TISSUES Curated Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

Description protein tissue expression evidence scores by manual literature curation
Measurement association by literature curation
Association protein-tissue associations by integrating evidence from manual literature curation
Category structural or functional annotations
Resource TISSUES
Last Updated
  1. 16215 genes
  2. 643 tissues
  3. 357442 gene-tissue associations

Data Access



  • Attribute Similarity

  • Dataset

  • Gene Similarity

tissue Gene Sets

643 sets of proteins highly expressed in tissues from the TISSUES Curated Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores dataset.

Gene Set Description
abdomen 1: The part of the body between the thorax and the pelvis; also: the cavity of this part of the trunk containing the chief viscera. 2: The posterior section of the body behind the thorax in an arthropod.
abdominal adipose tissue Adipose tissue located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and torso. An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, or belly fat, the pot belly or beer belly effect, in which the abdomen protrudes excessively.
abomasum The fourth compartment of the ruminant stomach that follows the omasum and has a true digestive function.
acute myeloid leukemia cell Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the blood and bone marrow. More common in adults, the proliferating cells are of the myeloid hematopoietic series and the cells appearing in the blood are primitive granulocytes or monocytes.
acute promyelocytic leukemia cell A subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. In APL, there is an abnormal accumulation of immature granulocytes called promyelocytes.
adenocarcinoma cell A cell of a cancer that begins in cells that line certain internal organs and that have glandular (secretory) properties.
adenocarcinoma cell line
adenohypophysis The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland.
adipocyte One of the fat-laden cells making up adipose tissue.
adipose tissue Connective tissue in which fat is stored and which has the cells distended by droplets of fat.
adrenal cortex The outer portion of the adrenal glands that produces several steroid hormones, including cortisol and aldosterone.
adrenal gland Either of a pair of complex endocrine organs near the anterior medial border of the kidney consisting of a mesodermal cortex that produces glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and androgenic hormones and an ectodermal medulla that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
adrenal gland cancer cell Adrenal gland cancers are rare cancers occuring in the endocrine tissue of the adrenals. They are characterized by overproduction of adrenal gland hormones.
adrenal medulla The inner, reddish-brown portion of the adrenal glands that synthesizes, stores, and releases epinephrine and norepinephrine.
adult stem cell Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that reproduce daily to provide certain specialized cells. Until recently it was thought that each of these cells could produce just one particular type of cell. This is called differentiation. However in the past few years, evidence has been gathered of stem cells that can transform into several different forms.
alimentary canal The mucous membrane-lined tube of the digestive system through which food passes, in which digestion takes place, and from which wastes are eliminated. It extends from the mouth to the anus and includes the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
alveolar macrophage Macrophage found in lung and that can be obtained by lung lavage, responsible for clearance of inhaled particles and lung surfactant. Metabolism slightly different from peritoneal macrophages (more oxidative metabolism), often have multivesicular bodies that may represent residual undigested lung surfactant.
amniochorion Pertaining to the amnion and chorion.
amnion A thin, tough, membranous sac that encloses the embryo or fetus of a mammal, bird, or reptile. It is filled with a serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended.
amniotic cavity The space within the amnion.
amniotic fluid Fluid within the amniotic cavity produced by the amnion during the early embryonic period, and later by the lungs and kidneys; at first crystal clear, it later becomes cloudy. It protects the embryo and fetus from injury. The amount at term normally varies from 500 to 1500 mL.
amygdala The one of the four basal ganglia in each cerebral hemisphere that is part of the limbic system and consists of an almond-shaped mass of gray matter in the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe.
animal Any of a kingdom (Animalia) of living things including many-celled organisms and often many of the single-celled ones (as protozoans) that typically differ from plants in having cells without cellulose walls, in lacking chlorophyll and the capacity for photosynthesis, in requiring more complex food materials (as proteins), in being organized to a greater degree of complexity, and in having the capacity for spontaneous movement and rapid motor responses to stimulation.
anterior lobe The portion of the cerebellum lying in front of the primary fissure, comprising the lingula, central lobule, culmen, alae of central lobules, and quadrangular lobules.
aorta The great arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body.
aorta endothelium Simple squamous epithelium which lines the lumen side of the blood vessel.
aortic smooth muscle
arterial smooth muscle
artery Any of the tubular branching muscular- and elastic-walled vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body.
articular cartilage A thin layer of cartilage, usually hyaline, on the articular surface of bones in synovial joints.
ascites Accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen.
astroblast An embryonic astrocyte.
astrocyte A star-shaped cell, especially a neuroglial cell of nervous tissue.
astrocytoma cell A tumor cell composed of astrocytes; it is the most common type of primary brain tumor and is also found throughout the central nervous system. One classification groups astrocytomas according to their histologic appearance and distinguishes pilocytic, protoplasmic, gemistocytic, and fibrillary types. Another classification groups them in order of increasing malignancy as Grade I, Grade II, Grade III, and Grade IV types.
astroglia Neuroglia tissue made up of astrocytes.
astroglial cell Neuroglia tissue made up of astrocytes.
atrium In the heart, the atrium is an upper chamber found on both sides of the heart. The left atrium receives red, oxygenated blood from the lungs by way of the pulmonary veins. The right atrium receives dark red blood from the other parts of the body.
autonomic nervous system The enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus and the solitary nucleus, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS; these and related central and sensory structures are sometimes (but not here) considered to be part of the autonomic nervous system itself.
avian pallium In the anatomy of animals, an avian pallium is the dorsal telencephalon of a bird's brain. Pallium of avian species tend to be relatively large, comprising ~75% of the telencephalic volume.
b-cell lymphoma cell A cell of a group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
b-lymphocyte Any of the lymphocytes that have antibody molecules on the surface and comprise the antibody-secreting plasma cells when mature.
b-lymphocyte cell line
basal ganglion Any of four deeply placed masses of gray matter (as the amygdala) in each cerebral hemisphere. Location: The basal ganglion is located deep within the cerebral hemispheres in the telencephalon region of the brain. It consists of the corpus stratium, subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra.
bg-1 cell Ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line.
bile A fluid secreted by the liver and poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts. Important constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin diglucuronide, and electrolytes. Bile is alkaline due to its bicarbonate content, is golden brown to greenish yellow in color, and has a bitter taste. Bile secreted by the liver is concentrated in the gallbladder.
bladder A membranous sac in animals that serves as the receptacle of a liquid or contains gas.
blast cell In the monophyletic theory, the least differentiated, totipotential blood cell without commitment as to its particular series, from which all blood cells are derived, preceding a stem cell.
blastomere A cell produced during cleavage of a fertilized egg.
blastula The usually spherical structure produced by cleavage of a zygote, consisting of a single layer of cells (blastoderm) surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocoele).
blood 1: The fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins of a vertebrate animal carrying nourishment and oxygen to and bringing away waste products from all parts of the body. 2: A comparable fluid of an invertebrate.
blood cancer cell The major forms of blood cancer are lymphoma, leukemia and multiple myeloma. They affect the way a body makes blood and provides immunity from other diseases.
blood plasma The fluid portion of the blood in which the particulate components are suspended.
blood platelet A minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting.
blood vessel Any of the vessels through which blood circulates in the body.
blood vessel endothelium
bone The hard form of connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton of most vertebrates; it consists of an organic component (the cells and matrix) and an inorganic, or mineral, component; the matrix contains a framework of collagenous fibers and is impregnated with the mineral component, chiefly calcium phosphate (85 per cent) and calcium carbonate (10 per cent), which imparts the quality of rigidity to bone.
bone cancer cell Cancer cell of the skeleton. Cancers that begin in bone are rare but it is not unusual for cancers to spread (metastasize) to bone from other parts of the body. This is not called bone cancer, but is named for the organ or tissue in which the cancer begins.
bone marrow The soft, fatty, vascular tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of red blood cells and many white blood cells.
bone marrow cancer cell
bone marrow cell The soft, fatty, vascular tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of red blood cells and many white blood cells.
bone marrow stromal cell
brain 1: The portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that constitutes the organ of thought and neural coordination, includes all the higher nervous centers receiving stimuli from the sense organs and interpreting and correlating them to formulate the motor impulses, is made up of neurons and supporting and nutritive structures, is enclosed within the skull, and is continuous with the spinal cord through the foramen magnum. Also named encephalon. 2: A nervous center in invertebrates comparable in position and function to the vertebrate brain.
brain cancer cell Cancer cell of the central information processing center of the body. Tumors in the brain can be malignant or benign, and can occur at any age. Only malignant tumors are cancerous. Primary brain tumors cancer initially forms in the brain tissue. Secondary brain tumors cancers are cancers that have spread to the brain tissue (metastasized) from elsewhere in the body. Secondary brain cancer is named for the organ or tissue in which the cancer begins, such as lung cancer with secondary brain metastasis.
brain capillary endothelial cell line
brain cell line
brain cortex cell line
brain endothelium
brain endothelium cell line
brain stem The part of the brain composed of the mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata and connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum.
brain ventricle Any of the system of communicating cavities in the brain that are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.
breast The fore or ventral part of the body between the neck and the abdomen.
breast cancer cell Breast cancer is an uncontrolled growth of malignant breast tissue. Most breast cancers begin in the milk ducts: these are called intraductal cancers. A few, like lobular cancer, start in the milk sacs or lobes.
breast epithelium
bronchiolar epithelium
bronchiole A minute thin-walled branch of a bronchus.
bronchoalveolar system System pertaining to a bronchus and alveoli.
bronchogenic carcinoma cell Any of a large group of carcinomas of the lung, so called because they arise from the epithelium of the bronchial tree. Four primary subtypes are distinguished: adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
bronchus Either of the two primary divisions of the trachea that lead respectively into the right and the left lung.
brown adipose tissue A mammalian heat-producing tissue occurring especially in human newborns and in hibernators.
bud Any small part of the embryo or adult metazoon more or less resembling the bud of a plant and presumed to have potential for growth and differentiation.
cancellous bone Bone substance made up of thin intersecting lamellae, usually found internal to compact bone.
capillary A capillary tube; especially: any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules and forming networks throughout the body.
capillary endothelium The walls of capillaries are composed of only a single layer of cells, the endothelium.
capsular epithelium The outer, or parietal, layer of the renal glomerular capsule, composed of simple squamous epithelium, and separated from the inner, or visceral, layer by the capsular space.
carcinoma cell A cell of malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases.
carcinoma cell line
cardiac muscle The principal muscle tissue of the vertebrate heart made up of striated fibers that appear to be separated from each other under the electron microscope but that function in long-term rhythmic contraction as if in protoplasmic continuity.
cardiovascular system The system of heart and blood vessels.
cartilage A specialized, fibrous connective tissue, forming most of the temporary skeleton of the embryo, providing a model in which most of the bones develop, and constituting an important part of the growth mechanism of the organism. It exists in several types, the most important of which are hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Also used as a general term to designate a mass of such tissue in a particular site in the body.
caudate nucleus One of the centrally-located portions of the brain affected by Huntington's Disease. Speech and swallowing problems arise when this region and another region called the putamen are affected.
central nervous system The central nervous system is that part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. The other is the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which is outside the brain and spinal cord.
cerebellum A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum , and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe.
cerebral cortex The surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that functions chiefly in coordination of sensory and motor information.
cerebral hemisphere Either of the two hollow convoluted lateral halves of the cerebrum.
cerebral lobe The well defined areas of the cerebral cortex, demarcated by fissures, sulci, and arbitrary lines, including the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes.
cerebrospinal fluid The serumlike fluid that circulates through the ventricles of the brain, the cavity of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space, functioning in shock absorption. A liquid that is comparable to serum but contains less dissolved material, that is secreted from the blood into the lateral ventricles of the brain by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles to the spaces between the meninges about the brain and spinal cord, and is resorbed into the blood through the subarachnoid sinuses, and that serves chiefly to maintain uniform pressure within the brain and spinal cord.
cervical carcinoma cell A cancer cell of the uterine cervix (the neck of the uterus).
cervical mucosa Lining of the head of the uterus (cervix); contains large branched glands; does not undergo sloughing.
chondrocyte Cartilage cells. They make the structural components of cartilage.
chondrosarcoma cell Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor derived from cartilage cells or their precursors, but lacking direct osteoid formation; it occurs predominantly in the pelvis, femur, and shoulder girdle in middle-aged to older adults. It may be primary, arising from cartilage cells, or secondary to a pre-existing benign lesion.
choriocarcinoma cell A cell of an epithelial malignancy of trophoblastic cells, formed by the abnormal proliferation of cuboidal and syncytial cells of the placental epithelium, without the production of chorionic villi. Almost all cases arise in the uterus, developing from hydatidiform mole, following abortion, or during normal pregnancy. The remainder occur in ectopic pregnancies and genital (ovarian and testicular) and extragenital teratomas.
chorion The outer membrane of the two membranes enclosing the embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals. In placental mammals it contributes to the development of the placenta.
choroid plexus The choroid plexus is tissue located in the spaces inside the brain called ventricles. The choroid plexus makes the fluid that fills the ventricles and surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell Cell of a neoplastic disease of middle or old age, characterized by excessive numbers of circulating lymphocytes of normal, mature appearance, usually B-lymphocytes; presumably a neoplastic transformation of lymphoid stem cells.
chronic myeloid leukemia cell Neoplasia of myeloid stem cells, commonest in middle-aged or elderly people, characterized by excessive numbers of circulating leucocytes, most commonly neutrophils (or precursors), but occasionally eosinophils or basophils.
ciliary body Tissue that includes the group of muscles that act on the eye lens to produce accommodation and the arterial circle of the iris. The inner ciliary epithelium is continuous with the pigmented retinal epithelium, the outer ciliary epithelium secretes the aqueous humour.
ciliary epithelium
cl-48 cell Normal human fetal liver cell line.
cochlea A division of the bony labyrinth of the inner ear of higher vertebrates that is usually coiled like a snail shell and is the seat of the hearing organ.
cochlear duct A spirally arranged membranous tube in the bony canal of the cochlea along its outer wall, lying between the scala tympani below and the scala vestibuli above.
coelom The cavity within the body of all animals higher than the coelenterates and certain primitive worms, formed by the splitting of the embryonic mesoderm into two layers. In mammals it forms the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities.
colon The part of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum.
colon muscle
colonic adenocarcinoma cell A cell of an adenocarcinoma of the colon is a malignant neoplastic epithelial lesion, arising from the colonic mucosa.
colonic cancer cell A malignant tumour arising from the inner wall of the large intestine.
colonic epithelium
colonic mucosa
colorectal adenocarcinoma cell Adenocarcinoma cell related to the colon and/or rectum.
colorectum The colon and rectum considered as a unit.
connecting stalk A bridge of mesoderm connecting the caudal end of the young embryo with the trophoblastic tissues; the precursor of the umbilical cord.
connective tissue The tissue which binds together and is the support of the various structures of the body. It is made up of fibroblasts, fibroglia, collagen fibrils, and elastic fibrils. It is derived from the mesoderm and in a broad sense includes the collagenous, elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. Some also include the blood in this group of tissues. Connective tissue is classified according to concentration of fibers as loose (areolar) and dense, the latter having more abundant fibers than the former.
cornea The transparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior.
corneal cell line
corneal epithelium Posterior epithelium of cornea: the mesothelial layer covering the posterior surface of the posterior limiting lamina of the cornea; it was once believed to extend to the anterior surface of the stroma of the iris.
corneal fibroblast cell line
coronary artery Either of two arteries that arise one from the left and one from the right side of the aorta immediately above the semilunar valves and supply the tissues of the heart itself.
coronary artery endothelial cell
corpus callosum The great band of commissural fibers uniting the cerebral hemispheres of higher mammals including humans.
corpus striatum Either of a pair of masses of nervous tissue within the brain that contain two large nuclei of gray matter separated by sheets of white matter.
craniofacial region Relating to both the face and the cranium.
cytotoxic t-lymphocyte Subset of T-lymphocytes (mostly CD8+) responsible for lysing target cells and for killing virus-infected cells.
daltons lymphoma cell Spontaneous T cell lymphoma.
decidua 1: The part of the mucous membrane lining the uterus that in higher placental mammals undergoes special modifications in preparation for and during pregnancy and is cast off at parturition. 2: The part of the mucous membrane of the uterus cast off in the process of menstruation.
dendritic cell A special type of cell that is a key regulator of the immune system, acting as a professional antigen-presenting cell, APC, capable of activating naive T cells and stimulating the growth and differentiation of B cells. Dendritic cells are found, for example, in the lymph nodes and spleen. As an APC, a dendritic cell can retain antigen for long periods on its surface, present the antigen to a T or B cell and so influence their behavior.
dental pulp The soft sensitive tissue that fills the central cavity of a tooth.
diencephalon The posterior subdivision of the forebrain.
digestive gland A gland, such as the liver or pancreas, that secretes into the alimentary canal substances necessary for digestion.
digestive juice
duodenal adenocarcinoma cell Malignant neoplasms of the duodenum account for only 0.3-0.4% of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. 25-45% of malignant neoplasms within the small bowel occur within the duodenum. Duodenal adenocarcinomas are usually located in the periampullary and intraampullary regions; they very rarely involve the duodenal bulb. There is an association of duodenal adenocarcinoma with Gardner's syndrome, Peutz-Jegher's syndrome, celiac disease, and Crohn's disease.
duodenal mucosa The duodenal mucosa (and that of the rest of the intestines) is classified as simple columnar. The cells rest on a basal lamina, which you may be able to make out in this image as a bright line underneath the cells. They sit over the lamina propria, the loose collagenous CT, filled with cells, that constitutes the core of each villus.
duodenum The first part of the small intestine extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.
ear The organ of hearing.
ectoderm The outer of the three germ layers of the embryo (the other two being mesoderm and endoderm). Ectoderm gives rise to epidermis and neural tissue.
embryo An animal in the early stages of growth and differentiation that are characterized by cleavage, the laying down of fundamental tissues, and the formation of primitive organs and organ systems; especially: the developing human individual from the time of implantation to the end of the eighth week after conception.
embryonic brain
embryonic carcinoma cell line
embryonic cell line
embryonic fibroblast
embryonic fibroblast cell line
embryonic stem cell Totipotent cell cultured from early embryo. Have the advantage that following modification in vitrothey can be used to produce chimeric embryos and thus transgenic animals.
embryonic structure An anatomical structure that exists only before the organism is fully formed. In mammals, for example, a structure that exists only prior to the birth of the organism. This structure may be normal or abnormal.
endocervix 1. The mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix uteri. 2. The region of the opening of the uterine cervix into the uterine cavity.
endocrine gland Any of various glands producing hormonal secretions that pass directly into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include the thyroid, parathyroids, anterior and posterior pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, pineal, and gonads.
endocrine pancreas That part of the pancreas that acts as an endocrine gland, consisting of the islets of Langerhans, which secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and sometimes pancreatic polypeptide directly into the bloodstream.
endothelial cell The main type of cell found in the inside lining of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the heart.
endothelium An epithelium of mesodermal origin composed of a single layer of thin flattened cells that lines internal body cavities.
eosinophil A white blood cell or other granulocyte with cytoplasmic inclusions readily stained by eosin.
epidermal cell Cell of epidermis in animals.
epidermis The outer epithelial layer of the external integument of the animal body that is derived from the embryonic epiblast; specifically: the outer nonsensitive and nonvascular layer of the skin of a vertebrate that overlies the dermis.
epididymis A system of ductules emerging posteriorly from the testis that holds sperm during maturation and that forms a tangled mass before uniting into a single coiled duct which is continuous with the vas deferens.
epithalamus The caudal part of the roof and the adjoining lateral walls of the third ventricle of the diencephalon, comprising the habenular nuclei and their commissure, pineal body, and commissure of the epithalamus.
epithelial cell Cell that cover the surface of the body and line its cavities.
epithelial cell line
epithelioma cell A neoplasm cell of epithelial origin, ranging from benign (adenoma and papilloma) to malignant (carcinoma).
epithelium A membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of an animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation.
erythroblast Any of the nucleated cells normally found only in bone marrow that develop into erythrocytes.
erythrocyte Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood.
erythroid cell Cell that will give rise to erythrocytes.
erythroleukemia cell Cancer cell of the blood-forming tissues in which large numbers of immature, abnormal red blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.
esophagus A muscular tube that in humans is about nine inches (23 centimeters) long and passes from the pharynx down the neck between the trachea and the spinal column and behind the left bronchus where it pierces the diaphragm slightly to the left of the middle line and joins the cardiac end of the stomach.
ewing's family tumor cell The Ewing's family of tumors includes Ewing's tumor of bone, extraosseus Ewing's sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and Askin's tumor. All of these tumors are derived from the same primordial stem cell, the primitive nerve cell.
ewing's sarcoma cell A malignant primary bone tumour that arises most commonly in the first three decades of life.
excretory gland A gland that discharges its secretion through a duct opening on an internal or external surface of the body, as a lacrimal gland.
exocrine gland An externally secreting gland, such as a salivary gland or sweat gland that releases its secretions directly or through a duct.
external female genital organ The external genitalia of the female, comprising the pudendum femininum, clitoris, and urethra.
external male genital organ The external genitalia in the male, comprising the penis, scrotum, and urethra.
extraocular muscle Any of six small voluntary muscles that pass between the eyeball and the orbit and control the movement of the eyeball in relation to the orbit.
eye An organ of sight; especially: a nearly spherical hollow organ that is lined with a sensitive retina, is lodged in a bony orbit in the skull, is the vertebrate organ of sight, and is normally paired.
eye cancer cell A cell of a cancerous growth in any part of the eye.
fat pad An accumulation of adipose tissue (fat cells) enclosed in fibrous tissue.
female pudendum That portion of the female genitalia comprising the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule of the vagina, bulb of the vestibule, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and vaginal orifice. Commonly used to denote the entire external female genitalia.
female reproductive gland
female reproductive system The internal and external reproductive organs in the female.
femoral artery The main artery of the thigh, supplying blood to the groin and lower extremity.
femur The bone that extends from the pelvis to the knee, being the longest and largest bone in the body; its head articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone, and distally, the femur, along with the patella and tibia, forms the knee joint.
fetal cell line
fetal membrane Any membrane that functions for the protection or nourishment of respiration or excretion of a developing fetus.
fetus An unborn or unhatched vertebrate especially after attaining the basic structural plan of its kind; specifically: a developing human from usually three months after conception to birth.
fibroblast A connective-tissue cell of mesenchymal origin that secretes proteins and especially molecular collagen from which the extracellular fibrillar matrix of connective tissue forms.
fibroblast cell line
fibroblastoma cell A cell of a tumor arising from fibroblasts, divided into fibromas and fibrosarcomas.
fibrosarcoma cell Fibrosarcoma is a malignant tumour derived from connective tissue fibroblast.
follicular fluid Follicular fluid is a liquid which fills the follicular antrum and surrounds the ovum in an ovarian follicle. This fluid is rich in hyaluronic acid.
foot 1: The terminal part of the vertebrate leg upon which an individual stands. 2: An invertebrate organ of locomotion or attachment; especially: a ventral muscular surface or process of a mollusk.
foot sole The underside of the foot.
forebrain The anterior of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes especially the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus and that especially in higher vertebrates is the main control center for sensory and associative information processing, visceral functions, and voluntary motor functions.
forelimb A limb as an arm, wing, fin, or leg that is situated anteriorly.
foreskin fibroblast cell line
frontal lobe Front part of the brain, involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of higher cognitive functions including behavior and emotions.
gall bladder A small, pear-shaped muscular sac, located under the right lobe of the liver, in which bile secreted by the liver is stored until needed by the body for digestion.
gametocyte A cell from which gametes develop by meiotic division, especially a spermatocyte or an oocyte.
ganglion A group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system. The term is occasionally applied to certain nuclear groups within the brain or spinal cord, such as the basal ganglia.
gastric adenocarcinoma cell A cell of any of a group of common stomach cancers, usually located in the antrum; it may present as a bulky mass with central ulceration invading the wall, a mass that narrows the antral lumen, a polypoid lesion, or a tumor that spreads superficially over the mucosal surface. It is common in Japan, Chile, Iceland, and Finland but the incidence is decreasing in North America and elsewhere. There may be links to certain dietary substances such as nitrosamines and benzpyrene.
gastric adenocarcinoma cell line
gastric antrum The dilated portion of the pyloric part of the stomach, between the body of the stomach and the pyloric canal.
gastric cancer cell Gastric cancer is a cancer of the stomach.
gastric cancer cell line
gastric cell line
gastric fundus That part of the stomach to the left and above the level of the entrance of the esophagus.
gastric gland Any of various glands in the walls of the stomach that secrete gastric juice.
gastric mucosa The mucous coat of the stomach.
gastrinoma cell A tumor cell that secretes gastrin; most are islet cell tumors of non-beta cells in the pancreas, but some are found at sites such as the antrum of the stomach, the hilus of the spleen, or regional lymph nodes. This is the usual cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
gastroesophageal cancer cell
gastroesophageal junction The junction between the stomach and the esophagus; the place where the esophagus connects to the stomach.
gastrointestinal cancer cell
gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract includes both stomach and intestine.
germ cell 1. A gamete (as an egg or sperm cell) or one of its antecedent cells. 2. A mature male or female germ cell usually possessing a haploid chromosome set and capable of initiating formation of a new diploid individual by fusion with a gamete of the opposite sex.
germ layer A layer of cells produced during the process of gastrulation during the early development of the animal embryo, which is distinct from other such layers of cells, as an early step of cell differentiation. The three types of germ layers are the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm.
gland A cell, group of cells, or organ of endothelial origin that selectively removes materials from the blood, concentrates or alters them, and secretes them for further use in the body or for elimination from the body.
glia The delicate network of branched cells and fibers that supports the tissue of the central nervous system.
glial cell As glia they build the delicate network of branched cells and fibers that supports the tissue of the central nervous system.
glioblastoma cell Glioblastoma is a general term for malignant forms of astrocytoma.
glioma cell A tumor cell originating in the neuroglia of the brain or spinal cord.
glomerular epithelium The inner, or visceral, layer of the renal glomerular capsule, overlying the capillaries, composed of podocytes, and separated from the outer, or parietal, layer by the capsular, Bowman,s space.
gonad A reproductive gland (as an ovary or testis) that produces gametes.
granulocyte A polymorphonuclear white blood cell with granule-containingcytoplasm. In humans the granulocytes are also classified as polymorphonuclear leucocytes and are subdivided according to the staining properties of the granules into eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils, some invertebrate blood cells are also referred to, not very helpfully, as granulocytes.
granulosa cell One of the estrogen-secreting cells of the epithelial lining of a graafian follicle or its follicular precursor.
hair 1: A slender threadlike outgrowth of the epidermis of an animal; especially: one of the usually pigmented filaments that form the characteristic coat of a mammal. 2: The hairy covering of an animal or a body part; especially: the coating of hairs on a human head.
hair follicle The tubular epithelial sheath that surrounds the lower part of the hair shaft and encloses at the bottom a vascular papilla supplying the growing basal part of the hair with nourishment.
hair root The enlarged basal part of a hair within the skin.
head The upper or anterior division of the animal body that contains the brain, the chief sense organs, and the mouth.
head muscle
heart 1: A hollow muscular organ of vertebrate animals that by its rhythmic contraction acts as a force pump maintaining the circulation of the blood. 2: A structure in an invertebrate animal functionally analogous to the vertebrate heart.
heart primordium
heart ventricle A chamber of the heart which receives blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries.
helf cell Human embryonic lung fibroblast cell line.
hemangioendothelioma cell A true neoplasm of vascular origin, characterized by proliferation of endothelial cells in and about the vascular lumen; it is usually considered to be intermediate in grade between hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma but sometimes is used to denote the latter.
hematopoietic cell A blood cell.
hematopoietic stem cell A blood cell progenitor or mother cell representing a slightly later stage than the blast cell; it has the capacity for both replication and differentiation, and has pluripotentiality, giving rise to precursors of various different blood cell lines, such as the proerythrocyte and myeloblast, which cannot self-replicate and must differentiate into more mature daughter cells.
hematopoietic system The tissues concerned in production of the blood, including the bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus.
hemn cell Primary human epidermal melanocytes isolated from neonatal foreskin.
hepatic stellate cell Hepatic stellate cells are pericytes found in the perisinusoidal space (a small area between the sinusoids and hepatocytes) of the liver. The stellate cell is the major cell type involved in liver fibrosis, which is the formation of scar tissue in response to liver damage.
hepatoblastoma cell A malignant intrahepatic tumor occurring in infants and young children and consisting chiefly of embryonic hepatic tissue.
hepatocyte The major cell type of the liver. They are arranged in folded sheets facing blood-filled spaces called sinusoids. Hepatocytes are responsible for the synthesis, degradation, and storage of a wide range of substances. They are the site of synthesis of all the plasma proteins, except for antibody, and are the site of storage of glycogen.
hepatoma cell Primary carcinoma of the liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumour difficult to distinguish from normal hepatocytes to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic or may form giant cells. Several classification schemes have been suggested. Hepatocellular carcinoma is very rare in the united states and western europe, but it is one of the most common cancers in eastern asia and sub-saharan africa. The cases are preponderantly male and, racially, whites have the lowest rates.
hindbrain The posterior of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata, and in mammals the pons and that controls autonomic functions and equilibrium.
hindlimb Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a femur, tibia and fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and toes.
hippocampus A curved elongated ridge that extends over the floor of the descending horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain and consists of gray matter covered on the ventricular surface with white matter; The hippocampus is a part of the temporal lobe, which has a well established role in learning, memory and emotion.
histiocytic lymphoma cell The most common aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It occurs in both diffuse and nodular form. The large cells may have cleaved and non-cleaved nuclei.
hypocotyl The part of the axis of a plant embryo or seedling below the cotyledon.
hypophysis A small oval endocrine organ that is attached to the infundibulum of the brain, consists of an epithelial anterior lobe joined by an intermediate part to a posterior lobe of nervous origin, and produces various internal secretions directly or indirectly impinging on most basic body functions.
hypothalamus The ventral part of the diencephalon that forms the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Anatomically, it includes the preoptic area, optic tract, optic chiasm, mammillary bodies, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, and neurohypophysis, but for physiological purposes the neurohypophysis is considered a distinct structure. The hypothalamus may be divided into five regions or areas (area hypothalamica rostralis, area hypothalamica dorsalis, area hypothalamica intermedia, area hypothalamica lateralis and area hypothalamica posterior) or into three longitudinal zones (periventricular zone, medial zone, and lateral zone). The hypothalamic nuclei constitute that part of the corticodiencephalic mechanism that activates, controls and integrates the peripheral autonomic mechanisms, endocrine activity, and many somatic functions, e.g., a general regulation of water balance, body temperature, sleep, and food intake, and the development of secondary sex characteristics. The hypothalamus secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary, as well as many releasing factors (hypophysiotropic hormones), by means of which it exerts control over functions of the adenohypophysis.
ileal mucosa
ileocecum The ileum and cecum considered as one organ.
ileum The last division of the small intestine extending between the jejunum and large intestine.
immature ovarian follicle Primary ovarian follicles: immature ovarian follicles, each comprising an immature ovum and the specialized epithelial cells (follicle cells) that surround it.
inner ear The essential organ of hearing and equilibrium that is located in the temporal bone, is innervated by the auditory nerve, and includes the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea.
insulinoma cell A cell of a usually benign tumor of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas.
integument Something that covers or encloses; especially: an enveloping layer (as a skin, membrane, or husk) of an organism or one of its parts.
internal female genital organ The various organs in the female that are concerned with reproduction, including the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina.
internal male genital organ The internal organs in the male that are concerned with reproduction, including the testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, prostate, and bulbourethral gland.
interstitial cell The cells of the connective tissue of the ovary and testis (Leydig cells), which furnish the internal secretion of those structures.
interstitial cell of cajal Pleomorphic cells having an oval nucleus and long, branching cytoplasmic processes that interlace with processes of adjacent cells, interspersed between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract and in the smooth muscle of the esophagus; they are thought to act as pacemakers.
intestinal epithelium The endodermally-derived epithelium of the intestine varies considerably, but the absorptive epithelium of small intestine is usually implied.
intestinal mucosa The surface lining of the intestines where the cells absorb nutrients.
intestinal muscle
intestine The tubular part of the alimentary canal that extends from the stomach to the anus.
iris The circular pigmented membrane behind the cornea, perforated by the pupil; the most anterior portion of the vascular tunic of the eye, it is made up of a flat bar of circular muscular fibers surrounding the pupil, a thin layer of smooth muscle fibers by which the pupil is dilated, thus regulating the amount of light entering the eye, and posteriorly two layers of pigmented epithelial cells.
jejunal mucosa
jejunum The section of the small intestine that comprises the first two fifths beyond the duodenum and that is larger, thicker-walled, and more vascular and has more circular folds than the ileum.
joint The point of contact between elements of an animal skeleton with the parts that surround and support it.
keratinocyte Skin cell, of the keratinized layer of epidermis: its characteristic intermediate filament protein is cytokeratin. A cell of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis.
kidney 1: One of a pair of vertebrate organs situated in the body cavity near the spinal column that excrete waste products of metabolism, in humans are bean-shaped organs about 4 1/2 inches (11 1/2 centimeters) long lying behind the peritoneum in a mass of fatty tissue, and consist chiefly of nephrons by which urine is secreted, collected, and discharged into a main cavity whence it is conveyed by the ureter to the bladder. 2: Any of various excretory organs of invertebrate animals.
kidney cancer cell A cell of benign or cancerous growth originating from kidney tissue (for example renal cell carcinoma, hypernephroma).
large granular lymphocyte A type of white blood cell that contains granules with enzymes that can kill tumor cells or microbial cells.
large intestine The more terminal division of the vertebrate intestine that is wider and shorter than the small intestine, typically divided into cecum, colon, and rectum, and concerned especially with the resorption of water and the formation of feces.
laryngeal cancer cell Cancer or tumor cell of the larynx or any of its parts: the glottis, epiglottis, laryngeal cartilages, laryngeal muscles, and vocal cords.
laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell
larynx The modified upper part of the trachea of air-breathing vertebrates that in humans, most other mammals, and a few lower forms contains the vocal cords.
lateral ventricle An internal cavity in each cerebral hemisphere that consists of a central body and three cornua including an anterior one curving forward and outward, a posterior one curving backward, and an inferior one curving downward.
leaf A lateral outgrowth from a plant stem that is typically a flattened expanded variably shaped greenish organ, constitutes a unit of the foliage, and functions primarily in food manufacture by photosynthesis.
left ventricle The ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart. The left ventricle is the chamber that receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it out under high pressure to the body via the aorta.
leg A limb of an animal used especially for supporting the body and for walking.
leiomyoma cell A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle, most commonly of the uterus.
leiomyosarcoma cell A malignant tumor cell of smooth muscle origin. Smooth muscle is the major structural component of most hollow internal organs and the walls of blood vessels. Can occur almost anywhere in the body but is most frequent in the uterus and gastrointestinal tract. Complete surgical excision, if possible, is the treatment of choice.
lens A highly transparent biconvex lens-shaped or nearly spherical body in the eye that focuses light rays (as upon the retina).
lens cortex The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.
lens epithelium Cuboidal epithelium covering the lens.
leukemia cell A cancer cell of the white blood cells. Leukaemias are grouped by how quickly the disease develops (acute or chronic) as well as by the type of blood cell that is affected.
leukocyte Any of the blood cells that are colorless, lack hemoglobin, contain a nucleus, and include the lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
limb 1. One of the projecting paired appendages (as wings) of an animal body used especially for movement and grasping but sometimes modified into sensory or sexual organs. 2. A leg or arm of a human being.
limbic system A group of subcortical structures (as the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala) of the brain that are concerned especially with emotion and motivation.
lip Either of two fleshy folds that surround the mouth in humans and many other vertebrates and are the organs of human speech.
liposarcoma cell A malignant tumor that arises in fat cells in deep soft tissue, such as that inside the thigh. Most frequent in middle-aged and older adults (age 40 and above), liposarcomas are the most common of all soft-tissue sarcomas.
liver 1: A large very vascular glandular organ of vertebrates that secretes bile and causes important changes in many of the substances contained in the blood (as by converting sugars into glycogen which it stores up until required and by forming urea). 2: Any of various large compound glands associated with the digestive tract of invertebrate animals and probably concerned with the secretion of digestive enzymes.
liver cancer cell Malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the liver.
liver cell line
liver epithelial cell line
lung One of the usually paired compound saccular thoracic organs that constitute the basic respiratory organ of air-breathing vertebrates.
lung adenocarcinoma cell A type of bronchogenic carcinoma made up of cuboidal or columnar cells in a discrete mass, usually at the periphery of the lungs. Most such tumors form glandular structures containing mucin, although a minority are solid and without mucin. Growth is slow, but there may be early invasion of blood and lymph vessels, giving rise to metastases while the primary lesion is still asymptomatic.
lung cancer cell Cancer cell of the major organ of respiration the lung.
lung cell line
lung endothelium
lung epithelium
lung fibroblast
lung fibroblast cell line
lymph A clear, watery, sometimes faintly yellowish fluid derived from body tissues that contains white blood cells and circulates throughout the lymphatic system, returning to the venous bloodstream through the thoracic duct. Lymph acts to remove bacteria and certain proteins from the tissues, transport fat from the small intestine, and supply mature lymphocytes to the blood.
lymph node Any of the rounded masses of lymphoid tissue that are surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue, are distributed along the lymphatic vessels, and contain numerous lymphocytes which filter the flow of lymph.
lymphoblast Often referred to as a blast cell. Unlike other usages of the suffix -blast a lymphoblast is a further differentiation of a lymphocyte, T- or B-, occasioned by an antigenic stimulus. The lymphoblast usually develops by enlargement of a lymphocyte, active re-entry to the S phase of the cell cycle, mitogenesis and production of much m-RNA and ribosomes.
lymphoblastoma cell A cell of any of several diseases of lymph nodes marked by the formation of tumorous masses composed of mature or immature lymphocytes.
lymphocyte Any of the colorless weakly motile cells originating from stem cells and differentiating in lymphoid tissue (as of the thymus or bone marrow) that are the typical cellular elements of lymph, include the cellular mediators of immunity, and constitute 20 to 30 percent of the white blood cells of normal human blood.
lymphocytic leukemia cell Leukemia cell of either of two types marked by an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells (as lymphocytes) which accumulate in bone marrow, lymphoid tissue (as of the lymph nodes and spleen), and circulating blood.
lymphoid cell Any of the cells responsible for the production of immunity mediated by cells or antibodies and including lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. Cells derived from stem cells of the lymphoid lineage: large and small lymphocytes, plasma cells.
lymphoid tissue Tissue that is particularly rich in lymphocytes (and accessory cells such as macrophages and reticular cells), particularly the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, Peyer's patches, pharyngeal tonsils, adenoids, and (in birds) the Bursa of Fabricius.
lymphoma cell A tumor cell of lymphoid tissue.
macroglia Neuroglial cells of ectodermal origin, i.e., the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes considered together. Originally, the term was used for the astrocytes alone.
macrophage Relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues, derived from blood monocyte. Macrophages from different sites have distinctly different properties. Main types are peritoneal and alveolar macrophages, tissue macrophages (histiocytes), Kupffer cells of the liver, and osteoclasts. In response to foreign materials may become stimulated or activated. Macrophages play an important role in killing of some bacteria, protozoa, and tumour cells, release substances that stimulate other cells of the immune system, and are involved in antigen presentation. May further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to epithelioid cells or may fuse to form foreign body giant cells or Langhans giant cells.
male reproductive gland
male reproductive system The internal and external reproductive organs in the male.
mammary epithelium The human breast epithelium is a branching ductal system composed of an inner layer of polarized luminal epithelial cells and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells that terminate in distally located terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs).
mammary gland The specialized accessory gland of the skin of female mammals that secretes milk. In the human female, it is a compound tubuloalveolar gland composed of 15 to 25 lobes arranged radially about the nipple and separated by connective and adipose tissue, each lobe having its own excretory (lactiferous) duct opening on the nipple. The lobes are subdivided into lobules, with the alveolar ducts and alveoli being the secretory portion of the gland.
marrow cell Any of the immature blood cells that develop in the bone marrow, such as those involved in hematopoiesis.
mast cell A large cell that occurs especially in connective tissue and has basophilic granules containing substances (as histamine and heparin) which mediate allergic reactions.
mature ovarian follicle A liquid-filled cavity in a mammalian ovary containing a mature egg before ovulation.
medulla oblongata The part of the vertebrate brain that is continuous posteriorly with the spinal cord and that contains the centers controlling involuntary vital functions.
medulloblastoma cell A cell of a malignant, highly radiosensitive cerebellar tumor composed of undifferentiated neuroglial cells.
megakaryoblast The earliest cytologically identifiable precursor in the thrombocytic series, a large cell that matures to form a promegakaryocyte.
megakaryocyte A large cell that has a lobulated nucleus, is found especially in the bone marrow, and is the source of blood platelets.
melanocyte An epidermal cell that produces melanin.
melanocyte cell line
melanoma cell A cell of a form of skin cancer that arises in melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment. Melanoma usually begins in a mole.
melanoma cell line
meningioma cell A cell of a slow-growing tumor of the meninges, occurring most often in adults.
meninx Any of the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
mesangial cell Cell found within the glomerular lobules of mammalian kidney, where they serve as structural supports, may regulate blood flow, are phagocytic, and may act as accessory cells, presenting antigen in immune responses.
mesangium The thin membrane that helps support the capillary loops in a renal glomerulus.
mesenchymal cell An undifferentiated cell found in mesenchyme and capable of differentiating into various specialized connective tissues.
mesenchymal stem cell A special adult stem cell, which is a multipotent stem cell, that can be found in bone marrow and can produce all cell types of bone, cartilage, fat, blood, and connective tissues.
mesenchyme The part of the embryonic mesoderm, consisting of loosely packed, unspecialized cells set in a gelatinous ground substance, from which connective tissue, bone, cartilage, and the circulatory and lymphatic systems develop.
mesoderm Middle of the three germ layers, gives rise to the musculoskeletal, blood, vascular and urinogenital systems, to connective tissue (including that of dermis) and contributes to some glands.
mesothelium The layer of flat cells, derived from the mesoderm, that line the coelom or body cavity of the embryo. In the adult, it forms the simple squamous epithelium that covers all true serous membranes (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura).
metencephalon The anterior segment of the developing vertebrate hindbrain or the corresponding part of the adult brain composed of the cerebellum and pons.
microglia The small, non-neural, interstitial cells of mesodermal origin that form part of the supporting structure of the central nervous system. They are of various forms and may have slender branched processes. They are migratory and act as phagocytes to waste products of nerve tissue.
midbrain The middle of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain.
milk A fluid secreted by the mammary glands of females for the nourishment of their young; especially: cow's milk used as a food by humans.
molaris A tooth with a rounded or flattened surface adapted for grinding; specifically: one of the cheek teeth in mammals behind the incisors and canines.
monocyte A mononuclear phagocytic leukocyte, 13 to 25 mm in diameter, with an ovoid or kidney-shaped nucleus, containing lacy, linear chromatin and abundant gray-blue cytoplasm filled with fine reddish and azurophilic granules. Formed in the bone marrow from promonocytes, monocytes are transported to tissues such as the lung and liver, where they develop into macrophages.
monocytic leukemia cell A cell of leukemia characterized by the proliferation of monocytes and monoblasts in the blood.
mononuclear cell A cell having only one nucleus, especially: MONOCYTE.
mononuclear phagocyte Any cell of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, including macrophages, monocytes, and their precursors in the monocytic series.
morula A globular solid mass of blastomeres formed by cleavage of a zygote that typically precedes the blastula.
mouth The natural opening through which food passes into the body of an animal and which in vertebrates is typically bounded externally by the lips and internally by the pharynx and encloses the tongue, gums, and teeth.
mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary salivary gland-type tumour of the lung. It arises from the excretory ducts of the bronchial mucosa.
mucosa A membrane lining all body passages that communicate with the air, such as the respiratory and alimentary tracts, and having cells and associated glands that secrete mucus.
muscle A body tissue consisting of long cells that contract when stimulated and produce motion.
muscle fibre An elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body.
muscular system The bodily system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue and functions in movement of the body or of materials through the body, maintenance of posture, and heat production.
myelencephalon The posterior part of the developing vertebrate hindbrain or the corresponding part of the adult brain composed of the medulla oblongata.
myeloblast A large mononuclear nongranular bone-marrow cell; especially: one that is a precursor of a myelocyte.
myelocyte A bone-marrow cell: especially: a motile cell with cytoplasmic granules that gives rise to the blood granulocytes and occurs abnormally in the circulating blood (as in myelogenous leukemia).
myeloid dendritic cell The most common division of dendritic cells is myeloid versus plasmacytoid. The myeloid dendritic cells are developed from myeloid precursors and are most similar to monocytes. They are made up of at least two subsets: 1. the more common mDC-1, which is a major stimulator of T cells and 2. the extremely rare mDC-2, which may have a function in fighting wound infection. They secrete IL-12.
myeloid leukemia cell A malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; marked by proliferation of myelocytes and their presence in the blood.
myeloid progenitor cell One of the two stem cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells, the other being the lymphoid progenitor cell. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the erythroid progenitor cells and the myeloid cells.
myeloma cell A primary tumor cell of the bone marrow.
myelomonocytic leukemia cell One of the more common types of acute myelogenous leukemia, characterized by both malignant monocytes and myeloblasts; it usually affects middle aged to older adults.
myoblast An embryonic cell that becomes a cell of muscle fiber.
myocardium The middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle.
myometrium The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
nasal mucosa The mucosa, or mucous membrane, is a type of tissue that lines the nasal cavity. Mucous membranes are usually moist tissues that are bathed by secretions such as in the nose.
nasal polyp Focal accumulations of edema fluid in the mucosa of the nose, with hyperplasia of the associated submucosal connective tissue.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell A cell of a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the tissues of the nasopharynx.
nasopharynx The upper part of the throat behind the nose. An opening on each side of the nasopharynx leads into the ear.
nasopharynx epithelium The nasopharynx is lined by stratified squamous epithelium and respiratory type epithelium.
natural killer cell A large granular lymphocyte capable of killing a tumor or microbial cell without prior exposure to the target cell and without having it presented with or marked by a histocompatibility antigen.
neck The part of an animal that connects the head with the body.
neostriatum The neostriatum is a compound structure comprised of the putamen and caudate nucleus. In birds, it also includes the high vocal center; it has evolved into a structure nowadays called nidopallium.
nephron A single excretory unit of the vertebrate kidney.
nerve Any of the filamentous bands of nervous tissue that connect parts of the nervous system with the other organs, conduct nervous impulses, and are made up of axons and dendrites together with protective and supportive structures.
nervous system The nervous system is essentially a biological information highway, and is responsible for controlling all the biological processes and movement in the body, and can also receive information and interpret it via electrical signals which are used in this nervous system. It consists of the Central Nervous System (CNS), essentially the processing area and the Peripheral Nervous System which detects and sends electrical impulses that are used in the nervous system.
neural arch One of the cartilaginous structures surrounding the embryonic spinal cord, formed by the dorsal growth of the dorsolateral arcualia; it is the primordium of the vertebral arch.
neural crest The part of the ectoderm in a vertebrate embryo that lies on either side of the neural tube and develops into the cranial, spinal, and autonomic ganglia.
neural plate The thickened dorsal plate of ectoderm that differentiates into the neural tube and neural crest; Ectoderm on the dorsal surface of the early vertebrate embryo that gives rise to the cells (neurons and glia) of the nervous system.
neural retina Layer of nerve cells in the retina, embryologically part of the brain. The incoming light passes through nerve-fibres and intermediary nerve cells of the neural retina, before encountering the light-sensitive rods and cones at the interface between neural retina and the pigmented retinal epithelium.
neuroblast Any embryonic cell which develops into a nerve cell or neuron; an immature nerve cell.
neuroblastoma cell Malignant tumour cell derived from primitive ganglion cells. Mainly a tumour of childhood. Commonest sites are adrenal medulla and retroperitoneal tissue. The cells may partially differentiate into cells having the appearance of immature neurons.
neuroepithelial cell
neuroepithelioma cell A rare type of neuroepithelial tumor, usually found in the brain or retina, composed of primitive neuroepithelial cells lining the tubular spaces.
neuroepithelium 1: Simple columnar epithelium made up of cells specialized to serve as sensory cells for the reception of external stimuli, as the sensory cells of the cochlea, vestibule, nasal mucosa, and tongue. 2: The epithelium of the ectoderm, from which the central nervous system is developed.
neuron A grayish or reddish granular cell with specialized processes that is the fundamental functional unit of nervous tissue.
neutrophil A granulocyte that is the chief phagocytic white blood cell of the blood.
non-small cell lung cancer cell A general term comprising all lung carcinomas except small cell carcinoma, and including adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
nonparenchymal liver cell Hepatocytes may constitute 60 to 80 % of the mass of the liver tissue. The remaining tissue is made up of non-parenchymal cells such as sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, Kupffer cells and blood cells.
normoblast A nucleated red blood cell, the immediate precursor of a normal red blood cell in humans.
nose 1a: The part of the face that bears the nostrils and covers the anterior part of the nasal cavity; broadly: this part together with the nasal cavity. 1b: The anterior part of the head at the top or end of the muzzle: snout, proboscis. 2: The vertebrate olfactory organ.
null cell A null cell is a large granular lymphocyte without surface markers or membrane-associated proteins from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. Members of null cells are natural killer cells, antigen dependent cytotoxic cells and the lymphokine activated killer cells.
occipital lobe This lobe is located at the back of the head and is involved in vision and reading.
odontoblast Any of the elongated radially arranged cells on the surface of the dental pulp that secrete dentin.
odontoclast A large multinuclear cell associated with the absorption and removal of bone. It is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in cementum resorption.
olfactory bulb A bulbous anterior projection of the olfactory lobe that is the place of termination of the olfactory nerves and is especially well developed in lower vertebrates (as fishes).
olfactory epithelium Pseudostratified epithelium lining the olfactory region of the nasal cavity, and containing the receptors for the sense of smell.
olfactory lobe An anterior projection of each cerebral hemisphere that is continuous anteriorly with the olfactory nerve; A term applied to the olfactory apparatus on the lower surface of the frontal lobe of the brain. It consists of the olfactory bulb, tract, and trigone.
oligodendrocyte One of the cells comprising the oligodendroglia.
oligodendroglia Neuroglia consisting of cells similar to but smaller than astrocytes, found in the central nervous system and associated with the formation of myelin.
oligodendroglioma cell A rare, slow-growing tumor cell that begins in the oligodendrocytes (brain cells that provide support and nourishment for nerve cells).
oocyte The immature reproductive cell prior to fertilization; it is derived from an oogonium, and is called a primary oocyte prior to completion of the first maturation division, and a secondary oocyte between the first and second maturation division.
oral cancer cell Cancer within the mouth.
oral epithelium The epithelial covering of the oral mucosa. Composed of stratified squamous epithelium of varying thickness and varying degrees of keratinization.
oral mucosa The mucous coat (membrane) lining the oral cavity.
organism form
osteoblast A cell from which bone develops; a bone-forming cell.
osteoclast A large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue, as in the formation of canals and cavities.
osteoclastoma cell An osteolytic tumor cell affecting the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones, composed of a stroma of spindle cells containing dispersed multinucleate giant cells, and usually being benign but sometimes malignant.
osteocyte A cell that is characteristic of adult bone and is isolated in a lacuna of the bone substance.
osteogenic cell One of the cell's in the inner layer of the periosteum that forms osseous tissue.
osteosarcoma cell A cell of a sarcoma derived from bone or containing bone tissue.
ovarian follicle A vesicle in the mammalian ovary that contains a developing egg surrounded by a covering of cells. But there are also insect ovarian follicle cells.
ovary One of the typically paired essential female reproductive organs that produce eggs and in vertebrates female sex hormones.
ovary adenocarcinoma cell line
ovary cancer cell A malignant tumor cell of the ovary.
ovary cancer cell line
ovary cell line
oviduct Either of a pair of slender ducts through which ova pass from the ovaries to the uterus in the female reproductive system of humans and higher mammals.
oxyntic cell Cells of the gastric glands which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.
pancreas A large lobulated gland of vertebrates that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.
pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line
pancreatic cancer cell Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas.
pancreatic cancer cell line
pancreatic cell line
pancreatic islet Irregular microscopic structures scattered throughout the pancreas and comprising its endocrine part (the endocrine pancreas). In humans, they are composed of at least four types of cells: the alpha cells, which secrete glucagon; the beta cells, which are the most abundant and secrete insulin; the delta cells, which secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells, which secrete pancreatic polypeptide. Degeneration of the beta cells, whose secretion (insulin) is important in carbohydrate metabolism, is the major cause of type I diabetes mellitus.
pancreatic islet cancer cell
papillary thyroid cancer cell Cancer that forms in follicular cells in the thyroid and grows in small finger-like shapes. It grows slowly, is more common in women than in men, and often occurs before age 45. It is the most common type of thyroid cancer.
parathyroid gland Any of usually four small endocrine glands that are adjacent to or embedded in the thyroid gland and produce parathyroid hormone.
parathyroid gland cancer cell
parenchyma The tissue characteristic of an organ, as distinguished from associated connective or supporting tissues.
parotid gland Either of a pair of large serous salivary glands situated below and in front of the ear.
pectoral muscle Any of the muscles which connect the ventral walls of the chest with the bones of the upper arm and shoulder and of which there are two on each side of the human body.
penis A male organ of copulation that in male mammals including humans usually functions as the channel by which urine leaves the body.
pericardium 1: The conical sac of serous membrane that encloses the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels of vertebrates. 2: A cavity or space that contains the heart of an invertebrate and in arthropods is a part of the hemocoel.
pericyte One of the peculiar elongated cells with the power of contraction, found wrapped about the outside of precapillary arterioles, postcapillary venules, and capillaries.
periodontal ligament The fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the root of a tooth, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone. It extends from the base of the gingival mucosa to the fundus of the bony socket, and its main function is to hold the tooth in its socket.
periodontium The tissues that invest or help to invest and support the teeth, including the periodontal ligament, gingivae, cementum, and alveolar and supporting bone.
periosteum The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons.
peripheral blood Blood circulating throughout the body.
peripheral blood lymphocyte Peripheral blood lymphocytes are mature lymphocytes that circulate in the blood, rather than localising to organs, such as the spleen or lymph nodes. They comprise T cells, NK cells and B cells.
peripheral blood mononuclear cell A mixture of monocytes and lymphocytes; blood leucocytes from which granulocytes have been separated and removed.
peripheral ganglion
peripheral nerve The peripheral nerves include the 12 cranial nerves, the spinal nerves and roots, and what are called the autonomic nerves that are concerned specifically with the regulation of the heart muscle, the muscles in blood vessel walls, and glands.
peripheral nervous system The peripheral nervous system (PNS) connects the central nervous system (CNS) to sensory organs (such as the eye and ear), other organs of the body, muscles, blood vessels and glands.
peritoneal cavity The potential space of capillary thinness between the parietal and the visceral peritoneum, which is normally empty except for a thin serous fluid that keeps the surfaces moist.
phagocyte A cell, as a white blood cell, that engulfs and consumes foreign material, as microorganisms, and debris.
pharynx The part of the vertebrate alimentary canal between the cavity of the mouth and the esophagus. The pharynx of Nematodes is an efficient pump and forces food into the intestines.
pheochromocytoma cell Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that arises from tissue in the adrenal gland. The tumor increases production of adrenaline and noradrenaline, which raises blood pressure and heart rate.
pheochromocytoma cell line
photoreceptor A specialized cell type in a multicellular organism that is sensitive to light. This definition excludes single-celled organisms, but includes non-eye receptors, such as snake infra-red detectors or photosensitive pineal gland cells.
pineal gland A small, cone-shaped organ in the brain of most vertebrates that secretes the hormone melatonin.
pituitary gland tumor cell A benign tumor of the pituitary, the master gland that controls other glands and influences numerous body functions including growth. Although the tumor itself is not cancerous, it may affect pituitary function, and therefore may need to be removed.
placenta The vascular organ in mammals except monotremes and marsupials that unites the fetus to the maternal uterus and mediates its metabolic exchanges through a more or less intimate association of uterine mucosal with chorionic and usually allantoic tissues; also: an analogous organ in another animal.
plant Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of living things typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.
plant embryo The early developmental stage that, through embryological development, ultimately becomes an adult individual. In plants, that portion of a seed that will form the growing seedling following germination, it has a radicle, apical meristem, and embryonic leaf or leaves.
plant form
plant vessel One of the tubular conductive vessels in the xylem of vascular plants.
plasma cell A terminally differentiated cell of the B lymphocyte lineage that produces antibodies; plasma cells are oval or round with extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum, a well-developed Golgi apparatus, and a round nucleus having a characteristic cartwheel heterochromatin pattern.
plasmacytoid dendritic cell The plasmacytoid dendritic cell, pDC, is a type of white blood cell. The primary function of this cell type is to produce type I interferon when the body is infected by a virus. The pDC has special surface receptors that can detect many types of viruses.
plumule The primary bud of a plant embryo usually situated at the apex of the hypocotyl and consisting of leaves and an epicotyl.
podocyte A modified epithelial cell of the capsular epithelium of the renal glomerulus, having a small perikaryon and a number of primary and secondary footlike radiating processes (pedicels) that interdigitate with those of other podocytes and embrace the basal lamina of glomerular capillaries.
pons A broad mass of chiefly transverse nerve fibers conspicuous on the ventral surface of the brain of man and lower mammals at the anterior end of the medulla oblongata.
portio vaginalis cervicis Vaginal portion of cervix: the part of the cervix uteri that protrudes into the vagina and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
prefrontal cortex The prefrontal cortex is the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas.
premonocyte An immature monocyte not normally present in the blood.
preosteoblast A mesenchymal cell that differentiates into an osteoblast.
prepuce A fold of skin that covers the glans of the penis.
primary spermatocyte A cell derived from a spermatogonium and dividing into two secondary spermatocytes; called also spermiocyte.
primordium The rudiment or commencement of a part or organ.
pro-b-lymphocyte B cell differentiation and maturation occurs at the progression from pro-B to pre-B and into the mature B cell stages.
pronephros 1. The primordial kidney; a vestigial excretory structure or its rudiments developing in the embryo at four weeks, before the mesonephros. Although nonfunctional, its duct is later used by the mesonephros, which arises caudal to it. 2. The definitive excretory organ of primitive fishes.
prostate adenocarcinoma cell
prostate cancer cell line
prostate gland A firm partly muscular partly glandular body that is situated about the base of the mammalian male urethra and secretes an alkaline viscid fluid which is a major constituent of the ejaculatory fluid.
prostate gland cell line
prostate gland epithelium Normal prostatic epithelium is composed of basal and luminal cells.
pulmonary artery An artery that conveys venous blood from the heart to the lungs.
rectal cancer cell Cancer cell of the rectum.
rectum The terminal part of the intestine from the sigmoid flexure to the anus.
renal cell carcinoma cell Carcinoma cell of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements; symptoms depend on extent of invasion.
renal corpuscle A mass of arterial capillaries enveloped in a capsule and attached to a tubule in the kidney.
renal cortex Cortex of kidney.
renal epithelium
renal glomerular capsule The double-walled globular dilatation that forms the beginning of a uriniferous tubule of the kidney and surrounds the glomerulus; it consists of an inner, or visceral, layer (capsular epithelium) and an outer, or parietal, layer (glomerular epithelium).
renal glomerulus Globular tufts of capillaries, one projecting into the expanded end or capsule of each of the uriniferous tubules, which together with its surrounding capsule (glomerular capsule) constitute the renal corpuscle.
renal proximal tubule The convoluted portion of the vertebrate nephron that lies between Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle and functions especially in the resorption of sugar, sodium and chloride ions, and water from the glomerular filtrate.
renal tubule One of the minute, reabsorptive, secretory, and collecting canals, made up of basement membrane lined with epithelium, that form the substance of the kidneys.
reproductive system In women, the organs that are directly involved in producing eggs and in conceiving and carrying babies. In men, the organs directly involved in creating, storing, and delivering sperm to fertilize an egg.
respiratory epithelium Epithelium of the respiratory portion of the bronchial tree.
respiratory mucosa The mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract.
respiratory system A system of organs subserving the function of respiration and in air-breathing vertebrates consisting typically of the lungs and their nervous and circulatory supply and the channels by which these are continuous with the outer air.
reticulocyte An immature red blood cell that appears especially during regeneration of lost blood and has a fine basophilic reticulum formed of ribosomal remains.
reticulum trabeculare A trabeculum of loose fibers found at the iridocorneal angle between the anterior chamber of the eye and the venous sinus of the sclera; the aqueous humor filters through the spaces between the fibers into the sinus and passes into the bloodstream. The reticulum is divided into a corneoscleral part and a uveal part; An area of tissue in the eye located around the base of the cornea, near the ciliary body, and is responsible for draining the aqueous humor from the eye via the anterior chamber. The tissue is spongy and lined by trabeculocytes; it allows fluid to drain into a set of tubes called Schlemm's canal flowing into the blood system.
retina The sensory membrane that lines the eye, is composed of several layers including one containing the rods and cones, and functions as the immediate instrument of vision by receiving the image formed by the lens and converting it into chemical and nervous signals which reach the brain by way of the optic nerve.
retinal cone The other light-sensitive cell type of the retina, that, unlike retinal rods, is differentially sensitive to particular wavelengths of light, and is important for colour vision. There are three types of cones, each type sensitive to red, green or blue. Present in large numbers in the fovea.
retinal pigment epithelium The pigment cell layer that nourishes the retinal cells, located just outside the retina and attached to the choroid.
retinal rod Major photoreceptor cell of vertebrate retina (about 125 million in a human eye). Columnar cells having three distinct regions: a region adjacent to, and synapsed with, the neural layer of the retina contains the nucleus and other cytoplasmic organelles, below this is the inner segment, rich in mitochondria, that is connected through a thin neck (in which is located a ciliary body) to the outer segment. The outer segment largely consists of a stack of discs (membrane infoldings that are incompletely separated in cones) that are continually replenished near the inner segment and that are shed from the distal end and phagocytosed by the pigmented epithelium. The membranes of the discs are rich in rhodopsin, the pigment that absorbs light.
retinoblastoma cell A malignant congenital blastoma, occurring in both hereditary and sporadic forms, composed of tumor cells arising from the retinoblasts, appearing in one or both eyes in children under 5 years of age, and usually diagnosed initially by a bright white or yellow pupillary reflex -leukokoria.
rhabdomyosarcoma cell Malignant tumour (sarcoma) derived from striated muscle.
rheumatoid arthritis disease specific synovial fluid
rheumatoid arthritis disease specific synovial tissue Chronic inflammatory disease in which there is destruction of joints. Considered by some to be an autoimmune disorder in which immune complexes are formed in joints and excite an inflammatory response (complex mediated hypersensitivity). Cell-mediated (type IV) hypersensitivity also occurs and macrophages accumulate. This in turn leads to the destruction of the synovial lining.
saliva A slightly alkaline secretion of water, mucin, protein, salts, and often a starch-splitting enzyme, as ptyalin, that is secreted into the mouth by salivary glands, lubricates ingested food, and often begins the breakdown of starches.
salivary gland The glands of the oral cavity whose combined secretion constitutes the saliva.
sarcoma cell A malignant neoplasm cell arising in tissue of mesodermal origin, as connective tissue, bone, cartilage, or striated muscle.
scalp The part of the integument of the human head usually covered with hair in both sexes or the part of an animal (as a wolf or fox) corresponding to the human scalp.
sciatic nerve The largest nerve of the body: origin, sacral plexus-L4-S3; it leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen; branches, divides into the tibial and common peroneal nerves, usually in lower third of thigh; distribution-see individual branches, in this table; modality, general sensory and motor.
secondary spermatocyte One of the two cells into which a primary spermatocyte divides, and which in turn gives origin to spermatids; called also prespermatid.
seed A matured ovule containing an embryo and food supply and covered by a seed coat.
seedling The embryonic product of the germination of a seed. The young shoot and root axis.
semen A viscid whitish fluid of the male reproductive tract consisting of spermatozoa suspended in secretions of accessory glands.
seminal plasma The fluid portion of the semen, in which the spermatozoa are suspended.
seminal vesicle Either of a pair of glandular pouches that lie one on either side of the male reproductive tract and in the human male secrete a sugar- and protein-containing fluid into the ejaculatory duct.
seminoma cell A type of cancer of the testicles. Seminomas may spread to the lung, bone, liver, or brain.
sense organ A bodily structure that receives a stimulus (as heat or sound waves) and is affected in such a manner as to initiate a wave of excitation in associated sensory nerve fibers which convey specific impulses to the central nervous system where they are interpreted as corresponding sensations: RECEPTOR.
serum 1: The watery portion of an animal fluid remaining after coagulation: a (1): blood serum (2): antiserum b: whey c: a normal or pathological serous fluid (as in a blister). 2: The watery part of a plant fluid.
shoot A sending out of new growth or the growth sent out: as a stem or branch with its leaves and appendages especially when not yet mature.
skeletal muscle A usually voluntary muscle made up of elongated, multinucleated, transversely striated muscle fibers, having principally bony attachments.
skeletal muscle cancer cell
skeletal muscle cell
skeletal system The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
skin The integument of an animal (as a fur-bearing mammal or a bird) separated from the body usually with its hair or feathers.
skin cancer cell The two most common forms of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Together, these two are also referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancer. Melanoma is generally the most serious form of skin cancer because it tends to spread (metastasize) throughout the body quickly.
skin fibroblast
skin fibroblast cell line
slow muscle The darker-colored muscle tissue of some mammals, composed of slow twitch muscle fibers.
small intestine The part of the intestine that lies between the stomach and colon, consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, secretes digestive enzymes, and is the chief site of the absorption of digested nutrients. The proximal portion of the intestine.
small intestine mucosa
smooth muscle Muscle tissue that lacks cross striations, that is made up of elongated spindle-shaped cells having a central nucleus, and that is found in vertebrate visceral structures (as the stomach and bladder) as thin sheets performing functions not subject to conscious control by the mind and in all or most of the musculature of invertebrates other than arthropods.
smooth muscle cell Muscle tissue that lacks cross striations, that is made up of elongated spindle-shaped cells having a central nucleus, and that is found in vertebrate visceral structures (as the stomach and bladder) as thin sheets performing functions not subject to conscious control by the mind and in all or most of the musculature of invertebrates other than arthropods.
soft tissue sarcoma cell A malignant tumor that begins in the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other soft supporting tissues of the body. Soft tissue sarcomas do not originate in bone or cartilage.
spermatid One of the haploid cells that are formed by division of the secondary spermatocytes and that differentiate into spermatozoa.
spermatocyte A cell giving rise to sperm cells; especially: a cell that is derived from a spermatogonium and ultimately gives rise to four haploid spermatids.
spermatogonium An undifferentiated germ cell of a male, originating in a seminiferous tubule and dividing into two primary spermatocytes.
spermatozoon A motile male gamete of an animal usually with rounded or elongate head and a long posterior flagellum.
spinal column The series of articulated vertebrae, separated by intervertebral disks and held together by muscles and tendons, that extends from the cranium to the coccyx or the end of the tail, encasing the spinal cord and forming the supporting axis of the body; the spine.
spinal cord The cord of nervous tissue that extends from the brain lengthwise along the back in the vertebral canal, gives off the pairs of spinal nerves, carries impulses to and from the brain, and serves as a center for initiating and coordinating many reflex acts.
spinal ganglion A ganglion on the dorsal root of each spinal nerve that is one of a series of ganglia lodging cell bodies of sensory neurons.
spiral organ The organ, resting on the basilar membrane in the cochlear duct, that contains the special sensory receptors for hearing; it consists of neuroepithelial hair cells and several types of supporting cells, including the inner and outer pillar cells, inner and outer phalangeal cells, border cells, and Hensen's cells.
spleen A highly vascular ductless organ that is located in the left abdominal region near the stomach or intestine of most vertebrates and is concerned with final destruction of red blood cells, filtration and storage of blood, and production of lymphocytes.
sputum Matter ejected from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea, through the mouth.
squamous cell carcinoma cell Carcinoma developed from squamous epithelium, having cuboid cells and characterized by keratinization and often by preservation of intercellular bridges. Initially local and superficial, the lesion may later invade and metastasize.
squamous epithelium Epithelium composed of flattened platelike cells.
stem The main trunk of a plant; specifically: a primary plant axis that develops buds and shoots instead of roots.
sternum A compound ventral bone or cartilage of most vertebrates other than fishes that connects the ribs or the shoulder girdle or both and in humans consists of the manubrium, gladiolus, and xiphoid process.
stomach A dilatation of the alimentary canal of a vertebrate communicating anteriorly with the esophagus and posteriorly with the duodenum.
stratum corneum The horny outer layer of the epidermis, consisting mainly of dead or peeling cells.
stratum spinosum The layers of prickle cells over the layer of the stratum germinativum capable of undergoing mitosis.
stromal cell Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
subarachnoid space The space between the arachnoidea mater and the pia mater, containing cerebrospinal fluid and bridged by delicate trabeculae.
sublingual gland Gland situated or administered under the tongue; the smallest of the three salivary glands, occurring in pairs, predominantly mucous in type, and draining into the oral cavity through 10 to 30 sublingual ducts.
submandibular gland One of the three chief, paired salivary glands, predominantly serous, lying partly above and partly below the posterior half of the base of the mandible.
substantia nigra The substantia nigra is located in the mesencephalon (mid brain) region of the brain. It is part of the basal ganglia.
subthalamic nucleus A biconvex mass of gray matter on the medial side of the junction of the internal capsule and the crus cerebri; its chief connections are with the globus pallidus.
sweat gland A simple tubular gland of the skin that secretes perspiration, is widely distributed in nearly all parts of the human skin, and consists typically of an epithelial tube extending spirally from a minute pore on the surface of the skin into the dermis or subcutaneous tissues where it ends in a convoluted tuft.
sympathetic chain Either of the pair of ganglionated longitudinal cords of the sympathetic nervous system of which one is situated on each side of the spinal column.
sympathetic ganglion Any of the aggregations of cell bodies of primarily adrenergic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, including the ganglia of the sympathetic trunks, the intermediate ganglia, the prevertebral ganglia, and some ganglionic cells in the autonomic plexuses.
sympathetic nervous system One of the two divisions of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system (the other being the parasympathetic nervous system). The sympathetic preganglionic neurons have their cell bodies in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, and connect to the paravertebral chain of sympathetic ganglia. Innervate heart and blood vessels, sweat glands, viscera, and the adrenal medulla. Most sympathetic neurons, but not all, use noradrenaline as a post-ganglionic neurotransmitter.
synovia A transparent viscid lubricating fluid secreted by a membrane of an articulation, bursa, or tendon sheath.
synovial cell Fibroblast-like cells that form 1-6 epithelioid layers in the synovial membrane of joints; believed to contribute proteoglycans and hyaluronate to the synovial fluid.
synovial sarcoma cell A cell of a malignant neoplasm arising in the synovial membrane of the joints and also in synovial cells of tendons and bursae.
synovial tissue Synovial tissue can be found in tendons (tissues that connect muscle to bone), bursae (fluid-filled, cushioning sacs found in spaces between tendons, ligaments, and bones), and the cavity (hollow enclosed area) that separates the bones of a freely movable joint, such as the knee or elbow.
synovium The dense connective-tissue membrane that secretes synovial fluid and that lines the ligamentous surfaces of articular capsules, tendon sheaths where free movement is necessary, and bursae.
t-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell 2-5% of all chronic lymphoproliferative disorders in the West, and 5-6% in the Chinese population. Large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) with the nucleus of a small lymphocyte but abundant cytoplasm and fine or coarse azurophilic granules; ultrastructural examination may reveal characteristic parallel tubular arrays; the LGLs are often >2x109/L.
t-cell lymphoma cell A disease in which certain cells of the lymph system (called T-lymphocytes) become cancerous.
t-lymphocyte Any of several lymphocytes (as a helper T cell) that differentiate in the thymus, possess highly specific cell-surface antigen receptors, and include some that control the initiation or suppression of cell-mediated and humoral immunity (as by the regulation of T and B cell maturation and proliferation) and others that lyse antigen-bearing cells.
tear A drop of clear saline fluid secreted by the lacrimal gland and diffused between the eye and eyelids to moisten the parts and facilitate their motion.
tear gland An acinous gland that is about the size and shape of an almond, secretes tears, and is situated laterally and superiorly to the bulb of the eye in a shallow depression on the inner surface of the frontal bone.
telencephalon An enlarged anterior or upper part of the brain; especially: the expanded anterior portion of the brain that in higher mammals overlies the rest of the brain, consists of cerebral hemispheres and connecting structures, and is considered to be the seat of conscious mental processes.
temporal lobe One of the two parietal lobes of the brain located behind the frontal lobe at the top of the brain. Parietal Lobe, Right - Damage to this area can cause visuo-spatial deficits (for example, the patient may have difficulty finding their way around new, or even familiar, places). Parietal Lobe, Left - Damage to this area may disrupt a patient's ability to understand spoken and/or written language. The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory cortex which controls sensation (touch, pressure). Behind the primary sensory cortex is a large association area that controls fine sensation (judgment of texture, weight, size, shape).
tendon A tough cord or band of dense white fibrous connective tissue that unites a muscle with some other part (as a bone) and transmits the force which the muscle exerts.
tendon sheath A synovial sheath covering a tendon (as in the hand or foot).
teratocarcinoma cell A malignant tumor cell of the testis composed of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma.
testicular cancer cell Cancer that forms in tissues of the testis. Testicular cancer usually occurs in young or middle-aged men. Two main types of testicular cancer are seminomas (cancers that grow slowly and are sensitive to radiation therapy) and nonseminomas (different cell types that grow more quickly than seminomas).
testicular cell line
testis A typically paired male reproductive gland that produces sperm and that in most mammals is contained within the scrotum at sexual maturity.
thalamus The largest subdivision of the diencephalon that consists chiefly of an ovoid mass of nuclei in each lateral wall of the third ventricle and functions in the integration of sensory information.
thorax 1: The part of the mammalian body between the neck and the abdomen; also: its cavity in which the heart and lungs lie. 2: The middle of the three chief divisions of the body of an insect; also: the corresponding part of a crustacean or an arachnid.
thorax muscle
throat 1: The part of the neck in front of the spinal column. 2: The passage through the neck to the stomach and lungs.
thymic epithelium
thymocyte Lymphocyte within the thymus; term usually applied to an immature lymphocyte.
thymus A glandular structure of largely lymphoid tissue that functions especially in the development of the body's immune system, is present in the young of most vertebrates typically in the upper anterior chest or at the base of the neck, and tends to atrophy in the adult.
thyroid cancer cell Cancer cell of the thyroid gland.
thyroid epithelial cell An epithelial cell lining the thyroid follicle.
thyroid gland A two-lobed endocrine gland found in all vertebrates, located in front of and on either side of the trachea in humans, and producing various hormones, such as triiodothyronine and calcitonin.
tissues, cell types and enzyme sources A structured controlled vocabulary for the source of an enzyme. It comprises terms of tissues, cell lines, cell types and cell cultures from uni- and multicellular organisms.
tongue A fleshy movable process of the floor of the mouths of most vertebrates that bears sensory end organs and small glands and functions especially in taking and swallowing food and in humans as a speech organ.
tongue epithelium
tonsil The human palatine tonsils and the nasopharyngeal tonsil are lymphoepithelial tissues located in strategic areas of the oropharynx and nasopharynx, although most commonly, the term tonsils refers to the palatine tonsils that can be seen in the back of the throat.
tooth 1: One of the hard bony appendages that are borne on the jaws or in many of the lower vertebrates on other bones in the walls of the mouth or pharynx and serve especially for the prehension and mastication of food and as weapons of offense and defense. 2: Any of various usually hard and sharp processes especially about the mouth of an invertebrate.
tooth bud A knoblike tooth primordium developing into an enamel organ surrounded by a dental sac and encasing the dental papilla.
trachea 1: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi. It is kept patent by a series of about twenty transverse horseshoe-shaped cartilages. Called also windpipe. 2: One of a system of minute tubes ramifying throughout the body of a terrestrial arthropod and delivering air to the tissues. Called also tracheal tubule.
tracheal epithelium
tracheobronchial epithelium Epithelium pertaining to the trachea and bronchi.
trophoblast A thin layer of ectoderm that forms the wall of many mammalian blastulas and functions in the nutrition and implantation of the embryo.
trunk 1: The human or animal body apart from the head and appendages. 2: The thorax of an insect.
umbilical artery Either of a pair of arteries that arise from the hypogastric arteries of the mammalian fetus and pass through the umbilical cord to the placenta to which they carry the deoxygenated blood from the fetus.
umbilical cord A cord arising from the navel that connects the fetus with the placenta.
umbilical cord blood Blood from the umbilical cord of a newborn baby. This blood contains high concentrations of stem cells.
umbilical smooth muscle
umbilical vein A vein that passes through the umbilical cord to the fetus and returns the oxygenated and nutrient blood from the placenta to the fetus.
umbilical vein endothelial cell
umbilical vein endothelium
ureter The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
urinary bladder A membranous sac in many vertebrates that serves for the temporary retention of urine and discharges by the urethra.
urinary bladder cancer cell Cancer cell of the organ responsible for temporarily holding urine after it leaves the kidneys.
urinary bladder epithelium
urinary bladder smooth muscle
urinary system The organs and passageways concerned with the production and excretion of urine, including the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
urinary tract The organs of the body that produce and discharge urine. These include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
urine Waste material that is secreted by the kidney in vertebrates, is rich in end products of protein metabolism together with salts and pigments, and forms a clear amber and usually slightly acid fluid in mammals but is semisolid in birds and reptiles.
urogenital system The urinary system and genital system considered together.
uterine adenocarcinoma cell The most common form of endometrial carcinoma, containing tumor cells differentiated into glandular tissue with little or no stroma.
uterine cancer cell
uterine cervix A constricted portion of an organ or part; especially: the narrow outer end of the uterus.
uterine endometrial cancer cell More than 95% of uterine cancers arise in the endometrium. Endometrial cancer develops when the cells that make up the endometrium become abnormal and grow uncontrollably.
uterine endometrium The mucous membrane lining the uterus.
uterine leiomyoma cell A benign tumor of the smooth muscle fibers of the uterus.
uterus An organ of the female mammal for containing and usually for nourishing the young during development previous to birth.
vagina A canal in a female mammal that leads from the uterus to the external orifice of the genital canal.
vascular bundle A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of xylem and phloem.
vascular cancer cell
vascular endothelial cell
vascular endothelium The innermost lining of a blood vessel.
vascular smooth muscle
vascular system The vessels of the body, especially the blood vessels.
vascular tissue The supportive and conductive tissue in plants, consisting of xylem and phloem.
vein Any of the tubular branching vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart.
vertebrate muscular system
vestibular labyrinth The part of the membranous labyrinth that includes the utricle and saccule lodged within the vestibule and the semicircular ducts lodged eccentrically in the corresponding canals.
vestibular system The organ of the inner ear containing several three semicircular ducts at right angles to one another, helps keep the body balanced.
viscus An internal organ of the body; especially: one (as the heart, liver, or intestine) located in the great cavity of the trunk proper.
white adipose tissue The adipose tissue comprising the bulk of the body fat.
whole body The main part of an animal body especially as distinguished from limbs and head.
whole plant The main part of a plant.
zygote Diploid cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes at fertilization.