 5' untranslated region of this gene has been described and three variants are described, all encoding an identical protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3|BMP3 belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) superfamily. Bone morphogenic protein, also known as osteogenin, induces bone formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BMP2 bone morphogenetic protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) superfamily. The encoded protein acts as a disulfide-linked homodimer and induces bone and cartilage formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BMP1 bone morphogenetic protein 1|This gene encodes a protein that is capable of inducing formation of cartilage in vivo. Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, this gene encodes a protein that is not closely related to other known growth factors. This gene is expressed as alternatively spliced variants that share an N-terminal protease domain but differ in their C-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
NDUFAF4 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 4|NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) in the first step of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This gene encodes a complex I assembly factor. Mutations in this gene are a cause of mitochondrial complex I deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
DR1 down-regulator of transcription 1, TBP-binding (negative cofactor 2)|This gene encodes a TBP- (TATA box-binding protein) associated phosphoprotein that represses both basal and activated levels of transcription. The encoded protein is phosphorylated in vivo and this phosphorylation affects its interaction with TBP. This protein contains a histone fold motif at the amino terminus, a TBP-binding domain, and a glutamine- and alanine-rich region. The binding of DR1 repressor complexes to TBP-promoter complexes may establish a mechanism in which an altered DNA conformation, together with the formation of higher order complexes, inhibits the assembly of the preinitiation complex and controls the rate of RNA polymerase II transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FEM1B fem-1 homolog b (C. elegans)|This gene encodes an ankyrin repeat protein that belongs to the death receptor-associated family of proteins and plays a role in mediating apoptosis. The encoded protein is also thought to function in the replication stress-induced checkpoint signaling pathway via interaction with checkpoint kinase 1. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
PCGF6 polycomb group ring finger 6|The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger motif, which is most closely related to those of polycomb group (PcG) proteins RNF110/MEL-18 and BMI1. PcG proteins are known to form protein complexes and function as transcription repressors. This protein has been shown to interact with some PcG proteins and act as a transcription repressor. The activity of this protein is found to be regulated by cell cycle dependent phosphorylation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C1orf35 chromosome 1 open reading frame 35|
ASF1A anti-silencing function 1A histone chaperone|This gene encodes a member of the H3/H4 family of histone chaperone proteins and is similar to the anti-silencing function-1 gene in yeast. The protein is a key component of a histone donor complex that functions in nucleosome assembly. It interacts with histones H3 and H4, and functions together with a chromatin assembly factor during DNA replication and repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GOLGA8M golgin A8 family, member M|
GOLGA8O golgin A8 family, member O|
TERF1 telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1|This gene encodes a telomere specific protein which is a component of the telomere nucleoprotein complex. This protein is present at telomeres throughout the cell cycle and functions as an inhibitor of telomerase, acting in cis to limit the elongation of individual chromosome ends. The protein structure contains a C-terminal Myb motif, a dimerization domain near its N-terminus and an acidic N-terminus. Two transcripts of this gene are alternatively spliced products. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GOLGA8H golgin A8 family, member H|
GOLGA8K golgin A8 family, member K|
GOLGA8J golgin A8 family, member J|
FOXM1 forkhead box M1|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator involved in cell proliferation. The encoded protein is phosphorylated in M phase and regulates the expression of several cell cycle genes, such as cyclin B1 and cyclin D1. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
FEM1A fem-1 homolog a (C. elegans)|
GOLGA8A golgin A8 family, member A|The Golgi apparatus, which participates in glycosylation and transport of proteins and lipids in the secretory pathway, consists of a series of stacked, flattened membrane sacs referred to as cisternae. Interactions between the Golgi and microtubules are thought to be important for the reorganization of the Golgi after it fragments during mitosis. The golgins constitute a family of proteins which are localized to the Golgi. This gene encodes a golgin which structurally resembles its family member GOLGA2, suggesting that they may share a similar function. There are many similar copies of this gene on chromosome 15. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
GOLGA8B golgin A8 family, member B|
RASSF9 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family (N-terminal) member 9|The protein encoded by this gene localizes to perinuclear endosomes. This protein associates with peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, and may be involved with the trafficking of this enzyme through secretory or endosomal pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MARCH10 membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 10, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|MARCH10 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments (Morokuma et al., 2007 [PubMed 17604280]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]
RASSF1 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1|This gene encodes a protein similar to the RAS effector proteins. Loss or altered expression of this gene has been associated with the pathogenesis of a variety of cancers, which suggests the tumor suppressor function of this gene. The inactivation of this gene was found to be correlated with the hypermethylation of its CpG-island promoter region. The encoded protein was found to interact with DNA repair protein XPA. The protein was also shown to inhibit the accumulation of cyclin D1, and thus induce cell cycle arrest. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
PTOV1 prostate tumor overexpressed 1|This gene encodes a protein that was found to be overexpressed in prostate adenocarcinomas. The encoded protein was found to interact with the lipid raft protein flotillin-1 and shuttle it from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in a cell cycle dependent manner. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]
PTPMT1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, mitochondrial 1|
RASSF2 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 2|This gene encodes a protein that contains a Ras association domain. Similar to its cattle and sheep counterparts, this gene is located near the prion gene. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding the same isoform have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RASSF5 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 5|This gene is a member of the Ras association domain family. It functions as a tumor suppressor, and is inactivated in a variety of cancers. The encoded protein localizes to centrosomes and microtubules, and associates with the GTP-activated forms of Ras, Rap1, and several other Ras-like small GTPases. The protein regulates lymphocyte adhesion and suppresses cell growth in response to activated Rap1 or Ras. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RASSF4 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 4|The function of this gene has not yet been determined but may involve a role in tumor suppression. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants; however, most of the variants have not been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RASSF7 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family (N-terminal) member 7|
RASSF6 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 6|This gene encodes a member of the Ras-association domain family (RASSF). Members of this family form the core of a highly conserved tumor suppressor network, the Salvador-Warts-Hippo (SWH) pathway. The protein encoded by this gene is a Ras effector protein that induces apoptosis. A genomic region containing this gene has been linked to susceptibility to viral bronchiolitis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
NHP2 NHP2 ribonucleoprotein|This gene is a member of the H/ACA snoRNPs (small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins) gene family. snoRNPs are involved in various aspects of rRNA processing and modification and have been classified into two families: C/D and H/ACA. The H/ACA snoRNPs also include the DKC1, NOLA1 and NOLA3 proteins. These four H/ACA snoRNP proteins localize to the dense fibrillar components of nucleoli and to coiled (Cajal) bodies in the nucleus. Both 18S rRNA production and rRNA pseudouridylation are impaired if any one of the four proteins is depleted. The four H/ACA snoRNP proteins are also components of the telomerase complex. This gene encodes a protein related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nhp2p. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
TMPRSS11A transmembrane protease, serine 11A|
DDX4 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 4|DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is a homolog of VASA proteins in Drosophila and several other species. The gene is specifically expressed in the germ cell lineage in both sexes and functions in germ cell development. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
ATP5C1 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene also has a pseudogene on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NFS1 NFS1 cysteine desulfurase|Iron-sulfur clusters are required for the function of many cellular enzymes. The proteins encoded by this gene supply inorganic sulfur to these clusters by removing the sulfur from cysteine, creating alanine in the process. This gene uses alternate in-frame translation initiation sites to generate mitochondrial forms and cytoplasmic/nuclear forms. Selection of the alternative initiation sites is determined by the cytosolic pH. The encoded proteins belong to the class-V family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aminotransferases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
CHD3 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 3|This gene encodes a member of the CHD family of proteins which are characterized by the presence of chromo (chromatin organization modifier) domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. This protein is one of the components of a histone deacetylase complex referred to as the Mi-2/NuRD complex which participates in the remodeling of chromatin by deacetylating histones. Chromatin remodeling is essential for many processes including transcription. Autoantibodies against this protein are found in a subset of patients with dermatomyositis. Three alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CHD2 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2|The CHD family of proteins is characterized by the presence of chromo (chromatin organization modifier) domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. CHD genes alter gene expression possibly by modification of chromatin structure thus altering access of the transcriptional apparatus to its chromosomal DNA template. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CHD5 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5|This gene encodes a member of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein family. Members of this family are characterized by a chromodomain, a helicase ATP-binding domain and an additional functional domain. This gene encodes a neuron-specific protein that may function in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. This gene is a potential tumor suppressor gene that may play a role in the development of neuroblastoma. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
CHD4 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4|The product of this gene belongs to the SNF2/RAD54 helicase family. It represents the main component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex and plays an important role in epigenetic transcriptional repression. Patients with dermatomyositis develop antibodies against this protein. Somatic mutations in this gene are associated with serous endometrial tumors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
CHD7 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7|This gene encodes a protein that contains several helicase family domains. Mutations in this gene have been found in some patients with the CHARGE syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CHD6 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 6|This gene encodes a member of the SNF2/RAD54 helicase protein family. The encoded protein contains two chromodomains, a helicase domain, and an ATPase domain. Several multi-subunit protein complexes remodel chromatin to allow patterns of cell type-specific gene expression, and the encoded protein is thought to be a core member of one or more of these chromatin remodeling complexes. The encoded protein may function as a transcriptional repressor and is involved in the cellular repression of influenza virus replication. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
CHD9 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 9|
CHD8 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 8|This gene encodes a DNA helicase that functions as a transcription repressor by remodeling chromatin structure. It binds beta-catenin and negatively regulates Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a pivotal role in vertebrate early development and morphogenesis. Mice lacking this gene exhibit early embryonic death. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
TRABD TraB domain containing|
CAP1 CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (yeast)|The protein encoded by this gene is related to the S. cerevisiae CAP protein, which is involved in the cyclic AMP pathway. The human protein is able to interact with other molecules of the same protein, as well as with CAP2 and actin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CAP2 CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein, 2 (yeast)|This gene was identified by its similarity to the gene for human adenylyl cyclase-associated protein. The function of the protein encoded by this gene is unknown. However, the protein appears to be able to interact with adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and actin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NPC2 Niemann-Pick disease, type C2|This gene encodes a protein containing a lipid recognition domain. The encoded protein may function in regulating the transport of cholesterol through the late endosomal/lysosomal system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Niemann-Pick disease, type C2 and frontal lobe atrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NPC1 Niemann-Pick disease, type C1|This gene encodes a large protein that resides in the limiting membrane of endosomes and lysosomes and mediates intracellular cholesterol trafficking via binding of cholesterol to its N-terminal domain. It is predicted to have a cytoplasmic C-terminus, 13 transmembrane domains, and 3 large loops in the lumen of the endosome - the last loop being at the N-terminus. This protein transports low-density lipoproteins to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments where they are hydrolized and released as free cholesterol. Defects in this gene cause Niemann-Pick type C disease, a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by over accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in late endosomal/lysosomal compartments.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]
SKIV2L superkiller viralicidic activity 2-like (S. cerevisiae)|DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is a human homologue of yeast SKI2 and may be involved in antiviral activity by blocking translation of poly(A) deficient mRNAs. This gene is located in the class III region of the major histocompatibility complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DDX5 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 5|DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is a RNA-dependent ATPase, and also a proliferation-associated nuclear antigen, specifically reacting with the simian virus 40 tumor antigen. This gene consists of 13 exons, and alternatively spliced transcripts containing several intron sequences have been detected, but no isoforms encoded by these transcripts have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TTC5 tetratricopeptide repeat domain 5|
TTC4 tetratricopeptide repeat domain 4|This gene encodes a protein that contains tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeats, which often mediate protein-protein interactions and chaperone activity. The encoded protein interacts with heat shock proteins 70 and 90. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Naturally-occuring readthrough transcription occurs from upstream gene MROH (maestro heat-like repeat family member 7) to this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
PRKCB protein kinase C, beta|Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase has been reported to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as B cell activation, apoptosis induction, endothelial cell proliferation, and intestinal sugar absorption. Studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may also regulate neuronal functions and correlate fear-induced conflict behavior after stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TTC1 tetratricopeptide repeat domain 1|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the tetratrico peptide repeat superfamily of proteins. The encoded protein plays a role in protein-protein interactions, and binds to the Galpha subunit of G protein-coupled receptors to activate the Ras signaling pathway. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
IL4R interleukin 4 receptor|This gene encodes the alpha chain of the interleukin-4 receptor, a type I transmembrane protein that can bind interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 to regulate IgE production. The encoded protein also can bind interleukin 4 to promote differentiation of Th2 cells. A soluble form of the encoded protein can be produced by proteolysis of the membrane-bound protein, and this soluble form can inhibit IL4-mediated cell proliferation and IL5 upregulation by T-cells. Allelic variations in this gene have been associated with atopy, a condition that can manifest itself as allergic rhinitis, sinusitus, asthma, or eczema. Polymorphisms in this gene are also associated with resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
TTC3 tetratricopeptide repeat domain 3|
PIKFYVE phosphoinositide kinase, FYVE finger containing|Phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) regulate cytoskeletal functions, membrane trafficking, and receptor signaling by recruiting protein complexes to cell- and endosomal-membranes. Humans have multiple PtdIns proteins that differ by the degree and position of phosphorylation of the inositol ring. This gene encodes an enzyme (PIKfyve; also known as phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase type III or PIPKIII) that phosphorylates the D-5 position in PtdIns and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) to make PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)biphosphate. The D-5 position also can be phosphorylated by type I PtdIns4P-5-kinases (PIP5Ks) that are encoded by distinct genes and preferentially phosphorylate D-4 phosphorylated PtdIns. In contrast, PIKfyve preferentially phosphorylates D-3 phosphorylated PtdIns. In addition to being a lipid kinase, PIKfyve also has protein kinase activity. PIKfyve regulates endomembrane homeostasis and plays a role in the biogenesis of endosome carrier vesicles from early endosomes. Mutations in this gene cause corneal fleck dystrophy (CFD); an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by numerous small white flecks present in all layers of the corneal stroma. Histologically, these flecks appear to be keratocytes distended with lipid and mucopolysaccharide filled intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
PRKCE protein kinase C, epsilon|Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This kinase has been shown to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as neuron channel activation, apoptosis, cardioprotection from ischemia, heat shock response, as well as insulin exocytosis. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this kinase is important for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated signaling in activated macrophages and may also play a role in controlling anxiety-like behavior. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C3orf52 chromosome 3 open reading frame 52|
TTC8 tetratricopeptide repeat domain 8|This gene encodes a protein that has been directly linked to Bardet-Biedl syndrome. The primary features of this syndrome include retinal dystrophy, obesity, polydactyly, renal abnormalities and learning disabilities. Experimentation in non-human eukaryotes suggests that this gene is expressed in ciliated cells and that it is involved in the formation of cilia. A mutation in this gene has also been implicated in nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
DYNC1LI1 dynein, cytoplasmic 1, light intermediate chain 1|
DYNC1LI2 dynein, cytoplasmic 1, light intermediate chain 2|Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-associated motor protein (Hughes et al., 1995 [PubMed 7738094]). See DYNC1H1 (MIM 600112) for general information about dyneins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
TRPC1 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that can form a non-selective channel permeable to calcium and other cations. The encoded protein appears to be induced to form channels by a receptor tyrosine kinase-activated phosphatidylinositol second messenger system and also by depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
CHDH choline dehydrogenase|The protein encoded by this gene is a choline dehydrogenase that localizes to the mitochondrion. Variations in this gene can affect susceptibility to choline deficiency. A few transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of only one has been characterized to date. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
EFHC1 EF-hand domain (C-terminal) containing 1|This gene encodes an EF-hand-containing calcium binding protein. The encoded protein likely plays a role in calcium homeostasis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and juvenile absence epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
CAPG capping protein (actin filament), gelsolin-like|This gene encodes a member of the gelsolin/villin family of actin-regulatory proteins. The encoded protein reversibly blocks the barbed ends of F-actin filaments in a Ca2+ and phosphoinositide-regulated manner, but does not sever preformed actin filaments. By capping the barbed ends of actin filaments, the encoded protein contributes to the control of actin-based motility in non-muscle cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
TPRKB TP53RK binding protein|
STC2 stanniocalcin 2|This gene encodes a secreted, homodimeric glycoprotein that is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and may have autocrine or paracrine functions. The encoded protein has 10 of its 15 cysteine residues conserved among stanniocalcin family members and is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 exclusively on its serine residues. Its C-terminus contains a cluster of histidine residues which may interact with metal ions. The protein may play a role in the regulation of renal and intestinal calcium and phosphate transport, cell metabolism, or cellular calcium/phosphate homeostasis. Constitutive overexpression of human stanniocalcin 2 in mice resulted in pre- and postnatal growth restriction, reduced bone and skeletal muscle growth, and organomegaly. Expression of this gene is induced by estrogen and altered in some breast cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ETHE1 ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1|This gene encodes a sulfur dioxygenase that localizes within the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme functions in sulfide catabolism. Mutations in this gene result in ethylmalonic encephalopathy.[provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
PRDM16 PR domain containing 16|The reciprocal translocation t(1;3)(p36;q21) occurs in a subset of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This gene is located near the 1p36.3 breakpoint and has been shown to be specifically expressed in the t(1:3)(p36,q21)-positive MDS/AML. The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor and contains an N-terminal PR domain. The translocation results in the overexpression of a truncated version of this protein that lacks the PR domain, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MDS and AML. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCG1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily. It is involved in macrophage cholesterol and phospholipids transport, and may regulate cellular lipid homeostasis in other cell types. Six alternative splice variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCG2 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (Junior blood group)|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is included in the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily. Alternatively referred to as a breast cancer resistance protein, this protein functions as a xenobiotic transporter which may play a major role in multi-drug resistance. It likely serves as a cellular defense mechanism in response to mitoxantrone and anthracycline exposure. Significant expression of this protein has been observed in the placenta, which may suggest a potential role for this molecule in placenta tissue. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
ABCG4 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 4|The protein encoded by this gene is included in the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily and is expressed predominantly in liver tissue. The function has not yet been determined but may involve cholesterol transport. Alternate splice variants have been described but their full length sequences have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PLSCR3 phospholipid scramblase 3|
PRDM10 PR domain containing 10|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that contains C2H2-type zinc-fingers. It also contains a positive regulatory domain, which has been found in several other zinc-finger transcription factors including those involved in B cell differentiation and tumor suppression. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this protein may be involved in the development of the central nerve system (CNS), as well as in the pathogenesis of neuronal storage disease. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1|
ABCG8 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 8|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene functions to exclude non-cholesterol sterol entry at the intestinal level, promote excretion of cholesterol and sterols into bile, and to facilitate transport of sterols back into the intestinal lumen. It is expressed in a tissue-specific manner in the liver, intestine, and gallbladder. This gene is tandemly arrayed on chromosome 2, in a head-to-head orientation with family member ABCG5. Mutations in this gene may contribute to sterol accumulation and atherosclerosis, and have been observed in patients with sitosterolemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MPO myeloperoxidase|Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme protein synthesized during myeloid differentiation that constitutes the major component of neutrophil azurophilic granules. Produced as a single chain precursor, myeloperoxidase is subsequently cleaved into a light and heavy chain. The mature myeloperoxidase is a tetramer composed of 2 light chains and 2 heavy chains. This enzyme produces hypohalous acids central to the microbicidal activity of neutrophils. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
MPL MPL proto-oncogene, thrombopoietin receptor|In 1990 an oncogene, v-mpl, was identified from the murine myeloproliferative leukemia virus that was capable of immortalizing bone marrow hematopoietic cells from different lineages. In 1992 the human homologue, named, c-mpl, was cloned. Sequence data revealed that c-mpl encoded a protein that was homologous with members of the hematopoietic receptor superfamily. Presence of anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides of c-mpl inhibited megakaryocyte colony formation. The ligand for c-mpl, thrombopoietin, was cloned in 1994. Thrombopoietin was shown to be the major regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet formation. The protein encoded by the c-mpl gene, CD110, is a 635 amino acid transmembrane domain, with two extracellular cytokine receptor domains and two intracellular cytokine receptor box motifs . TPO-R deficient mice were severely thrombocytopenic, emphasizing the important role of CD110 and thrombopoietin in megakaryocyte and platelet formation. Upon binding of thrombopoietin CD110 is dimerized and the JAK family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, as well as the STAT family, the MAPK family, the adaptor protein Shc and the receptors themselves become tyrosine phosphorylated. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HNF4A hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear transcription factor which binds DNA as a homodimer. The encoded protein controls the expression of several genes, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha, a transcription factor which regulates the expression of several hepatic genes. This gene may play a role in development of the liver, kidney, and intestines. Mutations in this gene have been associated with monogenic autosomal dominant non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type I. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
MPI mannose phosphate isomerase|Phosphomannose isomerase catalyzes the interconversion of fructose-6-phosphate and mannose-6-phosphate and plays a critical role in maintaining the supply of D-mannose derivatives, which are required for most glycosylation reactions. Mutations in the MPI gene were found in patients with carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type Ib. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
BEGAIN brain-enriched guanylate kinase-associated|
SPC25 SPC25, NDC80 kinetochore complex component|This gene encodes a protein that may be involved in kinetochore-microtubule interaction and spindle checkpoint activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
POLRMT polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed)|This gene encodes a mitochondrial DNA-directed RNA polymerase. The gene product is responsible for mitochondrial gene expression as well as for providing RNA primers for initiation of replication of the mitochondrial genome. Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of phage and mitochondrial polymerases of lower eukaryotes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RER1 retention in endoplasmic reticulum sorting receptor 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a multi-pass membrane protein that is localized to the golgi apparatus. It is involved in the retention of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins in the ER and retrieval of ER membrane proteins from the early Golgi compartment to facilitate gamma-secretase complex assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
FUCA1 fucosidase, alpha-L- 1, tissue|The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal enzyme involved in the degradation of fucose-containing glycoproteins and glycolipids. Mutations in this gene are associated with fucosidosis (FUCA1D), which is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. A pseudogene of this locus is present on chr 2.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
CSNK2A1 casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide|Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. It is involved in various cellular processes, including cell cycle control, apoptosis, and circadian rhythm. The kinase exists as a tetramer and is composed of an alpha, an alpha-prime, and two beta subunits. The alpha subunits contain the catalytic activity while the beta subunits undergo autophosphorylation. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit. While this gene is found on chromosome 20, a related transcribed pseudogene is found on chromosome 11. Three transcript variants encoding two different proteins have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ZNF165 zinc finger protein 165|This gene encodes a member of the Kruppel family of zinc finger proteins. Members of this DNA-binding protein family act as transcriptional regulators. This gene is located within a cluster of zinc finger family members. The encoded protein may play a role in spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MCPH1 microcephalin 1|This gene encodes a DNA damage response protein. The encoded protein may play a role in G2/M checkpoint arrest via maintenance of inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary autosomal recessive microcephaly 1 and premature chromosome condensation syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
KDM1A lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A|This gene encodes a nuclear protein containing a SWIRM domain, a FAD-binding motif, and an amine oxidase domain. This protein is a component of several histone deacetylase complexes, though it silences genes by functioning as a histone demethylase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
GRPEL2 GrpE-like 2, mitochondrial (E. coli)|
SLC36A4 solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member 4|SLC36A4 belongs to the SLC36 family of amino acid transporters based on sequence similarity with other family members (e.g., SLC36A1; MIM 606561). SLC36 proteins contain about 500 amino acids and have 9 to 11 transmembrane domains. Unlike other SLC36 family members, which are proton-coupled amino acid transporters, SLC36A4 is a high-affinity/low-capacity non-proton-coupled amino acid transporter (Pillai and Meredith, 2011 [PubMed 21097500]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2011]
PUM1 pumilio RNA-binding family member 1|This gene encodes a member of the PUF family, evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins related to the Pumilio proteins of Drosophila and the fem-3 mRNA binding factor proteins of C. elegans. The encoded protein contains a sequence-specific RNA binding domain comprised of eight repeats and N- and C-terminal flanking regions, and serves as a translational regulator of specific mRNAs by binding to their 3' untranslated regions. The evolutionarily conserved function of the encoded protein in invertebrates and lower vertebrates suggests that the human protein may be involved in translational regulation of embryogenesis, and cell development and differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CKS1B CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B|CKS1B protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS1B mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects a specialized role for the encoded protein. At least two transcript variants have been identified for this gene, and it appears that only one of them encodes a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
PRKCQ protein kinase C, theta|Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. It is a calcium-independent and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. This kinase is important for T-cell activation. It is required for the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1, and may link the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling complex to the activation of the transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GRASP GRP1 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1)-associated scaffold protein|This gene encodes a protein that functions as a molecular scaffold, linking receptors, including group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, to neuronal proteins. The encoded protein contains conserved domains, including a leucine zipper sequence, PDZ domain and a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. Alternately spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
SRGAP2C SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2C|This locus encodes a member of the SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein family. This human-specific locus resulted from segmental duplication of the SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2B locus. The encoded protein lacks the GTPase activating protein domain compared to proteins encoded by SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2, and acts antagonistically to these proteins in cortical neuron development. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
QRSL1 glutaminyl-tRNA synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing)-like 1|
FCER1G Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; gamma polypeptide|The high affinity IgE receptor is a key molecule involved in allergic reactions. It is a tetramer composed of 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 2 gamma chains. The gamma chains are also subunits of other Fc receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BTG4 B-cell translocation gene 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BTG/Tob family. This family has structurally related proteins that appear to have antiproliferative properties. This encoded protein can induce G1 arrest in the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FCER1A Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide|The immunoglobulin epsilon receptor (IgE receptor) is the initiator of the allergic response. When two or more high-affinity IgE receptors are brought together by allergen-bound IgE molecules, mediators such as histamine that are responsible for allergy symptoms are released. This receptor is comprised of an alpha subunit, a beta subunit, and two gamma subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
BTG2 BTG family, member 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BTG/Tob family. This family has structurally related proteins that appear to have antiproliferative properties. This encoded protein is involved in the regulation of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BTG1 B-cell translocation gene 1, anti-proliferative|This gene is a member of an anti-proliferative gene family that regulates cell growth and differentiation. Expression of this gene is highest in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle and downregulated when cells progressed through G1. The encoded protein interacts with several nuclear receptors, and functions as a coactivator of cell differentiation. This locus has been shown to be involved in a t(8;12)(q24;q22) chromosomal translocation in a case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
DNALI1 dynein, axonemal, light intermediate chain 1|This gene is the human homolog of the Chlamydomonas inner dynein arm gene, p28. The precise function of this gene is not known, however, it is a potential candidate for immotile cilia syndrome (ICS). Ultrastructural defects of the inner dynein arms are seen in patients with ICS. Immotile mutant strains of Chlamydomonas, a biflagellated algae, exhibit similar defects. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SLA2 Src-like-adaptor 2|This gene encodes a member of the SLAP family of adapter proteins. The encoded protein may play an important receptor-proximal role in downregulating T and B cell-mediated responses and inhibits antigen receptor-induced calcium mobilization. This protein interacts with Cas-Br-M (murine) ecotropic retroviral transforming sequence c. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HESX1 HESX homeobox 1|This gene encodes a conserved homeobox protein that is a transcriptional repressor in the developing forebrain and pituitary gland. Mutations in this gene are associated with septooptic dysplasia, HESX1-related growth hormone deficiency, and combined pituitary hormone deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C4orf32 chromosome 4 open reading frame 32|
SRD5A3 steroid 5 alpha-reductase 3|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the steroid 5-alpha reductase family, and polyprenol reductase subfamily. It is involved in the production of androgen 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone, and maintenance of the androgen-androgen receptor activation pathway. This protein is also necessary for the conversion of polyprenol into dolichol, which is required for the synthesis of dolichol-linked monosaccharides and the oligosaccharide precursor used for N-linked glycosylation of proteins. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Iq. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
SRD5A1 steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 1 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha 1)|Steroid 5-alpha-reductase (EC 1.3.99.5) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Also see SRD5A2 (MIM 607306).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
HELLS helicase, lymphoid-specific|This gene encodes a lymphoid-specific helicase. Other helicases function in processes involving DNA strand separation, including replication, repair, recombination, and transcription. This protein is thought to be involved with cellular proliferation and may play a role in leukemogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
AKAP17A A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 17A|This locus encodes a protein kinase A anchoring protein. The encoded protein is part of the spliceosome complex and is involved in the regulation of alternate splicing in some mRNA precursors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
FAM49A family with sequence similarity 49, member A|
FAM49B family with sequence similarity 49, member B|
PDILT protein disulfide isomerase-like, testis expressed|
ZFP36L1 ZFP36 ring finger protein-like 1|This gene is a member of the TIS11 family of early response genes, which are induced by various agonists such as the phorbol ester TPA and the polypeptide mitogen EGF. This gene is well conserved across species and has a promoter that contains motifs seen in other early-response genes. The encoded protein contains a distinguishing putative zinc finger domain with a repeating cys-his motif. This putative nuclear transcription factor most likely functions in regulating the response to growth factors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ZFP36L2 ZFP36 ring finger protein-like 2|This gene is a member of the TIS11 family of early response genes. Family members are induced by various agonists such as the phorbol ester TPA and the polypeptide mitogen EGF. The encoded protein contains a distinguishing putative zinc finger domain with a repeating cys-his motif. This putative nuclear transcription factor most likely functions in regulating the response to growth factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GGA1 golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 1|This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) protein family. Members of this family are ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GGA3 golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 3|This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) family. This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
GGA2 golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 2|This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) family. This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. This family member may play a significant role in cargo molecules regulation and clathrin-coated vesicle assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C15orf48 chromosome 15 open reading frame 48|This gene was first identified in a study of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Levels of both the message and protein are reduced in carcinoma samples. In adult human tissues, this gene is expressed in the the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and placenta. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
ZNF510 zinc finger protein 510|
TSNAXIP1 translin-associated factor X interacting protein 1|
ATP6V0D2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d2|
C15orf40 chromosome 15 open reading frame 40|
C15orf41 chromosome 15 open reading frame 41|This gene encodes a protein with two predicted helix-turn-helix domains. Mutations in this gene were found in families with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type Ib. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
C15orf43 chromosome 15 open reading frame 43|
FHOD1 formin homology 2 domain containing 1|This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the formin/diaphanous family of proteins. The gene is ubiquitously expressed but is found in abundance in the spleen. The encoded protein has sequence homology to diaphanous and formin proteins within the Formin Homology (FH)1 and FH2 domains. It also contains a coiled-coil domain, a collagen-like domain, two nuclear localization signals, and several potential PKC and PKA phosphorylation sites. It is a predominantly cytoplasmic protein and is expressed in a variety of human cell lines. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FHOD3 formin homology 2 domain containing 3|Proteins that contain formin (FMN1; MIM 136535) homology (FH) domains, such as FHOD3, play a role in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton (Kanaya et al., 2005 [PubMed 15966898]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]
ADH7 alcohol dehydrogenase 7 (class IV), mu or sigma polypeptide|This gene encodes class IV alcohol dehydrogenase 7 mu or sigma subunit, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. The enzyme encoded by this gene is inefficient in ethanol oxidation, but is the most active as a retinol dehydrogenase; thus it may participate in the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. The expression of this gene is much more abundant in stomach than liver, thus differing from the other known gene family members. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
ADH6 alcohol dehydrogenase 6 (class V)|This gene encodes class V alcohol dehydrogenase, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. This gene is expressed in the stomach as well as in the liver, and it contains a glucocorticoid response element upstream of its 5' UTR, which is a steroid hormone receptor binding site. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADH5 alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (class III), chi polypeptide|This gene encodes a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. The encoded protein forms a homodimer. It has virtually no activity for ethanol oxidation, but exhibits high activity for oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and for oxidation of S-hydroxymethyl-glutathione, a spontaneous adduct between formaldehyde and glutathione. This enzyme is an important component of cellular metabolism for the elimination of formaldehyde, a potent irritant and sensitizing agent that causes lacrymation, rhinitis, pharyngitis, and contact dermatitis. The human genome contains several non-transcribed pseudogenes related to this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ADH4 alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (class II), pi polypeptide|This gene encodes class II alcohol dehydrogenase 4 pi subunit, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Class II alcohol dehydrogenase is a homodimer composed of 2 pi subunits. It exhibits a high activity for oxidation of long-chain aliphatic alcohols and aromatic alcohols and is less sensitive to pyrazole. This gene is localized to chromosome 4 in the cluster of alcohol dehydrogenase genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PKD2 polycystic kidney disease 2 (autosomal dominant)|This gene encodes a member of the polycystin protein family. The encoded protein is a multi-pass membrane protein that functions as a calcium permeable cation channel, and is involved in calcium transport and calcium signaling in renal epithelial cells. This protein interacts with polycystin 1, and they may be partners in a common signaling cascade involved in tubular morphogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease type 2. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
PKD1 polycystic kidney disease 1 (autosomal dominant)|This gene encodes a member of the polycystin protein family. The encoded glycoprotein contains a large N-terminal extracellular region, multiple transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic C-tail. It is an integral membrane protein that functions as a regulator of calcium permeable cation channels and intracellular calcium homoeostasis. It is also involved in cell-cell/matrix interactions and may modulate G-protein-coupled signal-transduction pathways. It plays a role in renal tubular development, and mutations in this gene cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease type 1 (ADPKD1). ADPKD1 is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts that replace normal renal tissue and result in end-stage renal failure. Splice variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. Also, six pseudogenes, closely linked in a known duplicated region on chromosome 16p, have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
GJC2 gap junction protein, gamma 2, 47kDa|This gene encodes a gap junction protein. Gap junction proteins are members of a large family of homologous connexins and comprise 4 transmembrane, 2 extracellular, and 3 cytoplasmic domains. This gene plays a key role in central myelination and is involved in peripheral myelination in humans. Defects in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease-1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C4orf3 chromosome 4 open reading frame 3|
ING3 inhibitor of growth family, member 3|The protein encoded by this gene is similar to ING1, a tumor suppressor protein that can interact with TP53, inhibit cell growth, and induce apoptosis. This protein contains a PHD-finger, which is a common motif in proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. This gene can activate p53 trans-activated promoters, including promoters of p21/waf1 and bax. Overexpression of this gene has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. Allelic loss and reduced expression of this gene were detected in head and neck cancers. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GJC1 gap junction protein, gamma 1, 45kDa|This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of arrays of intercellular channels that provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF138 zinc finger protein 138|
PFKFB1 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 1|This gene encodes a member of the family of bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase:fructose-2,6-biphosphatase enzymes. The enzyme forms a homodimer that catalyzes both the synthesis and degradation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate using independent catalytic domains. Fructose-2,6-biphosphate is an activator of the glycolysis pathway and an inhibitor of the gluconeogenesis pathway. Consequently, regulating fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels through the activity of this enzyme is thought to regulate glucose homeostasis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
PRKACG protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma|Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DEK DEK proto-oncogene|This gene encodes a protein with one SAP domain. This protein binds to cruciform and superhelical DNA and induces positive supercoils into closed circular DNA, and is also involved in splice site selection during mRNA processing. Chromosomal aberrations involving this region, increased expression of this gene, and the presence of antibodies against this protein are all associated with various diseases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
PRKACA protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha|This gene encodes one of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme with two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, in its inactive form. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinase A is important to many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of this gene caused either by somatic mutations, or genomic duplications of regions that include this gene, have been associated with hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex and are linked to corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Tissue-specific isoforms that differ at the N-terminus have been described, and these isoforms may differ in the post-translational modifications that occur at the N-terminus of some isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
NUAK2 NUAK family, SNF1-like kinase, 2|
PRKACB protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP. cAMP signaling is important to a number of processes, including cell proliferaton and differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
STAMBPL1 STAM binding protein-like 1|
ZNF131 zinc finger protein 131|
PSMB5 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 5|The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. This catalytic subunit is not present in the immunoproteasome and is replaced by catalytic subunit 3i (proteasome beta 8 subunit). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
PSMB4 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 4|The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF134 zinc finger protein 134|
ZNF135 zinc finger protein 135|
ZNF136 zinc finger protein 136|
PFKFB2 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 2|The protein encoded by this gene is involved in both the synthesis and degradation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, a regulatory molecule that controls glycolysis in eukaryotes. The encoded protein has a 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, and a fructose-2,6-biphosphatase activity that catalyzes the degradation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. This protein regulates fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels in the heart, while a related enzyme encoded by a different gene regulates fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels in the liver and muscle. This enzyme functions as a homodimer. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HDHD1 haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase domain containing 1|This gene encodes a member of the haloacid dehalogenase-like (HAD) hydrolase superfamily. The encoded protein has no known biological function. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 1. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
TMA7 translation machinery associated 7 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
HDHD3 haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase domain containing 3|
HDHD2 haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase domain containing 2|
MANEA mannosidase, endo-alpha|N-glycosylation of proteins is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transfer of the preassembled oligosaccharide glucose-3-mannose-9-N-acetylglucosamine-2 from dolichyl pyrophosphate to acceptor sites on the target protein by an oligosaccharyltransferase complex. This core oligosaccharide is sequentially processed by several ER glycosidases and by an endomannosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.130), such as MANEA, in the Golgi. MANEA catalyzes the release of mono-, di-, and triglucosylmannose oligosaccharides by cleaving the alpha-1,2-mannosidic bond that links them to high-mannose glycans (Hamilton et al., 2005 [PubMed 15677381]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]
PPARGC1B peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta|The protein encoded by this gene stimulates the activity of several transcription factors and nuclear receptors, including estrogen receptor alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and glucocorticoid receptor. The encoded protein may be involved in fat oxidation, non-oxidative glucose metabolism, and the regulation of energy expenditure. This protein is downregulated in prediabetic and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Certain allelic variations in this gene increase the risk of the development of obesity. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
TDGF1 teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1|This gene encodes an epidermal growth factor-related protein that contains a cripto, FRL-1, and cryptic domain. The encoded protein is an extracellular, membrane-bound signaling protein that plays an essential role in embryonic development and tumor growth. Mutations in this gene are associated with forebrain defects. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 8, 19 and X. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
FAM69B family with sequence similarity 69, member B|This gene encodes a member of the FAM69 family of cysteine-rich type II transmembrane proteins. These proteins localize to the endoplasmic reticulum but their specific functions are unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
NOP16 NOP16 nucleolar protein|NOP16 is transcriptionally regulated by c-Myc (MYC; MIM 190080), upregulated in breast cancer, and overexpression is associated with poor patient survival (Butt et al., 2008).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]
RMI1 RecQ mediated genome instability 1|RMI1 is a component of protein complexes that limit DNA crossover formation via the dissolution of double Holliday junctions (Raynard et al., 2006 [PubMed 16595695]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CORO6 coronin 6|
MBL2 mannose-binding lectin (protein C) 2, soluble|This gene encodes the soluble mannose-binding lectin or mannose-binding protein found in serum. The protein encoded belongs to the collectin family and is an important element in the innate immune system. The protein recognizes mannose and N-acetylglucosamine on many microorganisms, and is capable of activating the classical complement pathway. Deficiencies of this gene have been associated with susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TCEB3C transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3C (elongin A3)|The SIII (or elongin) transcription elongation factor complex stimulates the rate of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II by suppressing the transient pausing of the polymerase at many sites along the DNA template. This complex is a heterotrimer, composed of the transcriptionally active subunit A, A2 or A3 (or elongin A, A2 or A3) and two regulatory subunits, B and C (or elongin B and C). This gene encodes subunit A3. A3 and A are ubiquitously expressed, whereas A2 is specifically expressed in the testis. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
TCEB3B transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3B (elongin A2)|This gene encodes the transcriptionally active subunit of the SIII (or elongin) transcription elongation factor complex, which also includes two regulatory subunits, elongins B and C. This complex acts to increase the rate of RNA chain elongation by RNA polymerase II by suppressing transient pausing of the polymerase at many sites along the DNA template. Whereas a related protein with similar function, elongin A, is ubiquitously expressed, the encoded protein is specifically expressed in the testis, suggesting it may have a role in spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KCNK9 potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 9|This gene encodes a protein that contains multiple transmembrane regions and two pore-forming P domains and functions as a pH-dependent potassium channel. Amplification and overexpression of this gene have been observed in several types of human carcinomas. This gene is imprinted in the brain, with preferential expression from the maternal allele. A mutation in this gene was associated with Birk-Barel mental retardation dysmorphism syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
KCNK4 potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 4|Potassium channels play a role in many cellular processes including maintenance of the action potential, muscle contraction, hormone secretion, osmotic regulation, and ion flow. This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The encoded protein homodimerizes and functions as an outwardly rectifying channel. It is expressed primarily in neural tissues and is stimulated by membrane stretch and polyunsaturated fatty acids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KCNK5 potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 5|This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The message for this gene is mainly expressed in the cortical distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. The protein is highly sensitive to external pH and this, in combination with its expression pattern, suggests it may play an important role in renal potassium transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TRAT1 T cell receptor associated transmembrane adaptor 1|
FAM155B family with sequence similarity 155, member B|This gene encodes a product belonging to a family of proteins with unknown function. The presence of two transmembrane domains suggests that this protein is a multi-pass membrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
KCNK1 potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 1|This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The product of this gene has not been shown to be a functional channel, however, it may require other non-pore-forming proteins for activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MLH1 mutL homolog 1|This gene was identified as a locus frequently mutated in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). It is a human homolog of the E. coli DNA mismatch repair gene mutL, consistent with the characteristic alterations in microsatellite sequences (RER+phenotype) found in HNPCC. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described, but their full-length natures have not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
PTGFRN prostaglandin F2 receptor inhibitor|
SULT2A1 sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 2A, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-preferring, member 1|This gene encodes a member of the sulfotransferase family. Sulfotransferases aid in the metabolism of drugs and endogenous compounds by converting these substances into more hydrophilic water-soluble sulfate conjugates that can be easily excreted. This protein catalyzes the sulfation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands, and may have a role in the inherited adrenal androgen excess in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
TRIML2 tripartite motif family-like 2|This gene encodes a member of the tri-partite motif (TRIM) family of proteins. This protein may be regulated by the tumor suppressor p53 and may regulate p53 through the enhancement of p53 SUMOylation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
C9orf142 chromosome 9 open reading frame 142|
TRIML1 tripartite motif family-like 1|
NACC2 NACC family member 2, BEN and BTB (POZ) domain containing|
VPS13D vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog D (S. cerevisiae)|This gene encodes a protein belonging to the vacuolar-protein-sorting-13 gene family. In yeast, vacuolar-protein-sorting-13 proteins are involved in trafficking of membrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the prevacuolar compartment. While several transcript variants may exist for this gene, the full-length natures of only two have been described to date. These two represent the major variants of this gene and encode distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACOT13 acyl-CoA thioesterase 13|This gene encodes a member of the thioesterase superfamily. In humans, the protein co-localizes with microtubules and is essential for sustained cell proliferation. The orthologous mouse protein forms a homotetramer and is associated with mitochondria. The mouse protein functions as a medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
VPS13A vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene may control steps in the cycling of proteins through the trans-Golgi network to endosomes, lysosomes and the plasma membrane. Mutations in this gene cause the autosomal recessive disorder, chorea-acanthocytosis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SH3KBP1 SH3-domain kinase binding protein 1|This gene encodes an adapter protein that contains three N-terminal Src homology domains, a proline rich region and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The encoded protein facilitates protein-protein interactions and has been implicated in numerous cellular processes including apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell adhesion and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
VPS13C vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog C (S. cerevisiae)|This gene encodes a member of the vacuolar protein sorting-associated 13 gene family. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
VPS13B vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog B (yeast)|This gene encodes a potential transmembrane protein that may function in vesicle-mediated transport and sorting of proteins within the cell. This protein may play a role in the development and the function of the eye, hematological system, and central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Cohen syndrome. Multiple splice variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP7 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 7|This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family, a group of functionally related proteins that bind to a regulatory subunit (RII) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and target the enzyme to specific subcellular compartments. AKAPs have a common RII-binding domain, but contain different targeting motifs responsible for directing PKA to distinct intracellular locations. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
BEX4 brain expressed, X-linked 4|This gene is a member of the brain expressed X-linked gene family. The proteins encoded by some of the other members of this family act as transcription elongation factors which allow RNA polymerase II to escape pausing during elongation. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
BEX2 brain expressed X-linked 2|This gene belongs to the brain expressed X-linked gene family. The encoded protein interacts with the transcription factor LIM domain only 2 in a DNA-binding complex that recognizes the E-box element and promotes transcription. This gene has been found to be a tumor suppressor that is silenced in human glioma. In breast cancer cells, this gene product modulates apoptosis in response to estrogen and tamoxifen, and enhances the anti-proliferative effect of tamoxifen. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
KIAA0556 KIAA0556|
SCAF11 SR-related CTD-associated factor 11|
NUP160 nucleoporin 160kDa|NUP160 is 1 of up to 60 proteins that make up the 120-MD nuclear pore complex, which mediates nucleoplasmic transport.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]
ELTD1 adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L4|
N4BP3 NEDD4 binding protein 3|
GFRA2 GDNF family receptor alpha 2|Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) are two structurally related, potent neurotrophic factors that play key roles in the control of neuron survival and differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the GDNF receptor family. It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-linked cell surface receptor for both GDNF and NTN, and mediates activation of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor. This encoded protein acts preferentially as a receptor for NTN compared to its other family member, GDNF family receptor alpha 1. This gene is a candidate gene for RET-associated diseases. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
CRYM crystallin, mu|Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific and ubiquitous. The former class is also called phylogenetically-restricted crystallins. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. This gene encodes a taxon-specific crystallin protein that binds NADPH and has sequence similarity to bacterial ornithine cyclodeaminases. The encoded protein does not perform a structural role in lens tissue, and instead it binds thyroid hormone for possible regulatory or developmental roles. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
TMEM165 transmembrane protein 165|This gene encodes a predicted transmembrane protein with a perinuclear Golgi-like distribution in fibroblasts. Mutations in this gene are associated with the autosomal recessive disorder congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIk. Knockdown of this gene's expression causes decreased sialylation in HEK cells and suggests this gene plays a role in terminal Golgi glycosylation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
TMEM164 transmembrane protein 164|
TMEM169 transmembrane protein 169|
TMEM168 transmembrane protein 168|
FOXN2 forkhead box N2|This gene encodes a forkhead domain binding protein and may function in the transcriptional regulation of the human T-cell leukemia virus long terminal repeat. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOXN3 forkhead box N3|This gene is a member of the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor family. Checkpoints are eukaryotic DNA damage-inducible cell cycle arrests at G1 and G2. Checkpoint suppressor 1 suppresses multiple yeast checkpoint mutations including mec1, rad9, rad53 and dun1 by activating a MEC1-independent checkpoint pathway. Alternative splicing is observed at the locus, resulting in distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EIF3K eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K|The 700-kD eukaryotic translation initiation factor-3 (eIF3) is the largest eIF and contains at least 12 subunits, including EIF2S12. eIF3 plays an essential role in translation by binding directly to the 40S ribosomal subunit and promoting formation of the 40S preinitiation complex (Mayeur et al., 2003 [PubMed 14519125]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
PMVK phosphomevalonate kinase|This gene encodes a peroxisomal enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of mevalonate 5-phosphate into mevalonate 5-diphosphate, the fifth reaction of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Studies in rat show that the message level and the enzyme activity of this protein is regulated by sterol, and that this regulation is coordinated with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
BBC3 BCL2 binding component 3|This gene encodes a member of the BCL-2 family of proteins. This family member belongs to the BH3-only pro-apoptotic subclass. The protein cooperates with direct activator proteins to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. It can bind to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation. Because of its pro-apoptotic role, this gene is a potential drug target for cancer therapy and for tissue injury. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
VWDE von Willebrand factor D and EGF domains|
SLC6A2 solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 2|This gene encodes a member of the sodium:neurotransmitter symporter family. This member is a multi-pass membrane protein, which is responsible for reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerve terminals and is a regulator of norepinephrine homeostasis. Mutations in this gene cause orthostatic intolerance, a syndrome characterized by lightheadedness, fatigue, altered mentation and syncope. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
GNA14 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 14|This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding, or G protein family. G proteins are heterotrimers consisting of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The encoded protein is a member of the alpha family of G proteins, more specifically the alpha q subfamily of G proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in pertussis-toxin resistant activation of phospholipase C-beta and its downstream effectors.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
GRIN2A glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A|This gene encodes a member of the glutamate-gated ion channel protein family. The encoded protein is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit. NMDA receptors are both ligand-gated and voltage-dependent, and are involved in long-term potentiation, an activity-dependent increase in the efficiency of synaptic transmission thought to underlie certain kinds of memory and learning. These receptors are permeable to calcium ions, and activation results in a calcium influx into post-synaptic cells, which results in the activation of several signaling cascades. Disruption of this gene is associated with focal epilepsy and speech disorder with or without mental retardation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
GNA12 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) alpha 12|
KLHDC8B kelch domain containing 8B|This gene encodes a protein which forms a distinct beta-propeller protein structure of kelch domains allowing for protein-protein interactions. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Hodgkin lymphoma. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
KLHDC8A kelch domain containing 8A|This gene encodes a kelch domain-containing protein which is upregulated in cancer. Upregulated expression of the encoded protein may provide an alternative pathway for tumors to maintain aggressiveness in the absence of epidermal growth factor receptor dependence. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
GNA11 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which function as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. G proteins are composed of 3 units: alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes one of the alpha subunits (subunit alpha-11). Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2) and hypocalcemia dominant 2 (HYPOC2). Patients with HHC2 and HYPOC2 exhibit decreased or increased sensitivity, respectively, to changes in extracellular calcium concentrations. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
IL3RA interleukin 3 receptor, alpha (low affinity)|The protein encoded by this gene is an interleukin 3 specific subunit of a heterodimeric cytokine receptor. The receptor is comprised of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for interleukin 3 (IL3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2/GM-CSF), and interleukin 5 (IL5). The binding of this protein to IL3 depends on the beta subunit. The beta subunit is activated by the ligand binding, and is required for the biological activities of IL3. This gene and the gene encoding the colony stimulating factor 2 receptor alpha chain (CSF2RA) form a cytokine receptor gene cluster in a X-Y pseudoautosomal region on chromosomes X or Y. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
NOL8 nucleolar protein 8|NOL8 binds Ras-related GTP-binding proteins (see MIM 608267) and plays a role in cell growth (Sekiguchi et al., 2004 [PubMed 14660641]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
IFFO1 intermediate filament family orphan 1|This gene is a member of the intermediate filament family. Intermediate filaments are proteins which are primordial components of the cytoskeleton and nuclear envelope. The proteins encoded by the members of this gene family are evolutionarily and structurally related but have limited sequence homology, with the exception of the central rod domain. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
TAP2 transporter 2, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP)|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. This gene is located 7 kb telomeric to gene family member ABCB2. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in antigen presentation. This protein forms a heterodimer with ABCB2 in order to transport peptides from the cytoplasm to the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in this gene may be associated with ankylosing spondylitis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and celiac disease. Alternative splicing of this gene produces products which differ in peptide selectivity and level of restoration of surface expression of MHC class I molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
PRKAR1B protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta|Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP.[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]
MFGE8 milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein|
KLK10 kallikrein-related peptidase 10|Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. Its encoded protein is secreted and may play a role in suppression of tumorigenesis in breast and prostate cancers. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SH2B1 SH2B adaptor protein 1|This gene encodes a member of the SH2-domain containing mediators family. The encoded protein mediates activation of various kinases and may function in cytokine and growth factor receptor signaling and cellular transformation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
IL6ST interleukin 6 signal transducer|The protein encoded by this gene is a signal transducer shared by many cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL6), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and oncostatin M (OSM). This protein functions as a part of the cytokine receptor complex. The activation of this protein is dependent upon the binding of cytokines to their receptors. vIL6, a protein related to IL6 and encoded by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, can bypass the interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) and directly activate this protein. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this gene plays a critical role in regulating myocyte apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
SNAP91 synaptosomal-associated protein, 91kDa|
SBF2 SET binding factor 2|This gene encodes a pseudophosphatase and member of the myotubularin-related protein family. This gene maps within the CMT4B2 candidate region of chromosome 11p15 and mutations in this gene have been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, type 4B2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SAR1A secretion associated, Ras related GTPase 1A|
DBN1 drebrin 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic actin-binding protein thought to play a role in the process of neuronal growth. It is a member of the drebrin family of proteins that are developmentally regulated in the brain. A decrease in the amount of this protein in the brain has been implicated as a possible contributing factor in the pathogenesis of memory disturbance in Alzheimer's disease. At least two alternative splice variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NOL7 nucleolar protein 7, 27kDa|
ACTG1 actin gamma 1|Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. Actin, gamma 1, encoded by this gene, is a cytoplasmic actin found in non-muscle cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with DFNA20/26, a subtype of autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural progressive hearing loss. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
OGDH oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase (lipoamide)|This gene encodes one subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. This complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) to succinyl-CoA and CO(2) during the Krebs cycle. The protein is located in the mitochondrial matrix and uses thiamine pyrophosphate as a cofactor. A congenital deficiency in 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity is believed to lead to hypotonia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactatemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
ACTG2 actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric|Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and in the maintenance of the cytoskeleton. Three types of actins, alpha, beta and gamma, have been identified in vertebrates. Alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton and as mediators of internal cell motility. This gene encodes actin gamma 2; a smooth muscle actin found in enteric tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Based on similarity to peptide cleavage of related actins, the mature protein of this gene is formed by removal of two N-terminal peptides.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
CDC73 cell division cycle 73|This gene encodes a tumor suppressor that is involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional control pathways. The protein is a component of the the PAF protein complex, which associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A and with a histone methyltransferase complex. This protein appears to facilitate the association of 3' mRNA processing factors with actively-transcribed chromatin. Mutations in this gene have been linked to hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroid carcinoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
C11orf31 chromosome 11 open reading frame 31|This gene encodes a selenoprotein, which contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue at its active site. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenoprotein genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. The exact function of this gene is not known, however, selenoproteins are thought to be responsible for most biomedical effects of dietary selenium. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NACC1 nucleus accumbens associated 1, BEN and BTB (POZ) domain containing|This gene encodes a member of the BTB/POZ protein family. BTB/POZ proteins are involved in several cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis and transcription regulation. The encoded protein is a transcriptional repressor that plays a role in stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency maintenance. The encoded protein also suppresses transcription of the candidate tumor suppressor Gadd45GIP1, and expression of this gene may play a role in the progression of multiple types of cancer. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
R3HDM1 R3H domain containing 1|
OLIG3 oligodendrocyte transcription factor 3|
SEMG1 semenogelin I|The protein encoded by this gene is the predominant protein in semen. The encoded secreted protein is involved in the formation of a gel matrix that encases ejaculated spermatozoa. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) protease processes this protein into smaller peptides, with each possibly having a separate function. The proteolysis process breaks down the gel matrix and allows the spermatozoa to move more freely. The antimicrobial peptide SgI-29 is an antimicrobial peptide with antibacterial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
SEMG2 semenogelin II|The secreted protein encoded by this gene is involved in the formation of a gel matrix that encases ejaculated spermatozoa. Proteolysis by the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) breaks down the gel matrix and allows the spermatozoa to move more freely. The encoded protein is found in lesser abundance than a similar semenogelin protein. An antibacterial activity has been found for a antimicrobial peptide isolated from this protein. The genes encoding these two semenogelin proteins are found in a cluster on chromosome 20. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
EN2 engrailed homeobox 2|Homeobox-containing genes are thought to have a role in controlling development. In Drosophila, the 'engrailed' (en) gene plays an important role during development in segmentation, where it is required for the formation of posterior compartments. Different mutations in the mouse homologs, En1 and En2, produced different developmental defects that frequently are lethal. The human engrailed homologs 1 and 2 encode homeodomain-containing proteins and have been implicated in the control of pattern formation during development of the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LMBRD2 LMBR1 domain containing 2|
LMBRD1 LMBR1 domain containing 1|This gene encodes a lysosomal membrane protein that may be involved in the transport and metabolism of cobalamin. This protein also interacts with the large form of the hepatitis delta antigen and may be required for the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the hepatitis delta virus. Mutations in this gene are associated with the vitamin B12 metabolism disorder termed, homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia complementation type F.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
C19orf10 myeloid-derived growth factor|The protein encoded by this gene was previously thought to support proliferation of lymphoid cells and was considered an interleukin. However, this activity has not been reproducible and the function of this protein is currently unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DAZL deleted in azoospermia-like|The DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) gene family encodes potential RNA binding proteins that are expressed in prenatal and postnatal germ cells of males and females. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm of fetal germ cells and to the cytoplasm of developing oocytes. In the testis, this protein is localized to the nucleus of spermatogonia but relocates to the cytoplasm during meiosis where it persists in spermatids and spermatozoa. Transposition and amplification of this autosomal gene during primate evolution gave rise to the DAZ gene cluster on the Y chromosome. Mutations in this gene have been linked to severe spermatogenic failure and infertility in males. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
DAZ3 deleted in azoospermia 3|This gene is a member of the DAZ gene family and is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF). Its expression is restricted to premeiotic germ cells, particularly in spermatogonia. It encodes an RNA-binding protein that is important for spermatogenesis. Four copies of this gene are found on chromosome Y within palindromic duplications; one pair of genes is part of the P2 palindrome and the second pair is part of the P1 palindrome. Each gene contains a 2.4 kb repeat including a 72-bp exon, called the DAZ repeat; the number of DAZ repeats is variable and there are several variations in the sequence of the DAZ repeat. Each copy of the gene also contains a 10.8 kb region that may be amplified; this region includes five exons that encode an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain. This gene contains one copy of the 10.8 kb repeat. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DAZ2 deleted in azoospermia 2|This gene is a member of the DAZ gene family and is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF). Its expression is restricted to premeiotic germ cells, particularly in spermatogonia. It encodes an RNA-binding protein that is important for spermatogenesis. Four copies of this gene are found on chromosome Y within palindromic duplications; one pair of genes is part of the P2 palindrome and the second pair is part of the P1 palindrome. Each gene contains a 2.4 kb repeat including a 72-bp exon, called the DAZ repeat; the number of DAZ repeats is variable and there are several variations in the sequence of the DAZ repeat. Each copy of the gene also contains a 10.8 kb region that may be amplified; this region includes five exons that encode an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain. This gene contains one copy of the 10.8 kb repeat. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DAZ1 deleted in azoospermia 1|This gene is a member of the DAZ gene family and is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF). Its expression is restricted to premeiotic germ cells, particularly in spermatogonia. It encodes an RNA-binding protein that is important for spermatogenesis. Four copies of this gene are found on chromosome Y within palindromic duplications; one pair of genes is part of the P2 palindrome and the second pair is part of the P1 palindrome. Each gene contains a 2.4 kb repeat including a 72-bp exon, called the DAZ repeat; the number of DAZ repeats is variable and there are several variations in the sequence of the DAZ repeat. Each copy of the gene also contains a 10.8 kb region that may be amplified; this region includes five exons that encode an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain. This gene contains three copies of the 10.8 kb repeat. However, no transcripts containing three copies of the RRM domain have been described; thus the RefSeq for this gene contains only two RRM domains. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DAZ4 deleted in azoospermia 4|This gene is a member of the DAZ gene family and is a candidate for the human Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF). Its expression is restricted to premeiotic germ cells, particularly in spermatogonia. It encodes an RNA-binding protein that is important for spermatogenesis. Four copies of this gene are found on chromosome Y within palindromic duplications; one pair of genes is part of the P2 palindrome and the second pair is part of the P1 palindrome. Each gene contains a 2.4 kb repeat including a 72-bp exon, called the DAZ repeat; the number of DAZ repeats is variable and there are several variations in the sequence of the DAZ repeat. Each copy of the gene also contains a 10.8 kb region that may be amplified; this region includes five exons that encode an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain. This gene contains two copies of the 10.8 kb repeat. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
SRFBP1 serum response factor binding protein 1|
R3HDM2 R3H domain containing 2|
BCAT2 branched chain amino-acid transaminase 2, mitochondrial|This gene encodes a branched chain aminotransferase found in mitochondria. The encoded protein forms a dimer that catalyzes the first step in the production of the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
BCAT1 branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1, cytosolic|This gene encodes the cytosolic form of the enzyme branched-chain amino acid transaminase. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible transamination of branched-chain alpha-keto acids to branched-chain L-amino acids essential for cell growth. Two different clinical disorders have been attributed to a defect of branched-chain amino acid transamination: hypervalinemia and hyperleucine-isoleucinemia. As there is also a gene encoding a mitochondrial form of this enzyme, mutations in either gene may contribute to these disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
TAS2R13 taste receptor, type 2, member 13|This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TMEM9B TMEM9 domain family, member B|
AAED1 AhpC/TSA antioxidant enzyme domain containing 1|
MACROD2 MACRO domain containing 2|
MACROD1 MACRO domain containing 1|
ZBTB33 zinc finger and BTB domain containing 33|This gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with bimodal DNA-binding specificity, which binds to methylated CGCG and also to the non-methylated consensus KAISO-binding site TCCTGCNA. The protein contains an N-terminal POZ/BTB domain and 3 C-terminal zinc finger motifs. It recruits the N-CoR repressor complex to promote histone deacetylation and the formation of repressive chromatin structures in target gene promoters. It may contribute to the repression of target genes of the Wnt signaling pathway, and may also activate transcription of a subset of target genes by the recruitment of catenin delta-2 (CTNND2). Its interaction with catenin delta-1 (CTNND1) inhibits binding to both methylated and non-methylated DNA. It also interacts directly with the nuclear import receptor Importin-α2 (also known as karyopherin alpha2 or RAG cohort 1), which may mediate nuclear import of this protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
AKAP4 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 4|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is localized to the sperm flagellum and may be involved in the regulation of sperm motility. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP5 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 5|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein binds to the RII-beta regulatory subunit of PKA, and also to protein kinase C and the phosphatase calcineurin. It is predominantly expressed in cerebral cortex and may anchor the PKA protein at postsynaptic densities (PSD) and be involved in the regulation of postsynaptic events. It is also expressed in T lymphocytes and may function to inhibit interleukin-2 transcription by disrupting calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP6 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is highly expressed in various brain regions and cardiac and skeletal muscle. It is specifically localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane, and is involved in anchoring PKA to the nuclear membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GBA3 glucosidase, beta, acid 3 (gene/pseudogene)|The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that can hydrolyze several types of glycosides. This gene is a polymorphic pseudogene, with the most common allele being the functional allele that encodes the full-length protein. Some individuals, as represented by the reference genome allele, contain a single nucleotide polymorphism that results in a premature stop codon in the coding region, and therefore this allele is pseudogenic due to the failure to produce a functional full-length protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]
DBNL drebrin-like|
AKAP1 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein binds to type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA and anchors them to the mitochondrion. This protein is speculated to be involved in the cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway and in directing RNA to a specific cellular compartment. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP2 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene binds to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and is found associated with the actin cytoskeleton. The encoded protein mediates signals carried by cAMP and may be involved in creating polarity in certain signaling processes. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
PPIL1 peptidylprolyl isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 1|This gene is a member of the cyclophilin family of peptidylprolyl isomerases (PPIases). The cyclophilins are a highly conserved, ubiquitous family, members of which play an important role in protein folding, immunosuppression by cyclosporin A, and infection of HIV-1 virions. Based on similarity to other PPIases, this protein could accelerate the folding of proteins and might catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EIF2D eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2D|This gene encodes a translation initiation factor involved in the recruitment and delivery of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the P-site of the eukaryotic ribosome in a GTP-independent manner. This gene was previously referred to as ligatin, but is now known to localize to the cytoplasm and localize and function with translation factors. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
AKAP8 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8|This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. A-kinase anchor proteins are scaffold proteins that contain a binding domain for the RI/RII subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and recruit PKA and other signaling molecules to specific subcellular locations. This gene encodes a nuclear A-kinase anchor protein that binds to the RII alpha subunit of PKA and may play a role in chromosome condensation during mitosis by targeting PKA and the condensin complex to chromatin. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
TPI1 triosephosphate isomerase 1|This gene encodes an enzyme, consisting of two identical proteins, which catalyzes the isomerization of glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxy-acetone phosphate (DHAP) in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with triosephosphate isomerase deficiency. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 4, 6 and 7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
EIF2A eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A, 65kDa|EIF2A is a 65-kD protein that catalyzes the formation of puromycin-sensitive 80S preinitiation complexes (Zoll et al., 2002 [PubMed 12133843]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CADPS2 Ca++-dependent secretion activator 2|This gene encodes a member of the calcium-dependent activator of secretion (CAPS) protein family, which are calcium binding proteins that regulate the exocytosis of synaptic and dense-core vesicles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Mutations in this gene may contribute to autism susceptibility. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
PSTK phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase|
KBTBD7 kelch repeat and BTB (POZ) domain containing 7|
TUBE1 tubulin, epsilon 1|This gene encodes a member of the tubulin superfamily. This protein localizes to the centriolar sub-distal appendages that are associated with the older of the two centrioles after centrosome duplication. This protein plays a central role in organization of the microtubules during centriole duplication. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 5.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
PHPT1 phosphohistidine phosphatase 1|This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible dephosphorylation of histidine residues in proteins. It may be involved in the dephosphorylation of G-beta and ATP citrate lyase and in negatively regulating CD4 T lymphocytes by dephosphorylation and inhibition of KCa3.1 channels. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
SPATA13 spermatogenesis associated 13|
RLF rearranged L-myc fusion|
NFU1 NFU1 iron-sulfur cluster scaffold|This gene encodes a protein that is localized to mitochondria and plays a critical role in iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. The encoded protein assembles and transfers 4Fe-4S clusters to target apoproteins including succinate dehydrogenase and lipoic acid synthase. Mutations in this gene are a cause of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-1, and pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arms of chromosomes 1 and 3. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ODF2 outer dense fiber of sperm tails 2|The outer dense fibers are cytoskeletal structures that surround the axoneme in the middle piece and principal piece of the sperm tail. The fibers function in maintaining the elastic structure and recoil of the sperm tail as well as in protecting the tail from shear forces during epididymal transport and ejaculation. Defects in the outer dense fibers lead to abnormal sperm morphology and infertility. This gene encodes one of the major outer dense fiber proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The longer transcripts, also known as 'Cenexins', encode proteins with a C-terminal extension that are differentially targeted to somatic centrioles and thought to be crucial for the formation of microtubule organizing centers. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
RRP1B ribosomal RNA processing 1B|
NOVA1 neuro-oncological ventral antigen 1|This gene encodes a neuron-specific RNA-binding protein, a member of the Nova family of paraneoplastic disease antigens, that is recognized and inhibited by paraneoplastic antibodies. These antibodies are found in the sera of patients with paraneoplastic opsoclonus-ataxia, breast cancer, and small cell lung cancer. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TMEM98 transmembrane protein 98|This gene encodes a transmembrane protein. A missense mutation in this gene result in Nanophthalmos 4 (NNO4). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
HSP90B1 heat shock protein 90kDa beta (Grp94), member 1|This gene encodes a member of a family of adenosine triphosphate(ATP)-metabolizing molecular chaperones with roles in stabilizing and folding other proteins. The encoded protein is localized to melanosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of this protein is associated with a variety of pathogenic states, including tumor formation. There is a microRNA gene located within the 5' exon of this gene. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1 and 15. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
MCF2L MCF.2 cell line derived transforming sequence-like|
SMC1B structural maintenance of chromosomes 1B|SMC1L2 belongs to a family of proteins required for chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination during meiosis and mitosis (3:Revenkova et al., 2001 [PubMed 11564881]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
KRR1 KRR1, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast)|
TMEM132D transmembrane protein 132D|
TMEM132A transmembrane protein 132A|This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the rat Grp78-binding protein (GBP). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TMEM132C transmembrane protein 132C|
OVGP1 oviductal glycoprotein 1, 120kDa|This gene encodes a large, carbohydrate-rich, epithelial glycoprotein with numerous O-glycosylation sites located within threonine, serine, and proline-rich tandem repeats. The gene is similar to members of the mucin and the glycosyl hydrolase 18 gene families. Regulation of expression may be estrogen-dependent. Gene expression and protein secretion occur during late follicular development through early cleavage-stage embryonic development. The protein is secreted from non-ciliated oviductal epithelial cells and associates with ovulated oocytes, blastomeres, and spermatozoan acrosomal regions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KLHL31 kelch-like family member 31|
CETN3 centrin, EF-hand protein, 3|The protein encoded by this gene contains four EF-hand calcium binding domains, and is a member of the centrin protein family. Centrins are evolutionarily conserved proteins similar to the CDC31 protein of S. cerevisiae. Yeast CDC31 is located at the centrosome of interphase and mitotic cells, where it plays a fundamental role in centrosome duplication and separation. Multiple forms of the proteins similar to the yeast centrin have been identified in human and other mammalian cells, some of which have been shown to be associated with centrosome fractions. This protein appears to be one of the most abundant centrins associated with centrosome, which suggests a similar function to its yeast counterpart. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
CETN2 centrin, EF-hand protein, 2|Caltractin belongs to a family of calcium-binding proteins and is a structural component of the centrosome. The high level of conservation from algae to humans and its association with the centrosome suggested that caltractin plays a fundamental role in the structure and function of the microtubule-organizing center, possibly required for the proper duplication and segregation of the centrosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NAIF1 nuclear apoptosis inducing factor 1|
CCL28 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28|This antimicrobial gene belongs to the subfamily of small cytokine CC genes. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The cytokine encoded by this gene displays chemotactic activity for resting CD4 or CD8 T cells and eosinophils. The product of this gene binds to chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR10. This chemokine may play a role in the physiology of extracutaneous epithelial tissues, including diverse mucosal organs. Multiple transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
FAM92A1 family with sequence similarity 92, member A1|
DIO2 deiodinase, iodothyronine, type II|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the iodothyronine deiodinase family. It activates thyroid hormone by converting the prohormone thyroxine (T4) by outer ring deiodination (ORD) to bioactive 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). It is highly expressed in the thyroid, and may contribute significantly to the relative increase in thyroidal T3 production in patients with Graves disease and thyroid adenomas. This protein contains selenocysteine (Sec) residues encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DIO3 deiodinase, iodothyronine, type III|The protein encoded by this intronless gene belongs to the iodothyronine deiodinase family. It catalyzes the inactivation of thyroid hormone by inner ring deiodination of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) and the bioactive hormone 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) to inactive metabolites, 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (RT3) and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2), respectively. This enzyme is highly expressed in the pregnant uterus, placenta, fetal and neonatal tissues, suggesting that it plays an essential role in the regulation of thyroid hormone inactivation during embryological development. This protein contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue, which is essential for efficient enzyme activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CCL21 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21|This antimicrobial gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. Similar to other chemokines the protein encoded by this gene inhibits hemopoiesis and stimulates chemotaxis. This protein is chemotactic in vitro for thymocytes and activated T cells, but not for B cells, macrophages, or neutrophils. The cytokine encoded by this gene may also play a role in mediating homing of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. It is a high affinity functional ligand for chemokine receptor 7 that is expressed on T and B lymphocytes and a known receptor for another member of the cytokine family (small inducible cytokine A19). [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
CCL20 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20|This antimicrobial gene belongs to the subfamily of small cytokine CC genes. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The protein encoded by this gene displays chemotactic activity for lymphocytes and can repress proliferation of myeloid progenitors. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
CCL23 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 23|This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of the N-terminal cysteine residues of the mature peptide. This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, displays chemotactic activity on resting T lymphocytes and monocytes, lower activity on neutrophils and no activity on activated T lymphocytes. The protein is also a strong suppressor of colony formation by a multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell line. In addition, the product of this gene is a potent agonist of the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
CCL22 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22|This antimicrobial gene is one of several Cys-Cys (CC) cytokine genes clustered on the q arm of chromosome 16. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The cytokine encoded by this gene displays chemotactic activity for monocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and for chronically activated T lymphocytes. It also displays a mild activity for primary activated T lymphocytes and has no chemoattractant activity for neutrophils, eosinophils and resting T lymphocytes. The product of this gene binds to chemokine receptor CCR4. This chemokine may play a role in the trafficking of activated T lymphocytes to inflammatory sites and other aspects of activated T lymphocyte physiology. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
OR5T1 olfactory receptor, family 5, subfamily T, member 1|Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HSD17B10 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 10|This gene encodes 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. The gene product is a mitochondrial protein that catalyzes the oxidation of a wide variety of fatty acids and steroids, and is a subunit of mitochondrial ribonuclease P, which is involved in tRNA maturation. The protein has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer disease, and mutations in the gene are the cause of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (HSD10) deficiency. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but the full-length nature of only two transcript variants has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
CCL27 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 27|This gene is one of several CC cytokine genes clustered on the p-arm of chromosome 9. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The protein encoded by this gene is chemotactic for skin-associated memory T lymphocytes. This cytokine may also play a role in mediating homing of lymphocytes to cutaneous sites. It specifically binds to chemokine receptor 10 (CCR10). Studies of a similar murine protein indicate that these protein-receptor interactions have a pivotal role in T cell-mediated skin inflammation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
CCL26 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26|This gene is one of two Cys-Cys (CC) cytokine genes clustered on the q arm of chromosome 7. Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The CC cytokines are proteins characterized by two adjacent cysteines. The cytokine encoded by this gene displays chemotactic activity for normal peripheral blood eosinophils and basophils. The product of this gene is one of three related chemokines that specifically activate chemokine receptor CCR3. This chemokine may contribute to the eosinophil accumulation in atopic diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALPK1 alpha-kinase 1|This gene encodes an alpha kinase. Mice which were homozygous for disrupted copies of this gene exhibited coordination defects (PMID: 21208416). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
SLC23A1 solute carrier family 23 (ascorbic acid transporter), member 1|The absorption of vitamin C into the body and its distribution to organs requires two sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters. This gene encodes one of the two transporters. The encoded protein is active in bulk vitamin C transport involving epithelial surfaces. Previously, this gene had an official symbol of SLC23A2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
ALPK3 alpha-kinase 3|
ALPK2 alpha-kinase 2|
C8orf48 chromosome 8 open reading frame 48|
UCK1 uridine-cytidine kinase 1|This gene encodes a uridine-cytidine kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate (UMP) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP) but not the phosphorylation of deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. This enzyme can also phosphorylate uridine and cytidine analogs and uses both ATP and GTP as a phosphate donor. Alternative splicing results in multiple splice variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
UCK2 uridine-cytidine kinase 2|This gene encodes a pyrimidine ribonucleoside kinase. The encoded protein (EC 2.7.1.48) catalyzes phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate (UMP) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP), respectively.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
PHRF1 PHD and ring finger domains 1|
PRPF39 pre-mRNA processing factor 39|
TP53I3 tumor protein p53 inducible protein 3|The protein encoded by this gene is similar to oxidoreductases, which are enzymes involved in cellular responses to oxidative stresses and irradiation. This gene is induced by the tumor suppressor p53 and is thought to be involved in p53-mediated cell death. It contains a p53 consensus binding site in its promoter region and a downstream pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence. P53 has been shown to transcriptionally activate this gene by interacting with the downstream pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence. The microsatellite is polymorphic, with a varying number of pentanucleotide repeats directly correlated with the extent of transcriptional activation by p53. It has been suggested that the microsatellite polymorphism may be associated with differential susceptibility to cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
CUX1 cut-like homeobox 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the homeodomain family of DNA binding proteins. It may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation and it may also play a role in the cell cycle progession. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
CUX2 cut-like homeobox 2|This gene encodes a protein which contains three CUT domains and a homeodomain; both domains are DNA-binding motifs. A similar gene, whose gene product possesses different DNA-binding activities, is located on chromosome on chromosome 7. Two pseudogenes of this gene have been identified on chromosomes 10 and 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
DERL3 derlin 3|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the derlin family, and resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Proteins that are unfolded or misfolded in the ER must be refolded or degraded to maintain the homeostasis of the ER. This protein appears to be involved in the degradation of misfolded glycoproteins in the ER. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
BRF2 BRF2, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor 50 kDa subunit|This gene encodes one of the multiple subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription factor complex required for transcription of genes with promoter elements upstream of the initiation site. The product of this gene, a TFIIB-like factor, is directly recruited to the TATA-box of polymerase III small nuclear RNA gene promoters through its interaction with the TATA-binding protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CYSTM1 cysteine-rich transmembrane module containing 1|
BRF1 BRF1, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor 90 kDa subunit|This gene encodes one of the three subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription factor complex. This complex plays a central role in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase III on genes encoding tRNA, 5S rRNA, and other small structural RNAs. The gene product belongs to the TF2B family. Several alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms, that function at different promoters transcribed by RNA polymerase III, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
FSIP2 fibrous sheath interacting protein 2|
FSIP1 fibrous sheath interacting protein 1|
DNAJC8 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 8|
DNAJC9 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 9|
MB myoglobin|This gene encodes a member of the globin superfamily and is expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. The encoded protein is a haemoprotein contributing to intracellular oxygen storage and transcellular facilitated diffusion of oxygen. At least three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DNAJC4 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 4|
DNAJC5 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 5|This gene is a member of the J protein family. J proteins function in many cellular processes by regulating the ATPase activity of 70 kDa heat shock proteins. The encoded protein plays a role in membrane trafficking and protein folding, and has been shown to have anti-neurodegenerative properties. The encoded protein is known to play a role in cystic fibrosis and Huntington's disease. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 8. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
DNAJC6 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 6|DNAJC6 belongs to the evolutionarily conserved DNAJ/HSP40 family of proteins, which regulate molecular chaperone activity by stimulating ATPase activity. DNAJ proteins may have up to 3 distinct domains: a conserved 70-amino acid J domain, usually at the N terminus, a glycine/phenylalanine (G/F)-rich region, and a cysteine-rich domain containing 4 motifs resembling a zinc finger domain (Ohtsuka and Hata, 2000 [PubMed 11147971]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CAMSAP1 calmodulin regulated spectrin-associated protein 1|
DNAJC1 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 1|
DNAJC2 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 2|This gene is a member of the M-phase phosphoprotein (MPP) family. The gene encodes a phosphoprotein with a J domain and a Myb DNA-binding domain which localizes to both the nucleus and the cytosol. The protein is capable of forming a heterodimeric complex that associates with ribosomes, acting as a molecular chaperone for nascent polypeptide chains as they exit the ribosome. This protein was identified as a leukemia-associated antigen and expression of the gene is upregulated in leukemic blasts. Also, chromosomal aberrations involving this gene are associated with primary head and neck squamous cell tumors. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DNAJC3 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 3|This gene encodes a protein with multiple tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs as well as the highly conserved J domain found in DNAJ chaperone family members. It is a member of the tetratricopeptide repeat family of proteins and acts as an inhibitor of the interferon-induced, dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
C8A complement component 8, alpha polypeptide|C8 is a component of the complement system and contains three polypeptides, alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of C8. C8 participates in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). The MAC assembles on bacterial membranes to form a pore, permitting disruption of bacterial membrane organization. Mutations in this gene cause complement C8 alpha-gamma deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
CYP4F12 cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 12|This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein likely localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. When expressed in yeast the enzyme is capable of oxdizing arachidonic acid. It can also catalyze the epoxidation of 22:6n-3 and 22:5n-3 polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids. This gene is part of a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
HAUS8 HAUS augmin-like complex, subunit 8|HAUS8 is 1 of 8 subunits of the 390-kD human augmin complex, or HAUS complex. The augmin complex was first identified in Drosophila, and its name comes from the Latin verb 'augmentare,' meaning 'to increase.' The augmin complex is a microtubule-binding complex involved in microtubule generation within the mitotic spindle and is vital to mitotic spindle assembly (Goshima et al., 2008 [PubMed 18443220]; Uehara et al., 2009 [PubMed 19369198]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2010]
SORT1 sortilin 1|This gene encodes a protein that is a multi-ligand type-1 receptor with similarity to the yeast carboxypeptidase Y sorting receptor Vps10 protein. The encoded protein, a trans-Golgi network (TGN) transmembrane protein, binds a number of unrelated ligands that participate in a wide range of cellular processes; however, it lacks the typical features of a signalling receptor. In the TGN, furin mediates the activation of the mature binding form. The encoded protein consists of a large luminal domain, a single transmembrane segment and short C-terminal cytoplasmic tail. The luminal domain contains a cysteine-rich region similar to two corresponding segments in the yeast Vps10p; the cytoplasmic tail is similar to the corresponding segment of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and the tail also interacts with the VHS domains of GGA (Golgi-associated, gamma-adaptin homologous, ARF-interacting) proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SLC18A2 solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine transporter), member 2|The vesicular monoamine transporter acts to accumulate cytosolic monoamines into synaptic vesicles, using the proton gradient maintained across the synaptic vesicular membrane. Its proper function is essential to the correct activity of the monoaminergic systems that have been implicated in several human neuropsychiatric disorders. The transporter is a site of action of important drugs, including reserpine and tetrabenazine (summary by Peter et al., 1993 [PubMed 7905859]). See also SLC18A1 (MIM 193002).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]
SLC18A1 solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine transporter), member 1|The vesicular monoamine transporter acts to accumulate cytosolic monoamines into vesicles, using the proton gradient maintained across the vesicular membrane. Its proper function is essential to the correct activity of the monoaminergic systems that have been implicated in several human neuropsychiatric disorders. The transporter is a site of action of important drugs, including reserpine and tetrabenazine (Peter et al., 1993 [PubMed 7905859]). See also SLC18A2 (MIM 193001).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
GOSR1 golgi SNAP receptor complex member 1|This gene encodes a trafficking membrane protein which transports proteins among the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi and between Golgi compartments. This protein is considered an essential component of the Golgi SNAP receptor (SNARE) complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SLC23A3 solute carrier family 23, member 3|
RRP15 ribosomal RNA processing 15 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|This gene encodes a protein that co-purifies with human nucleoli. A similar protein in budding yeast is a component of pre-60S ribosomal particles, and is required for the early maturation steps of the 60S subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CCDC97 coiled-coil domain containing 97|
RALBP1 ralA binding protein 1|RALBP1 plays a role in receptor-mediated endocytosis and is a downstream effector of the small GTP-binding protein RAL (see RALA; MIM 179550). Small G proteins, such as RAL, have GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active forms, which shift from the inactive to the active state through the action of RALGDS (MIM 601619), which in turn is activated by RAS (see HRAS; MIM 190020) (summary by Feig, 2003 [PubMed 12888294]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
NRN1 neuritin 1|This gene encodes a member of the neuritin family, and is expressed in postmitotic-differentiating neurons of the developmental nervous system and neuronal structures associated with plasticity in the adult. The expression of this gene can be induced by neural activity and neurotrophins. The encoded protein contains a consensus cleavage signal found in glycosylphoshatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. The encoded protein promotes neurite outgrowth and arborization, suggesting its role in promoting neuritogenesis. Overexpression of the encoded protein may be associated with astrocytoma progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
MAP3K6 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 6|This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that forms a component of protein kinase-mediated signal transduction cascades. The encoded kinase participates in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
RAP1B RAP1B, member of RAS oncogene family|This gene encodes a member of the RAS-like small GTP-binding protein superfamily. Members of this family regulate multiple cellular processes including cell adhesion and growth and differentiation. This protein localizes to cellular membranes and has been shown to regulate integrin-mediated cell signaling. This protein also plays a role in regulating outside-in signaling in platelets. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 3, 5, 6 and 9. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
RAP1A RAP1A, member of RAS oncogene family|This gene encodes a member of the Ras family of small GTPases. The encoded protein undergoes a change in conformational state and activity, depending on whether it is bound to GTP or GDP. This protein is activated by several types of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), and inactivated by two groups of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). The activation status of the encoded protein is therefore affected by the balance of intracellular levels of GEFs and GAPs. The encoded protein regulates signaling pathways that affect cell proliferation and adhesion, and may play a role in tumor malignancy. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 14 and 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
PPP1R8 protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 8|This gene, through alternative splicing, encodes three different isoforms. Two of the protein isoforms encoded by this gene are specific inhibitors of type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatases and can bind but not cleave RNA. The third protein isoform lacks the phosphatase inhibitory function but is a single-strand endoribonuclease comparable to RNase E of E. coli. This isoform requires magnesium for its function and cleaves specific sites in A+U-rich regions of RNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF830 zinc finger protein 830|
ZNF835 zinc finger protein 835|
IER3IP1 immediate early response 3 interacting protein 1|This gene encodes a small protein that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and may play a role in the ER stress response by mediating cell differentiation and apoptosis. Transcription of this gene is regulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha and specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Mutations in this gene may play a role in microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome (MEDS), and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ZNF836 zinc finger protein 836|
INTS5 integrator complex subunit 5|INTS5 is a subunit of the Integrator complex, which associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and mediates 3-prime end processing of small nuclear RNAs U1 (RNU1; MIM 180680) and U2 (RNU2; MIM 180690) (Baillat et al., 2005 [PubMed 16239144]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
MAP3K5 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5|Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades include MAPK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), MAPK kinase (MKK or MEK), and MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MEKK). MAPKK kinase/MEKK phosphorylates and activates its downstream protein kinase, MAPK kinase/MEK, which in turn activates MAPK. The kinases of these signaling cascades are highly conserved, and homologs exist in yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. MAPKKK5 contains 1,374 amino acids with all 11 kinase subdomains. Northern blot analysis shows that MAPKKK5 transcript is abundantly expressed in human heart and pancreas. The MAPKKK5 protein phosphorylates and activates MKK4 (aliases SERK1, MAPKK4) in vitro, and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) during transient expression in COS and 293 cells; MAPKKK5 does not activate MAPK/ERK. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IPO11 importin 11|Importins, including IPO11, are a members of the karyopherin/importin-beta family of transport receptors (see KPNB1; 602738) that mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA cargoes (Plafker and Macara, 2000 [PubMed 11032817]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]
LRIF1 ligand dependent nuclear receptor interacting factor 1|
GBAS glioblastoma amplified sequence|This gene encodes a member of the NipSnap family of proteins that may be involved in vesicular transport. The encoded protein is localized to mitochondria and plays a role in oxidative phosphorylation. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
PHAX phosphorylated adaptor for RNA export|
IPO13 importin 13|This gene encodes a member of the importin-beta family of nuclear transport proteins. The encoded protein mediates the import of specific cargo proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and is dependent on the Ras-related nuclear protein-GTPase system. The encoded protein is also involved in nuclear export of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
PET117 PET117 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
ATOH7 atonal homolog 7 (Drosophila)|This intronless gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, with similarity to Drosophila atonal gene that controls photoreceptor development. Studies in mice suggest that this gene plays a central role in retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation. Mutations in this gene are associated with nonsyndromic congenital retinal nonattachment. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ACAT1 acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1|This gene encodes a mitochondrially localized enzyme that catalyzes the reversible formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of acetyl-CoA. Defects in this gene are associated with 3-ketothiolase deficiency, an inborn error of isoleucine catabolism characterized by urinary excretion of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-methylacetoacetic acid, tiglylglycine, and butanone. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
ACAT2 acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2|The product of this gene is an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, and it encodes cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. This gene shows complementary overlapping with the 3-prime region of the TCP1 gene in both mouse and human. These genes are encoded on opposite strands of DNA, as well as in opposite transcriptional orientation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
PABPC4L poly(A) binding protein, cytoplasmic 4-like|
ATOH1 atonal homolog 1 (Drosophila)|This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. It activates E-box dependent transcription along with E47. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RNF152 ring finger protein 152|
LIMD2 LIM domain containing 2|
RNF150 ring finger protein 150|
RNF151 ring finger protein 151|
RNF157 ring finger protein 157|
ATOH8 atonal homolog 8 (Drosophila)|
PEX1 peroxisomal biogenesis factor 1|This gene encodes a member of the AAA ATPase family, a large group of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities. This protein is cytoplasmic but is often anchored to a peroxisomal membrane where it forms a heteromeric complex and plays a role in the import of proteins into peroxisomes and peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with complementation group 1 peroxisomal disorders such as neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, infantile Refsum disease, and Zellweger syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
CSTB cystatin B (stefin B)|The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and kininogens. This gene encodes a stefin that functions as an intracellular thiol protease inhibitor. The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein is thought to play a role in protecting against the proteases leaking from lysosomes. Evidence indicates that mutations in this gene are responsible for the primary defects in patients with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (EPM1). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FMOD fibromodulin|Fibromodulin belongs to the family of small interstitial proteoglycans. The encoded protein possesses a central region containing leucine-rich repeats with 4 keratan sulfate chains, flanked by terminal domains containing disulphide bonds. Owing to the interaction with type I and type II collagen fibrils and in vitro inhibition of fibrillogenesis, the encoded protein may play a role in the assembly of extracellular matrix. It may also regulate TGF-beta activities by sequestering TGF-beta into the extracellular matrix. Sequence variations in this gene may be associated with the pathogenesis of high myopia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
CTF1 cardiotrophin 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted cytokine that induces cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in vitro. It has been shown to bind and activate the ILST/gp130 receoptor. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
MECP2 methyl CpG binding protein 2|DNA methylation is the major modification of eukaryotic genomes and plays an essential role in mammalian development. Human proteins MECP2, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4 comprise a family of nuclear proteins related by the presence in each of a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). Each of these proteins, with the exception of MBD3, is capable of binding specifically to methylated DNA. MECP2, MBD1 and MBD2 can also repress transcription from methylated gene promoters. In contrast to other MBD family members, MECP2 is X-linked and subject to X inactivation. MECP2 is dispensible in stem cells, but is essential for embryonic development. MECP2 gene mutations are the cause of most cases of Rett syndrome, a progressive neurologic developmental disorder and one of the most common causes of mental retardation in females. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
TBPL1 TBP-like 1|This gene encodes a member of the TATA box-binding protein family. TATA box-binding proteins play a critical role in transcription by RNA polymerase II as components of the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex. The encoded protein does not bind to the TATA box and initiates transcription from TATA-less promoters. This gene plays a critical role in spermatogenesis, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with male infertility. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
TRPV5 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 5|This gene is a member of the transient receptor family and the TrpV subfamily. The calcium-selective channel encoded by this gene has 6 transmembrane-spanning domains, multiple potential phosphorylation sites, an N-linked glycosylation site, and 5 ANK repeats. This protein forms homotetramers or heterotetramers and is activated by a low internal calcium level. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LDLR low density lipoprotein receptor|The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family consists of cell surface proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is normally bound at the cell membrane and taken into the cell ending up in lysosomes where the protein is degraded and the cholesterol is made available for repression of microsomal enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. At the same time, a reciprocal stimulation of cholesterol ester synthesis takes place. Mutations in this gene cause the autosomal dominant disorder, familial hypercholesterolemia. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
USF2 upstream transcription factor 2, c-fos interacting|This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TSPY8 testis specific protein, Y-linked 8|
SIGMAR1 sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1|This gene encodes a receptor protein that interacts with a variety of psychotomimetic drugs, including cocaine and amphetamines. The receptor is believed to play an important role in the cellular functions of various tissues associated with the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. As indicated by its previous name, opioid receptor sigma 1 (OPRS1), the product of this gene was erroneously thought to function as an opioid receptor; it is now thought to be a non-opioid receptor. Mutations in this gene has been associated with juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 16. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
TSPY4 testis specific protein, Y-linked 4|
TSPY3 testis specific protein, Y-linked 3|
TSPY2 testis specific protein, Y-linked 2|
TSPY1 testis specific protein, Y-linked 1|The protein encoded by this gene is found only in testicular tissue and may be involved in spermatogenesis. Approximately 35 copies of this gene are present in humans, but only a single, nonfunctional orthologous gene is found in mouse. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
IL2RA interleukin 2 receptor, alpha|The interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor alpha (IL2RA) and beta (IL2RB) chains, together with the common gamma chain (IL2RG), constitute the high-affinity IL2 receptor. Homodimeric alpha chains (IL2RA) result in low-affinity receptor, while homodimeric beta (IL2RB) chains produce a medium-affinity receptor. Normally an integral-membrane protein, soluble IL2RA has been isolated and determined to result from extracellular proteolyisis. Alternately-spliced IL2RA mRNAs have been isolated, but the significance of each is presently unknown. Mutations in this gene are associated with interleukin 2 receptor alpha deficiency.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
ZFYVE21 zinc finger, FYVE domain containing 21|
ZFYVE20 rabenosyn, RAB effector|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the FYVE zinc finger family of proteins. The encoded protein interacts with Ras-related proteins that regulate membrane trafficking. A missense mutation in this gene is associated with a defect in the early endocytic pathway. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
ZFYVE27 zinc finger, FYVE domain containing 27|This gene encodes a protein with several transmembrane domains, a Rab11-binding domain and a lipid-binding FYVE finger domain. The encoded protein appears to promote neurite formation. A mutation in this gene has been reported to be associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia, however the pathogenicity of the mutation, which may simply represent a polymorphism, is unclear. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ZFYVE26 zinc finger, FYVE domain containing 26|This gene encodes a protein which contains a FYVE zinc finger binding domain. The presence of this domain is thought to target these proteins to membrane lipids through interaction with phospholipids in the membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-15. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
TPCN2 two pore segment channel 2|This gene encodes a putative cation-selective ion channel with two repeats of a six-transmembrane-domain. The protein localizes to lysosomal membranes and enables nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) -induced calcium ion release from lysosome-related stores. This ubiquitously expressed gene has elevated expression in liver and kidney. Two common nonsynonymous SNPs in this gene strongly associate with blond versus brown hair pigmentation.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
IL2RG interleukin 2 receptor, gamma|The protein encoded by this gene is an important signaling component of many interleukin receptors, including those of interleukin -2, -4, -7 and -21, and is thus referred to as the common gamma chain. Mutations in this gene cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID), as well as X-linked combined immunodeficiency (XCID), a less severe immunodeficiency disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
SLC17A5 solute carrier family 17 (acidic sugar transporter), member 5|This gene encodes a membrane transporter that exports free sialic acids that have been cleaved off of cell surface lipids and proteins from lysosomes. Mutations in this gene cause sialic acid storage diseases, including infantile sialic acid storage disorder and and Salla disease, an adult form. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZFYVE28 zinc finger, FYVE domain containing 28|
SLC17A1 solute carrier family 17 (organic anion transporter), member 1|
SLC17A2 solute carrier family 17, member 2|
SLC17A3 solute carrier family 17 (organic anion transporter), member 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a voltage-driven transporter that excretes intracellular urate and organic anions from the blood into renal tubule cells. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The longer isoform is a plasma membrane protein with transporter activity while the shorter isoform localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
UBFD1 ubiquitin family domain containing 1|
C16orf58 chromosome 16 open reading frame 58|This gene encodes a putative transmembrane protein containing a conserved DUF647 domain that may be involved in protein-protein interaction. The encoded protein is related to a plant protein that participates in ultraviolet B light-sensing during root morphogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
C16orf59 chromosome 16 open reading frame 59|
SETDB2 SET domain, bifurcated 2|Proteins that contain a SET domain, such as SETDB2, modulate gene expression epigenetically through histone H3 (see MIM 601128) methylation. SETDB2 is likely a histone H3 methyltransferase, as it contains both the active site and flanking cysteine residues required for catalytic activity (Zhang et al., 2003 [PubMed 12754510]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ZNF628 zinc finger protein 628|Zinc finger proteins (ZNFs), which bind nucleic acids, perform many key functions, the most important of which is regulating transcription. See ZNF91 (MIM 603971) for general information on ZNFs.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
SWI5 SWI5 recombination repair homolog (yeast)|
CDK5RAP3 CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 3|This gene encodes a protein that has been reported to function in signaling pathways governing transcriptional regulation and cell cycle progression. It may play a role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 20. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
CDK5RAP1 CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1|This gene encodes a regulator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity. This protein has also been reported to modify RNA by adding a methylthio-group and may thus have a dual function as an RNA methylthiotransferase and as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
C16orf54 chromosome 16 open reading frame 54|
GPATCH2 G patch domain containing 2|
MYF5 myogenic factor 5|
AP5B1 adaptor-related protein complex 5, beta 1 subunit|
GNB1 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1|Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
CHMP4A charged multivesicular body protein 4A|CHMP4A belongs to the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein (CHMP) family. These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in degradation of surface receptor proteins and formation of endocytic multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Some CHMPs have both nuclear and cytoplasmic/vesicular distributions, and one such CHMP, CHMP1A (MIM 164010), is required for both MVB formation and regulation of cell cycle progression (Tsang et al., 2006 [PubMed 16730941]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CHMP4B charged multivesicular body protein 4B|This gene encodes a member of the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein (CHMP) protein family. The protein is part of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complex III (ESCRT-III), which functions in the sorting of endocytosed cell-surface receptors into multivesicular endosomes. The ESCRT machinery also functions in the final abscisson stage of cytokinesis and in the budding of enveloped viruses such as HIV-1. The three proteins of the CHMP4 subfamily interact with programmed cell death 6 interacting protein (PDCD6IP, also known as ALIX), which also functions in the ESCRT pathway. The CHMP4 proteins assemble into membrane-attached 5-nm filaments that form circular scaffolds and promote or stabilize outward budding. These polymers are proposed to help generate the luminal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant posterior polar cataracts.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
CCDC144A coiled-coil domain containing 144A|
BAX BCL2-associated X protein|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family. BCL2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. This protein forms a heterodimer with BCL2, and functions as an apoptotic activator. This protein is reported to interact with, and increase the opening of, the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which leads to the loss in membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c. The expression of this gene is regulated by the tumor suppressor P53 and has been shown to be involved in P53-mediated apoptosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode different isoforms, have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IL16 interleukin 16|The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine that functions as a chemoattractant, a modulator of T cell activation, and an inhibitor of HIV replication. The signaling process of this cytokine is mediated by CD4. The product of this gene undergoes proteolytic processing, which is found to yield two functional proteins. The cytokine function is exclusively attributed to the secreted C-terminal peptide, while the N-terminal product may play a role in cell cycle control. Caspase 3 is reported to be involved in the proteolytic processing of this protein. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
IARS isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase|Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAS, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Isoleucine-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family and has been identified as a target of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
BHMT2 betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2|Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a crucial role in methylation reactions. Transfer of the methyl group from betaine to homocysteine creates methionine, which donates the methyl group to methylate DNA, proteins, lipids, and other intracellular metabolites. The protein encoded by this gene is one of two methyl transferases that can catalyze the transfer of the methyl group from betaine to homocysteine. Anomalies in homocysteine metabolism have been implicated in disorders ranging from vascular disease to neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
PRKCDBP protein kinase C, delta binding protein|The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a binding protein of the protein kinase C, delta (PRKCD). The expression of this gene in cultured cell lines is strongly induced by serum starvation. The expression of this protein was found to be down-regulated in various cancer cell lines, suggesting the possible tumor suppressor function of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HLA-B major histocompatibility complex, class I, B|HLA-B belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exon 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Hundreds of HLA-B alleles have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
COBLL1 cordon-bleu WH2 repeat protein-like 1|
SLC37A3 solute carrier family 37, member 3|
CDK18 cyclin-dependent kinase 18|
SLC37A1 solute carrier family 37 (glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 1|SLC37A1, a member of the sugar-phosphate transport family, transports glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) between cellular compartments for its utilization in several compartment-specific biochemical pathways.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2004]
TOB1 transducer of ERBB2, 1|This gene encodes a member of the transducer of erbB-2 /B-cell translocation gene protein family. Members of this family are anti-proliferative factors that have the potential to regulate cell growth. The encoded protein may function as a tumor suppressor. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
PMPCB peptidase (mitochondrial processing) beta|This gene is a member of the peptidase M16 family and encodes a protein with a zinc-binding motif. This protein is located in the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the cleavage of the leader peptides of precursor proteins newly imported into the mitochondria, though it only functions as part of a heterodimeric complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PMPCA peptidase (mitochondrial processing) alpha|
TOB2 transducer of ERBB2, 2|TOB2 belongs to the TOB (see TOB1; MIM 605523)/BTG1 (MIM 109580) family of antiproliferative proteins, which are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]
CDK12 cyclin-dependent kinase 12|
CDK13 cyclin-dependent kinase 13|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this family are well known for their essential roles as master switches in cell cycle control. The exact function of this protein has not yet been determined, but it may play a role in mRNA processing and may be involved in regulation of hematopoiesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase 10|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CDK subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The CDK subfamily members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and are known to be essential for cell cycle progression. This kinase has been shown to play a role in cellular proliferation and its function is limited to cell cycle G2-M phase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
CDK16 cyclin-dependent kinase 16|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a role in signal transduction cascades in terminally differentiated cells; in exocytosis; and in transport of secretory cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum. This gene is thought to escape X inactivation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
SULF2 sulfatase 2|Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as coreceptors for numerous heparin-binding growth factors and cytokines and are involved in cell signaling. Heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases, such as SULF2, selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from heparan sulfate. This activity modulates the effects of heparan sulfate by altering binding sites for signaling molecules (Dai et al., 2005 [PubMed 16192265]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
TMEM255A transmembrane protein 255A|
CDK15 cyclin-dependent kinase 15|
GPR126 adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G6|This gene, which is upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, encodes a G protein-coupled receptor. Variations in this gene can affect a person's stature. Multiple transcript variants encoding different proteins have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
ST5 suppression of tumorigenicity 5|This gene was identified by its ability to suppress the tumorigenicity of Hela cells in nude mice. The protein encoded by this gene contains a C-terminal region that shares similarity with the Rab 3 family of small GTP binding proteins. This protein preferentially binds to the SH3 domain of c-Abl kinase, and acts as a regulator of MAPK1/ERK2 kinase, which may contribute to its ability to reduce the tumorigenic phenotype in cells. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms are identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GPR124 adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A2|
ST7 suppression of tumorigenicity 7|The gene for this product maps to a region on chromosome 7 identified as an autism-susceptibility locus. Mutation screening of the entire coding region in autistic individuals failed to identify phenotype-specific variants, suggesting that coding mutations for this gene are unlikely to be involved in the etiology of autism. The function of this gene product has not been determined. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GZF1 GDNF-inducible zinc finger protein 1|
ATP6V1B1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 56/58kDa, V1 subunit B1|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c'', and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This encoded protein is one of two V1 domain B subunit isoforms and is found in the kidney. Mutations in this gene cause distal renal tubular acidosis associated with sensorineural deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1B2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 56/58kDa, V1 subunit B2|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A, three B, and two G subunits, as well as a C, D, E, F, and H subunit. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The protein encoded by this gene is one of two V1 domain B subunit isoforms and is the only B isoform highly expressed in osteoclasts. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NOS1AP nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) adaptor protein|This gene encodes a cytosolic protein that binds to the signaling molecule, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). This protein has a C-terminal PDZ-binding domain that mediates interactions with nNOS and an N-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain that binds to the small monomeric G protein, Dexras1. Studies of the related mouse and rat proteins have shown that this protein functions as an adapter protein linking nNOS to specific targets, such as Dexras1 and the synapsins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
PIP5KL1 phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase-like 1|PIP5KL1 is a phosphoinositide kinase-like protein that lacks intrinsic lipid kinase activity but associates with type I PIPKs (see PIP5K1A; MIM 603275) and may play a role in localization of PIPK activity (Chang et al., 2004 [PubMed 14701839]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]
CTSD cathepsin D|This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. This proteinase, which is a member of the peptidase C1 family, has a specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. Transcription of this gene is initiated from several sites, including one which is a start site for an estrogen-regulated transcript. Mutations in this gene are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF304 zinc finger protein 304|
CLPS colipase, pancreatic|The protein encoded by this gene is a cofactor needed by pancreatic lipase for efficient dietary lipid hydrolysis. It binds to the C-terminal, non-catalytic domain of lipase, thereby stabilizing an active conformation and considerably increasing the overall hydrophobic binding site. The gene product allows lipase to anchor noncovalently to the surface of lipid micelles, counteracting the destabilizing influence of intestinal bile salts. This cofactor is only expressed in pancreatic acinar cells, suggesting regulation of expression by tissue-specific elements. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
ZNF302 zinc finger protein 302|This gene encodes a member of the zinc-finger protein family. The encoded protein contains seven C2H2-type zinc fingers and a KRAB domain, but its function has yet to be determined. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ZNF300 zinc finger protein 300|The protein encoded by this gene is a C2H2-type zinc finger DNA binding protein and likely transcriptional regulator. The function of this protein is not yet known. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
P2RY8 purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 8|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors, that are preferentially activated by adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This gene is moderately expressed in undifferentiated HL60 cells, and is located on both chromosomes X and Y. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FAM216A family with sequence similarity 216, member A|
CTSF cathepsin F|Cathepsins are papain family cysteine proteinases that represent a major component of the lysosomal proteolytic system. Cathepsins generally contain a signal sequence, followed by a propeptide and then a catalytically active mature region. The very long (251 amino acid residues) proregion of the cathepsin F precursor contains a C-terminal domain similar to the pro-segment of cathepsin L-like enzymes, a 50-residue flexible linker peptide, and an N-terminal domain predicted to adopt a cystatin-like fold. The cathepsin F proregion is unique within the papain family cysteine proteases in that it contains this additional N-terminal segment predicted to share structural similarities with cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin superfamily. This cystatin-like domain contains some of the elements known to be important for inhibitory activity. CTSF encodes a predicted protein of 484 amino acids which contains a 19 residue signal peptide. Cathepsin F contains five potential N-glycosylation sites, and it may be targeted to the endosomal/lysosomal compartment via the mannose 6-phosphate receptor pathway. The cathepsin F gene is ubiquitously expressed, and it maps to chromosome 11q13, close to the gene encoding cathepsin W. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
STS steroid sulfatase (microsomal), isozyme S|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of sulfated steroid precursors to estrogens during pregnancy. The encoded protein is found in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it acts as a homodimer. Mutations in this gene are known to cause X-linked ichthyosis (XLI). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
P2RY2 purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 2|The product of this gene belongs to the family of P2 receptors, which is activated by extracellular nucleotides and subdivided into P2X ligand-gated ion channels and P2Y G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor, found on many cell types, is activated by ATP and UTP and is reported to be overexpressed on some cancer cell types. It is involved in many cellular functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]
SEC61G Sec61 gamma subunit|The Sec61 complex is the central component of the protein translocation apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Oligomers of the Sec61 complex form a transmembrane channel where proteins are translocated across and integrated into the ER membrane. This complex consists of three membrane proteins- alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the gamma-subunit protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MMP27 matrix metallopeptidase 27|Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MMP26 matrix metallopeptidase 26|Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The encoded protein degrades type IV collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen, casein, vitronectin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1, and activates MMP9 by cleavage. The protein differs from most MMP family members in that it lacks a conserved C-terminal protein domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
P2RY6 pyrimidinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 6|The product of this gene belongs to the family of P2 receptors, which is activated by extracellular nucleotides and subdivided into P2X ligand-gated ion channels and P2Y G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor, which is a G-protein coupled receptor, is responsive to UDP, partially responsive to UTP and ADP, and not responsive to ATP. It is proposed that this receptor mediates inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]
MMP20 matrix metallopeptidase 20|Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The protein encoded by this gene degrades amelogenin, the major protein component of dental enamel matrix, and thus thought to play a role in tooth enamel formation. A mutation in this gene, which alters the normal splice pattern and results in premature termination of the encoded protein, has been associated with amelogenesis imperfecta. This gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes located on chromosome 11q22.3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
P2RY4 pyrimidinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 4|The product of this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is responsive to uridine nucleotides, partially responsive to ATP, and not responsive to ADP. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HOXB13 homeobox B13|This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the homeobox gene family. Genes of this family are highly conserved among vertebrates and essential for vertebrate embryonic development. This gene has been implicated to play a role in fetal skin development and cutaneous regeneration. In mice, a similar gene was shown to exhibit temporal and spatial colinearity in the main body axis of the embryo, but was not expressed in the secondary axes, which suggests functions in body patterning along the axis. This gene and other HOXB genes form a gene cluster at chromosome the 17q21-22 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP4K4 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase has been shown to specifically activate MAPK8/JNK. The activation of MAPK8 by this kinase is found to be inhibited by the dominant-negative mutants of MAP3K7/TAK1, MAP2K4/MKK4, and MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests that this kinase may function through the MAP3K7-MAP2K4-MAP2K7 kinase cascade, and mediate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALDH8A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 8 family, member A1|This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenases family of proteins. It plays a role in a pathway of 9-cis-retinoic acid biosynthesis in vivo. This enzyme converts 9-cis-retinal into the retinoid X receptor ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid, and has approximately 40-fold higher activity with 9-cis-retinal than with all-trans-retinal. Therefore, it is the first known aldehyde dehydrogenase to show a preference for 9-cis-retinal relative to all-trans-retinal. Three transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
SETD8 SET domain containing (lysine methyltransferase) 8|
TFG TRK-fused gene|There are several documented fusion oncoproteins encoded partially by this gene. This gene also participates in several oncogenic rearrangements resulting in anaplastic lymphoma and mixoid chondrosarcoma, and may play a role in the NF-kappaB pathway. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
HVCN1 hydrogen voltage gated channel 1|This gene encodes a voltage-gated protein channel protein expressed more highly in certain cells of the immune system. Phagocytic cells produce superoxide anions which require this channel protein, and in B cells this same process facilitates antibody production. This same channel protein, however, can also regulate functions in other cells including spermatozoa. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
TOMM34 translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34|The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the import of precursor proteins into mitochondria. The encoded protein has a chaperone-like activity, binding the mature portion of unfolded proteins and aiding their import into mitochondria. This protein, which is found in the cytoplasm and sometimes associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane, has a weak ATPase activity and contains 6 TPR repeats. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RND1 Rho family GTPase 1|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the Rho GTPase family. Members of this family regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to extracellular growth factors. A similar protein in rat interacts with a microtubule regulator to control axon extension. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
RND2 Rho family GTPase 2|This gene encodes a member of the Rho GTPase family, whose members play a key role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization in response to extracellular growth factors. This particular family member has been implicated in the regulation of neuronal morphology and endosomal trafficking. The gene localizes to chromosome 17 and is the centromeric neighbor of the breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RND3 Rho family GTPase 3|This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the small GTPase protein superfamily. The encoded protein binds only GTP but has no GTPase activity, and appears to act as a negative regulator of cytoskeletal organization leading to loss of adhesion. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]