TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

Description gene-tissue co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts
Measurement association by text-mining
Association protein-tissue associations from automated text-mining of biomedical literature
Category structural or functional annotations
Resource TISSUES
Last Updated
  1. 16184 genes
  2. 4187 tissues
  3. 1836577 gene-tissue associations

Data Access



  • Attribute Similarity

  • Dataset

  • Gene Similarity

tissue Gene Sets

4187 sets of proteins co-occuring with tissues in abstracts of biomedical publications from the TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores dataset.

Gene Set Description
1-ln cell Human prostate cancer cell line.
10t1/2 cell Clonal mouse embryo cell line.
1205-lu cell The 1205Lu cell line was derived from lung metastases of WM793 after subcutaneous injection into immunodeficient mice. 1205Lu cells are highly invasive and exhibit spontaneous metastatis to lung and liver.
1321-n1 cell Human astrocytoma cell line.
143b cell Human fibroblast osteosarcoma cell line lacking the thymidine kinase (TK) gene.
16-hbe14o cell Human bronchial epithelial cell line.
1704 cell Human melanoma cell line.
184a1n4 cell The 184A1N4 and 184B5 cell lines are nontumorigenic cell lines derived from primary cultures of HMECs that were immortalized with benzo(a)pyrene.
184b5 cell The 184A1N4 and 184B5 cell lines are nontumorigenic cell lines derived from primary cultures of HMECs that were immortalized with benzo(a)pyrene.
2102ep cell Human embryonal carcinoma line.
222 cell Human gynecologic ovarian cancer cell line.
22rv-1 cell Human prostate carcinoma cell line; derived from a human prostate carcinoma xenograft (CWR22R) that was serially propagated in nude mice after castration-induced regression and relapse of the parental, androgen-dependent CWR22 xenograft.
253j cell Human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line.
253j-bv cell Highly metastatic variant from human transitional cell carcinoma.
253j-p cell Human transitional cell carcinoma cell line, poorly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic.
2t3 cell Murine osteoblast cell line.
3-ll cell Murine lewis lung carcinoma cell line.
32d cell Mouse bone marrow cell line; established from long-term bone marrow cultures of C3H/HeJ mice infected with the Friend murine leukemia virus.
32d clone3 cell Mouse bone marrow cell line.
33b cell Rat nervous tissue oligodendroglioma cell line. 33B is a N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced neural tumour cell line derived from 17th in vivo passage of TR33B.
3d5 cell Human B-cell line.
3t3-f442a cell Preadipocyte cell line.
3t3-l1 cell L1 is a continuous substrain of 3T3 Swiss albino developed through clonal isolation. Cells undergo a pre-adipose to adipose like conversion as they progress from a rapidly dividing to a confluent and contact inhibited state. A high serum content in the medium enhances fat accumulation.
3t6-swiss albino cell The 3T6 cell line is a collagen and hyaluronic acid secreting line established by G. Todaro and H. Green in 1963 from disaggregated Swiss mouse embryos.
3y1-b clone 1 cell Rat Fischer cell line; established from a female rat embryo /whole fetus. Mother clone of 3Y1 series, fibroblast-like.
41-m cell Human ovary cancer cell line.
416b cell Mouse (C57BL/6xDBA/2)F1 leukaemia lymphocyte cell line. Derived from Friend leukaemia virus-induced leukaemia in BDF mice. Produces spleen colonies in vivo (of myelomonocytic, megakaryocytic, and erythropoietic origin).
46br.1g1 cell Human skin fibroblast cell line, SV40 T antigen transformed, derived from 46BR, a fibroblast from an individual with hypogammaglobulinaemia. The parent line was transformed with the plasmid pSV3gpt expressing SV40 T-antigen.
4t1 cell Mouse breast adenocarcinoma cell line.
5637 cell Human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line; established from the primary bladder carcinoma of a 68-year-old man in 1974.
624 cell Human melanoma cell line.
661w cell Retinal cell culture of murine 661W photoreceptor-derived cells.
697 cell Human B cell precursor leukemia; established from the bone marrow of a 12-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) at relapse in 1979.
70z/3 cell Mouse, (C57BL/6xDBA/2)F1, blood, leukemia, pre-B cell line.
8305c cell Human thyroid carcinoma cell line, established from the primary tumor of a 67-year-old woman with primary thyroid undifferentiated carcinoma.
862l cell Mouse pheochromocytoma cell line.
95c cell Low metastatic human giant-cell lung carcinoma cell line.
95d cell High metastatic human giant-cell lung carcinoma cell line.
a-1207 cell
a-1235 cell
a-172 cell Human brain glioblastoma cell line. Established from a 53 year old man.
a-204 cell Human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line; established from a 1 year old female.
a-2058 cell Human skin melanoma cell line, established from a 43 years adult caucasian male.
a-253 cell Human submaxillary salivary gland cell line, established from a 54-years-old caucasian male.
a-2780 cell Human ovarian carcinoma cell line.
a-375 cell Skin malignant melanoma cell line; established from a 54 year old human female.
a-375p cell Human melanoma cell line.
a-375sm cell Human melanoma cell line.
a-427 cell Human lung carcinoma cell line; established from the lung carcinoma of a 52-year-old Caucasian man.
a-431 cell Human epidermoid carcinoma established from the solid tumor of an 85-year-old woman; cells were reported to have large numbers of EGF binding sites; cell line was used as indicator cell line for anti-TGF binding.
a-498 cell Human kidney carcinoma cell line; established from the kidney carcinoma of a 52-year-old man in 1973.
a-549 cell Human lung carcinoma established from an explanted lung tumor which was removed from a 58-year-old Caucasian man in 1972; cells were described to induce tumors in athymic mice and to synthesize lecithin.
a-673 cell Human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line; established from a 15 years old female.
a-704 cell Human kidney adenocarcinoma cell line, established from a 78 years old male.
a-875 cell Human melanoma cell line.
a-9 cell Mouse, C3H/An; tissue: areolar and adipose; derived from NCTC clone 929.
a10 cell Vascular smooth muscle cell line derived from rat thoracic aorta.
a20 cell Murine B-lymphoma cell line.
a2780-dx3 cell Doxorubicin-resistant ovarian-cancer cell line.
a2780/cp70 cell Human ovarian carcinoma cell line that is resistant to cisplatin.
a2780/s cell Anthracycline-sensitive human ovarian carcinoma cell line.
a3 cell Human T lymphocyte, acute T cell leukemia cell line. Morphology: lymphoblastoid. The A3 subclone was derived from a Jurkat cell line obtained from the laboratory of Gerald Crabtree at Stanford University. The Jurkat cells were treated with Fas Antibody and isolated by limiting dilution to obtain a cell line that had a low spontaneous rate of resistance to Fas-medicated apoptosis. The resulting wild-type A3 subclone is very sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis.
a7 cell Immortalized murine hepatic stellate cell line.
a7r5 cell Rat embryonic thoracic aorta smooth muscle cell line. The cells exhibit an increase in activity of the enzymes myokinase and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) as the culture reaches stationary phase. Muscle type CPK is synthesized after cell division has ceased.
abdomen 1: The part of the body between the thorax and the pelvis; also: the cavity of this part of the trunk containing the chief viscera. 2: The posterior section of the body behind the thorax in an arthropod.
abdominal adipose tissue Adipose tissue located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs and torso. An excess of visceral fat is known as central obesity, or belly fat, the pot belly or beer belly effect, in which the abdomen protrudes excessively.
abdominal aorta Abdominal part of aorta: the distal part of the descending aorta, which is the continuation of the thoracic part and gives rise to the inferior phrenic, lumbar, median sacral, superior and inferior mesenteric, middle suprarenal, renal, and testicular or ovarian arteries, and celiac trunk.
abdominal ganglion The visceral sacs nerve knot is called visceral ganglion. In contrary to the mostly paired other ganglia this nerve knot is unpaired. The visceral ganglion innerves the pallial organs as well as the inner organs.
abdominal muscle Muscles forming the wall of the abdomen including rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis.
abductor Any muscle used to pull a body part away from the midline of the body. For example, the abductor muscles of the legs spread the legs away from the midline and away from one another. An abductor muscle opposes an adductor muscle.
abomasum The fourth compartment of the ruminant stomach that follows the omasum and has a true digestive function.
abrams cell Canine osteosarcoma cell line.
abscission zone The region at the base of a leaf, flower, fruit, or other plant part, where the formation of a cork layer results in the separation of that part from the plant body.
acc-lc-319 cell Human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line.
accessory olfactory bulb The accessory olfactory bulb, which resides on the dorsal-posterior region of the main olfactory bulb, forms a parallel pathway independent from the main olfactory bulb. It is the second processing stage of the accessory olfactory system. It receives axonal input from the vomeronasal organ, a distinct sensory epithelium from the main olfactory epithelium that detects pheromones, among other chemical stimuli. Like the main olfactory bulb, axonal input to the accessory olfactory bulb forms synapses with mitral cells within glomeruli. However, mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb project their axons to targets in the amygdala and hypothalamus where they may influence aggressive and mating behavior.
accessory sex gland Male accessory glands in humans are the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands. In insects, male accessory glands produce products that mix with the sperm to protect and preserve them.
ach-2 cell Chronically infected T-cell line. Human monocytic and T-lymphoid cell line, persistently infected with HIV-1.
achene A small dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit (as of a sunflower) developing from a simple ovary and usually having a thin pericarp attached to the seed at only one point.
achn cell Human renal cell carcinoma cell line.
act-1 cell Human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell Lymphocytic leukemia cell that is marked by an abnormal increase in the number of lymphoblasts, that is characterized by rapid onset and progression of symptoms which include fever, anemia, pallor, fatigue, appetite loss, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, bone and joint pain, and enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, and that occurs chiefly during childhood.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Lymphocytic leukemia cell line that is marked by an abnormal increase in the number of lymphoblasts, that is characterized by rapid onset and progression of symptoms which include fever, anemia, pallor, fatigue, appetite loss, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, bone and joint pain, and enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, and that occurs chiefly during childhood.
acute megakaryoblastic leukemia cell Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia is a form of leukemia where a majority of the blasts are megakaryoblastic.
acute megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia is a form of leukemia where a majority of the blasts are megakaryoblastic.
acute megakaryocytic leukemia cell line Acute megakaryocytic leukemia is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia evolving from primitive megakaryoblasts.
acute myeloid leukemia cell Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the blood and bone marrow. More common in adults, the proliferating cells are of the myeloid hematopoietic series and the cells appearing in the blood are primitive granulocytes or monocytes.
acute myeloid leukemia cell line
acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia cell Acute leukemia distinguished from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) by the morphology of the marrow and blood leukemic cells. Cytoplasmic granules are usually present and the nucleus is usually large and irregular. ANLL is more common in adults than ALL and occurs at any age.
acute promyelocytic leukemia cell A subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. In APL, there is an abnormal accumulation of immature granulocytes called promyelocytes.
adams apple This familiar feature in front of the neck is due to forward protrusion of the largest cartilage of the larynx. It takes its name from the story that a piece of the forbidden fruit stuck in Adams throat.
adductor Any of three powerful triangular muscles that contribute to the adduction of the human thigh.
adductor brevis Adductor arising from the inferior ramus of the pubis and inserted into the iliopectineal line and the upper part of the linea aspera.
adductor longus Adductor arising from the superior ramus of the pubis and inserted into the middle third of the linea aspera.
adductor magnus Adductor arising from the inferior ramus of the pubis and the ischium and inserted behind the first two into the linea aspera.
adenocarcinoma cell A cell of a cancer that begins in cells that line certain internal organs and that have glandular (secretory) properties.
adenocarcinoma cell line
adenohypophysis The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland.
adenohypophysis tumor cell
adenoid An enlarged mass of lymphoid tissue at the back of the pharynx characteristically obstructing breathing.
adenoid cystic carcinoma cell A type of cancer that most often develops in the salivary glands of the head and neck. It may arise in other sites such as the skin, lacrimal gland, trachea, breast, cervix and prostate.
adenoma cell A benign epithelial tumor cell in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are clearly derived from glandular epithelium.
adenosquamous carcinoma cell A type of cancer that contains two types of cells: squamous cells (thin, flat cells that line certain organs) and gland-like cells.
adf cell Human continuous glioblastoma cell line.
adipocyte One of the fat-laden cells making up adipose tissue.
adipocyte cell line
adipose tissue Connective tissue in which fat is stored and which has the cells distended by droplets of fat.
adipose-derived stem cell Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin e.g. adipose-derived stem cell.
adipose-derived stromal cell Adipose-derived stromal cells have been shown to have multiple lineage differentiation properties and to be suitable for tissues regeneration in many degenerative processes.
adrenal cortex The outer portion of the adrenal glands that produces several steroid hormones, including cortisol and aldosterone.
adrenal cortex cell line
adrenal gland Either of a pair of complex endocrine organs near the anterior medial border of the kidney consisting of a mesodermal cortex that produces glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and androgenic hormones and an ectodermal medulla that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
adrenal gland cancer cell Adrenal gland cancers are rare cancers occuring in the endocrine tissue of the adrenals. They are characterized by overproduction of adrenal gland hormones.
adrenal medulla The inner, reddish-brown portion of the adrenal glands that synthesizes, stores, and releases epinephrine and norepinephrine.
adrenocortical carcinoma cell A malignant adrenal cortical tumor that can cause endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome or adrenogenital syndrome.
adrenocortical carcinoma cell line
adult Fully developed and mature: GROWN-UP.
adult liver stem cell Hepatic progenitor cells can be isolated from fetal liver and extrahepatic tissues.
adult liver stem cell line
adult stem cell Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that reproduce daily to provide certain specialized cells. Until recently it was thought that each of these cells could produce just one particular type of cell. This is called differentiation. However in the past few years, evidence has been gathered of stem cells that can transform into several different forms.
adult stem cell line
adult t-cell lymphoma cell A cell of a malignancy of mature T lymphocytes with onset in adulthood, believed to be caused by human T-lymphotropic virus 1 and characterized by circulating pleomorphic malignant lymphocytes, skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, hypercalcemia, and lytic bone lesions; its course may be subacute or chronic.
adult t-cell lymphoma cell line
adventitious root A root growing from a location other than the underground, descending portion of the axis of a plant, as from a stem or leaf.
adventitious root culture Leaf and stem explants cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium supplemented with various auxins.
aerial part Existing or growing in the air rather than in the ground or in water.
aerial root An aerial root is a plant's root that is produced above the ground.
af5 cell Immortalized mesencephalic-derived AF5 cell line. The characterized AF5 rat neural-derived cell line displays GABAergic properties during culture in vitro.
agranular insular cortex The insular cortex has regions of variable cell structure or cytoarchitecture, changing from granular in the posterior portion to agranular in the anterior portion.
ags cell Human Caucasian gastric adenocarcinoma cell line.
ailncap cell A prostate cancer cell line, that proliferates under androgen-depleted conditions after emerging from long-term, androgen- depleted culture of the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.
air pouch An air pouch is produced by subcutaneous injection of sterile air into the back of a mouse or rat. With the air pouch model large volumes of inflammatory exudates can be collected with relative ease. Injection of carrageenan solution or other inflammatory irritant (i.e. LPS, bradykinin), into the air pouch causes an inflammatory reaction.
airway fluid Airway fluid comprises a number of components including water, salts, enzymes, mucus glycoproteins and other proteins which in the correct proportions confer its protective characteristics. For example mucus comprises only 1% of the fluid but is essential to the viscoelastic properties necessary for mucociliary clearance.
alate adult An alate is a winged reproductive of a social insect (especially ants or termites, but the term can also be applied to aphids and some thrips).
albedo The spongy white tissue on the inside of the rind of citrus fruit.
albumen gland The posterior oviduct opens into the large white albumen gland which adds a layer of albumen to the zygote before it reaches the egg capsule gland.
aleurone layer A group of cells rich in protein granules and located as the outer layer of the endosperm of many grain seeds.
alevin A young fish; especially: a newly hatched salmon when still attached to the yolk sac.
alimentary canal The mucous membrane-lined tube of the digestive system through which food passes, in which digestion takes place, and from which wastes are eliminated. It extends from the mouth to the anus and includes the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
all-sil cell Human T cell leukemia established from the peripheral blood of a 17-year-old man with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T-ALL.
allantoic fluid The fluid contained in the allantois.
allantois A vascular fetal membrane of reptiles, birds, and mammals that is formed as a pouch from the hindgut and that in placental mammals is intimately associated with the chorion in formation of the placenta.
alpha-motoneuron A large, heavily myelinated neuron found in the brainstem and spinal cord, responsible for the contraction of skeletal muscles.
alpha-tc1.6 cell Clonal mouse pancreatic alpha-cell line.
alpha-tc1.9 cell Glucagon-releasing mouse cell line.
alphat3-1 cell Mouse pituitary tumor cell line.
alphatn4-1 cell Immortal murine lens epithelial cell line.
alva-31 cell Human primary prostate tumor cell line.
alva-41 cell Human prostate cancer cell line.
alveolar bone The thin layer of bone making up the bony processes of the maxilla and mandible, and surrounding and containing the teeth; it is pierced by many small openings through which blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerve fibers pass.
alveolar cell Any cell of the walls of the pulmonary alveoli; the term is often limited to alveolar epithelial cells (type I and type II alveolar cells) and alveolar macrophages.
alveolar cell type i The flattened cells of the alveolar epithelium, distinguished by their greatly attenuated cytoplasm and paucity of organelles.
alveolar cell type ii Pleomorphic cells of the pulmonary alveolar epithelium that secrete surfactant and are distinguished by abundant cytoplasm containing numerous lipid-rich multilamellar bodies.
alveolar epithelial cell line
alveolar epithelium Epithelia of lung alveoli. The layer of cells covering the lining of the tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles.
alveolar macrophage Macrophage found in lung and that can be obtained by lung lavage, responsible for clearance of inhaled particles and lung surfactant. Metabolism slightly different from peritoneal macrophages (more oxidative metabolism), often have multivesicular bodies that may represent residual undigested lung surfactant.
alveolar macrophage cell line
alveolar mucosa The mucous membrane apical to the attached gingiva.
alveolar sac Each large alveolar sac is like a grape cluster which contains ten or more alveoli.
alveolar wall The alveolar walls contain capillaries and a very small interstitial space. In some alveolar walls there are pores between alveoli. There are two major alveolar cell types in the alveolar wall: 1. Flat Type I cells forming the structure of a alveolar wall. 2. Type II cells which secrete surfactant which lowers the surface tension and divide to produce Type I cells.
alveolus A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
alzheimer disease specific cell type Alzheimer is a disease marked by the loss of cognitive ability, generally over a period of 10 to 15 years, and associated with the development of abnormal tissues and protein deposits in the cerebral cortex.
amacrine cell An unipolar nerve cell found in the retina, in the olfactory bulb, and in close connection with the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum.
amastigote Any of the bodies representing the morphologic (leishmanial) stage in the life cycle of all trypanosomatid protozoa resembling the typical adult form of members of the genus Leishmania, in which the oval or round cell has a nucleus, kinetoplast, and basal body but lacks a free-flowing flagellum, the flagellum being either very short or entirely absent.
amelanotic melanoma cell A cell of unpigmented malignant melanoma.
amelanotic melanoma cell line
ameloblast A cylindrical epithelial cell in the innermost layer of the enamel organ which takes part in the elaboration of the enamel prism. The ameloblasts cover the dental papilla.
ameloblastic layer The inner layer of cells of the enamel organ, which forms the enamel prisms of the teeth.
ameloblastoma cell A tumor of the jaw derived from remnants of the embryonic rudiment of tooth enamel.
aml-12 cell Murine non-transformed normal liver cell line.
amniochorion Pertaining to the amnion and chorion.
amniocyte A cell of fetal origin obtained in an amniotic fluid specimen.
amnion A thin, tough, membranous sac that encloses the embryo or fetus of a mammal, bird, or reptile. It is filled with a serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended.
amnion epithelial cell
amnion epithelial cell line
amnion epithelium
amnioserosa The amnioserosa is an extraembryonic, epithelial tissue that covers the dorsal side of the Drosophila embryo.
amniotic cavity The space within the amnion.
amniotic cell line
amniotic fluid Fluid within the amniotic cavity produced by the amnion during the early embryonic period, and later by the lungs and kidneys; at first crystal clear, it later becomes cloudy. It protects the embryo and fetus from injury. The amount at term normally varies from 500 to 1500 mL.
amoeba Any of various one-celled aquatic or parasitic protozoans of the genus amoeba or related genera, having no definite form and consisting of a mass of protoplasm containing one or more nuclei surrounded by a flexible outer membrane. It moves by means of pseudopods.
amoebocyte A cell (as a phagocyte) having amoeboid form or movements.
amphidial gland Nematal gland originating posterior to the nerve ring that connects with the anterior lateral amphids.
ampulla The constant contraction of ampulla (to extend and retract the tube feet) helps to move a starfish. The ampullae are teeth like structures surrounding the radial canal.
amygdala The one of the four basal ganglia in each cerebral hemisphere that is part of the limbic system and consists of an almond-shaped mass of gray matter in the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe.
amyloid plaque A plaque consisting of tangles of amyloid protein in nervous tissue (a pathological mark of Alzheimer's disease).
an3ca cell Endometrial carcinoma cell line.
ana-1 cell The ANA-1 immortalized murine macrophage cell line was established by infecting the normal bone marrow of C57BL/6 mice with the murine recombinant 52 retrovirus (expressing the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes).
anal canal The terminal portion of the alimentary canal, extending from the rectum to the anus.
anal fin The unpaired fin located on the ventral side of the body of a fish, posterior to the anus. It plays an important role in the swimming movements of sharks and bony fish.
anal sac In carnivores, either of two sacs found between the internal and external anal sphincters, lined with sebaceous glands and in some species with apocrine glands.
anaplastic astrocytoma cell Moderately malignant astrocytomas, including most anaplastic astrocytomas and sometimes including the less malignant of the glioblastoma multiforme group.
anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell An aggressive (rapidly progressing) type of non-Hodgkins lymphoma that is usually of the T-cell type. The cancer cells express a marker called CD30 or Ki-1 on the surface, and may appear in the lymph nodes, skin, bones, soft tissues, lungs, or liver.
anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line An aggressive (rapidly progressing) type of non-Hodgkins lymphoma that is usually of the T-cell type. The cancer cells express a marker called CD30 or Ki-1 on the surface, and may appear in the lymph nodes, skin, bones, soft tissues, lungs, or liver.
anaplastic oligodendroglioma cell There are two types of oligodendroglioma: the well-differentiated tumor, which grows relatively slowly and in a defined shape; and the anaplastic oligodendroglioma, which grows much more rapidly and does not have a well-defined shape. Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas are much less common than well-differentiated oligodendrogliomas.
anaplastic thyroid cancer cell Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland.
anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line Cells to a more primitive or undifferentiated form of thyroid cancer.
angioblast The mesenchymal tissue of the embryo from which the blood cells and blood vessels differentiate.
angiomyolipoma cell A benign tumor containing vascular, adipose, and muscle elements. It occurs most often in the kidney with smooth muscle elements (angiolipoleiomyoma) in association with tuberous sclerosis.
angiomyolipoma cell line
animal Any of a kingdom (Animalia) of living things including many-celled organisms and often many of the single-celled ones (as protozoans) that typically differ from plants in having cells without cellulose walls, in lacking chlorophyll and the capacity for photosynthesis, in requiring more complex food materials (as proteins), in being organized to a greater degree of complexity, and in having the capacity for spontaneous movement and rapid motor responses to stimulation.
animal cap In Xenopus embryos the animal cap, which is the area around the animal pole of the blastula, is destined to form the ectoderm during normal development. However, these cells retain pluripotentiality and upon exposure to specific inducers, the animal cap can differentiate into neural, mesodermal, and endodermal tissues. In this sense, the cells of the animal cap are equivalent to mammalian embryonic stem cells.
ankle joint A hinge joint formed by the articulating of the tibia and the fibula with the talus below.
annulus fibrosus A ring of fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue (as of an intervertebral disk or surrounding an orifice of the heart).
annulus fibrosus disci intervertebralis The ring of fibrocartilage and fibrous tissue forming the circumference of the intervertebral disc; surrounds the nucleus pulposus, which is prone to herniation when the annulus fibrosus is compromised.
anococcygeus muscle The anococcygeus muscle (AcM) is one of a pair of thin sheets of smooth muscle inserting on the rectum, having a tendinous origin largely on sacral vertebrae.
antenna One of a pair of slender movable segmented sensory organs on the head of insects, myriapods, and crustaceans.
antennal gland Excretory gland situated in the basal article of the antennal peduncle.
antennal lobe The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insect which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the antenna. Functionally, it shares some similarities with the olfactory bulb in vertebrates.
anterior adductor muscle Two dorsal muscles, called adductors, extend transversely between the valves, one at the anterior end and the other at the posterior end.
anterior cardinal vein Any of the major drainage channels from the cephalic region of most vertebrate embryos.
anterior chamber of the eye That portion of the aqueous-containing space between the cornea and the lens which is bounded in front by the cornea and part of the sclera, and behind by the iris, part of the ciliary body, and that part of the lens which presents through the pupil.
anterior cingulate cortex That portion of the cingulate cortex which is located within the frontal lobe (the remainder being in the parietal lobe). It is believed to be involved in the processing of attention.
anterior commissure A bundle of myelinated nerve fibers passing transversely through the lamina terminalis and connecting symmetrical parts of the two cerebral hemispheres; it consists of a smaller anterior part (pars anterior commissurae anterioris) and a larger posterior part (pars posterior commissurae anterioris).
anterior horn One of the hornlike projections of gray matter into the white matter of the spinal cord. The anterior horn contains efferent fibers innervating skeletal muscle tissue.
anterior hypothalamic nucleus A nucleus of nerve cells in the anterior hypothalamic region.
anterior lobe The portion of the cerebellum lying in front of the primary fissure, comprising the lingula, central lobule, culmen, alae of central lobules, and quadrangular lobules.
anterior midgut
anterior olfactory lobule
anterior olfactory nucleus A portion of the forebrain of vertebrates. It is found behind the olfactory bulb and in front of the piriform cortex (laterally) and olfactory tubercle (medially) in a region often referred to as the olfactory peduncle or retrobulbar area. The peduncle contains the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) as well as two other much smaller regions, the tenia tecta (or dorsal hippocampal rudiment) and the dorsal peduncular cortex.
anterior paraventricular nucleus The anterior of the two nuclei paraventriculares thalami.
anterior pharynx
anterior silk gland
anterior spinal root The motor division of each spinal nerve, attached centrally to the spinal cord and joining peripherally with the corresponding posterior (sensory) root to form the nerve before it emerges through the intervertebral foramen. It conveys motor fibers to skeletal muscle and contains preganglionic autonomic fibers at thoracolumbar and sacral levels. There are 31 anterior and 31 posterior roots: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Called also ventral or motor root of spinal nerve, root ventralis nervi spinalis, and root motoria nervi spinalis.
anterior visceral ectoderm The anterior visceral ectoderm is an extra-embryonic tissue in the early mouse embryo that is involved in inducing anterior regions of the embryo.
anterior visceral endoderm The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) is an extra-embryonic tissue required for specifying anterior pattern in the mouse embryo.
anther The male reproductive organ enclosing and containing the pollen grains.
antheridium An organ in certain organisms that produces male gametes. Antheridia are found in many groups of organisms, including the bryophytes, ferns, ascomycete fungi, and some algae.
antler One of the paired deciduous solid bone processes that arise from the frontal bone on the head of an animal of the deer family; also : a branch of an antler.
antral mucosa Pyloric gland mucosa of the stomach.
antropyloric mucosa Mucosa pertaining to or affecting the pyloric part of the stomach, including its antrum.
anus The posterior opening of the alimentary canal.
aorta The great arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body.
aorta cell line
aorta endothelium Simple squamous epithelium which lines the lumen side of the blood vessel.
aorta smooth muscle cell line
aorta thoracica Thoracic part of aorta: the proximal portion of the descending aorta, which proceeds from the arch of the aorta and gives rise to the bronchial, esophageal, pericardiac, and mediastinal branches, and the superior phrenic, posterior intercostal III to XI, and subcostal arteries; it is continuous through the diaphragm with the abdominal aorta.
aorta thoracica smooth muscle
aorta thoracica smooth muscle cell line
aortic endothelial cell
aortic endothelial cell line
aortic root The part of the aorta attached to the atrioventricular fibrous rings and myocardium.
aortic smooth muscle
aortic smooth muscle cell
aortic valve One of the four valves in the heart, this valve is situated at exit of the left ventricle of the heart where the aorta begins. The aortic valve lets blood from the left ventricle be pumped up into the aorta but prevents blood once it is in the aorta from returning to the heart.
apical bud The uppermost bud on a stem.
apical hook Hook-like structure which develops at the apical part of the hypocotyl in dark-grown seedlings in dicots.
apical meristem A group of cells at the tip of the stem and root that give rise by cell division to the primary tissues and are ultimately responsible for the structural organization of the entire primary plant body.
apocrine gland A gland whose discharged secretion contains part of the secreting cells.
apocrine sweat gland A type of large, branched, specialized sudoriferous gland (glandula sudorifera) that empties into the upper portion of a hair follicle instead of directly onto the skin surface; found only on certain areas of the body, such as around the anus and in the axilla; after puberty they produce a viscous secretion that is acted on by bacteria to produce a characteristic acrid odor.
apud cell A group of apparently unrelated cells that secrete most of the body's hormones, with the exception of steroids.
ar4-2j cell Rattus norvegicus (rat), tumor cell line of exocrine pancreas.
arachnoid barrier layer The arachnoid barrier layer is a part of the arachnoid meningeal layer. It is formed by tight junctions between the endothelial cells of cerebral capillaries in the arachnoid mater.
arachnoid mater A delicate membrane that encloses the spinal cord and brain and lies between the pia mater and dura mater.
archegonium The structure on the pteridophyte prothallus that produces the sessile female gametes.
archenteron The cavity of a gastrula forming a primitive gut.
arcopallium The arcopallium refers to regions of the avian brain which partially overlap regions homologous to the amygdala of mammals. These regions have formerly been referred to as archistriatum, and before this epistriatum or amygdaloid complex, and a recent change of nomenclature has divided the region into the arcopallium and posterior pallial amygdala.
area postrema A small, elevated area in the lateral wall of the inferior recess of the fourth ventricle; one of the few loci in the brain where the blood-brain barrier is lacking; a chemoreceptor area associated with vomiting. A tongue-shaped structure in the caudal region of the fourth ventricle of the brain.
arh-77 cell Human plasma cell leukemia cell line, established from the peripheral blood of a 33-year-old woman with IgG plasma cell leukemia; cell line is widely used as model for multiple myeloma/plasma cell leukemia, but cells are clearly EBV+ indicating that ARH-77 might be rather a normal B-lymphoblastoid cell line than a tumor cell line.
aril An exterior covering or appendage of some seeds (as of the yew) that develops after fertilization as an outgrowth from the ovule stalk.
aristotles lantern Within the mouth of a sea urchin is an elaborate five-sided jaw structure called Aristotles lantern that can be partially extruded from the mouth. It is able to grind up calcareous exoskeletons of plants and animals.
arm A human upper limb; especially: the part between the shoulder and the wrist.
aro cell Human anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line.
arpe cell Adult retinal pigment epithelial cell line.
arpe-19 cell ARPE-19 is a spontaneously arising retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) cell line derived in 1986 by Amy Aotaki-Keen from the normal eyes of a 19-year-old male who died from head trauma in a motor vehicle accident.
arrector pili muscle Small, smooth muscle attached to the bulb of the hair which causes erection of the hair and compression of the attending sebaceous gland when it contracts.
arteria bulbi penis The common penile artery subdivides into three arteries, the bulbourethral artery, the dorsal artery of the penis and the cavernosal artery.
arteria profunda penis The artery that serves blood to the penis. It subdivides into three arteries, the bulbourethral artery, the dorsal artery of the penis and the cavernosal artery.
arterial endothelial cell
arterial endothelium
arterial smooth muscle
arterial system The arterial system is the higher-pressure portion of the circulatory system.
arteriole A small branch of an artery (a vessel that carries blood high in oxygen away from the heart to the body) leading to a capillary. The oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) makes the blood in arteries and arterioles look bright red.
artery Any of the tubular branching muscular- and elastic-walled vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body.
artery wall The wall of an artery consists typically of an outer coat (tunica externa), a middle coat (tunica media), and an inner coat (tunica intima).
articular cartilage A thin layer of cartilage, usually hyaline, on the articular surface of bones in synovial joints.
as-30d cell Rat hepatoma cell line; established from the hepatoma of a 16-month-old SD-female rat in 1988.
ascidian Any of a class (Ascidiacea) of solitary or colonial sessile tunicates that have an oral and an atrial siphon.
ascites Accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen.
ascites tumor cell
askin's tumor cell Peripheral neuroepithelioma of the chest wall.
aspc-1 cell Human caucasian pancreas adenocarcinoma cell line, established from a 62 years old caucasian female.
astc-a-1 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
astroblast An embryonic astrocyte.
astrocyte A star-shaped cell, especially a neuroglial cell of nervous tissue.
astrocyte cell line
astrocytoma cell A tumor cell composed of astrocytes; it is the most common type of primary brain tumor and is also found throughout the central nervous system. One classification groups astrocytomas according to their histologic appearance and distinguishes pilocytic, protoplasmic, gemistocytic, and fibrillary types. Another classification groups them in order of increasing malignancy as Grade I, Grade II, Grade III, and Grade IV types.
astrocytoma cell line
astroglia Neuroglia tissue made up of astrocytes.
astroglial cell Neuroglia tissue made up of astrocytes.
asynchronous muscle Asynchronous muscle is that type of muscle which, when turned on by neural input and resulting muscle action potentials, can contract in an oscillatory manner if attached to an appropriate, resonant load such as is offered in life by an insects wings and thorax. The frequency of the oscillatory contractions is different from, and typically much higher than, that of the activating neuronal impulses. Asynchronous muscle is so-named because during oscillation there is no direct correspondence between individual muscle contractions and muscle action potentials, which contrasts with synchronous muscle in which there is a 1:1 correspondence between muscle contractions and muscle action potentials or bursts of action potentials. Asynchronous muscle is only known to occur in insects. The muscles that power flight in dipteran flies, beetles, many of the true bugs and in some, but perhaps not all, bees and wasps are asynchronous muscles, as are the singing muscles of some cicadas.
at6.1 cell Rat prostate carcinoma cell line.
atdc-5 cell Clonal mouse embryonic cell line.
atherosclerotic plaque A buildup of cholesterol and fatty material within a blood vessel due to the effects of atherosclerosis. A fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery, resulting from atherosclerosis.
atrial appendage The ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart.
atrial gland The atrial gland is an exocrine organ that secretes into the oviduct of Aplysia californica and expresses three homologous genes belonging to the egg-laying hormone gene family.
atrium In the heart, the atrium is an upper chamber found on both sides of the heart. The left atrium receives red, oxygenated blood from the lungs by way of the pulmonary veins. The right atrium receives dark red blood from the other parts of the body.
atrkd cell Human osteosarcoma-derived U2OS cell line.
att-20 cell Mouse pituitary tumor cell line. Morphology: small rounded cells.
au-565 cell The AU565 cell line was derived from a pleural effusion of a patient with breast adenocarcinoma. This cell line was established from the same patient as SK-BR-3. The patient, a White, Caucasian female, age 43, blood type A+, had been treated with radiation, steroids, cytoxan and 5-fluorouracil.
auditory cortex The region of the cerebral cortex that receives auditory data from the medial geniculate body.
auditory vesicle The saccular invagination of ectoderm from which the vertebrate inner ear develops.
autonomic nervous system The enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus and the solitary nucleus, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS; these and related central and sensory structures are sometimes (but not here) considered to be part of the autonomic nervous system itself.
avian pallium In the anatomy of animals, an avian pallium is the dorsal telencephalon of a bird's brain. Pallium of avian species tend to be relatively large, comprising ~75% of the telencephalic volume.
axenic culture A situation in which only one species is present. Thus an axenic culture is uncontaminated by organisms of other species, an axenic organism does not have commensal organisms in the gut etc. Some organisms have obligate symbionts and cannot be grown axenically.
axillary bud The axillary bud is a bud that develops in the axil of a plant.
axopodium A long and slender, semipermanent type of locomotor pseudopodium that has a central axial filament composed of a bundle of microtubules.
b-103 cell Rat neuroblastoma cell line.
b-16 cell Mouse melanoma tumor cell.
b-50 cell A rat neuronal cell line.
b-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell A rare subtype consisting of lymphoblasts that express surface immunoglobulins and have a chromosomal translocation similar to that of Burkitt's lymphoma.
b-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell
b-cell leukemia cell B-cell leukemia describes several different types of lymphoid leukemia which affect B cells.
b-cell lymphoma cell A cell of a group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
b-cpap cell Human papillary thyroid carcinoma derived cell line.
b-lymphoblast cell line
b-lymphoblastoid cell
b-lymphoblastoid cell line
b-lymphoblastoma cell
b-lymphocyte Any of the lymphocytes that have antibody molecules on the surface and comprise the antibody-secreting plasma cells when mature.
b-lymphocyte cell line
b-lymphoma cell line
b16-bl6 cell Mouse melanoma cell line.
b16-f1 cell Mouse skin melanoma cell line, established from C57BL/6J mouse strain.
b16-f10 cell Mouse, C57BL/6, melanoma cell line.
b16f10-nex2 cell B16F10-Nex2 is a subline from B16F10 murine melanoma , isolated at the Experimental Oncology Unit (UNONEX). It is characterized by low immunogenicity and moderate virulence.
b35 cell Rattus norvegicus (rat) central nervous system (CNS) neuroblastoma cell line. Rats were inoculated with N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU) 15 days after conception. Tumors found in the central nervous system (CNS) 4 to 10 months after birth were excised, minced, adapted to culture and cloned.
b6tert-1 cell Immortalized normal human cytotrophoblast (CT) cell line.
b95-8 cell Marmoset monkey lymphocytes, established from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a marmoset monkey (saguinus oedipus); cells were described to release high titers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) providing a source for transformation of B cells and establishment of continuous cell lines; this cell line has been assigned by the ZKBS (German Central Commission for Biological Safety) to risk group 2.
ba/f3 cell Mouse pro B cell line. IL-3 dependent murine pro B cell line established from peripheral blood; apparently derived from BALB/c mouse.
bacteroid An irregularly shaped bacterium (as a rhizobium) found especially in root nodules of legumes.
baec cell Bovine aortic endothelial cell line.
bag cell neuron Cluster of electrically coupled neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia that are homogeneous, easily dissected out and release peptides that stimulate egg laying.
balb/3t12-3 cell Derived from a 14-17 day old BALB/c mouse embryo. The cells are tumorigenic, are insensitive to contact inhibition and are susceptible to transformation with SV40 virus.
balb/3t3 cell The BALB/3T3 clone A31 is one of several cell lines (see BALB/3T12) developed in 1968 from disaggregated 14- to 17-day-old BALB/c mouse embryos.
balb/3t3-t cell 3T3 T proadipocyte cell line; derived from the clone A31 BALB/3T3 cell line.
ball-1 cell Human acute lymphoblastoid leukemia cell line from peripheral blood.
bark The tough exterior covering of a woody root or stem; specifically: the tissues outside the cambium that include an inner layer especially of secondary phloem and an outer layer of periderm.
barrett's epithelial cell line
barrett's esophagus Metaplasia of the lower esophagus that is characterized by replacement of squamous epithelium with columnar epithelium, occurs especially as a result of chronic gastroesophageal reflux, and is associated with an increased risk for esophageal carcinoma.
basal cell One of the innermost cells of the deeper epidermis of the skin.
basal cell carcinoma cell Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer and accounts for more than 90 percent of all skin cancer in the U.S. These cancers almost never spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. They can, however, cause damage by growing and invading surrounding tissue.
basal forebrain The basal forebrain is a term for a group of structures that lie near the bottom of the front of the brain, including the nucleus basalis, diagonal band, medial septum and substantia innominata. These structures are important in the production of a brain chemical called acetylcholine, which is then distributed widely throughout the brain.
basal ganglion Any of four deeply placed masses of gray matter (as the amygdala) in each cerebral hemisphere. Location: The basal ganglion is located deep within the cerebral hemispheres in the telencephalon region of the brain. It consists of the corpus stratium, subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra.
basal telencephalon The region of the telencephalon lying deep in the cerebral hemispheres.
basis pedunculi cerebri The large bundle of nerve fiber tracts forming the anterior part of the cerebral peduncles, which consists of corticospinal, corticonuclear, corticopontine, parietotemporopontine, and frontopontine fibers descending from the cerebral cortex and terminating in the pons and spinal cord.
basophil Mammalian granulocyte with large heterochromatic basophilic granules that contain histamine bound to a protein and heparin-like mucopolysaccharide matrix. They are not phagocytic. Very similar to mast cells though it is not clear whether they have common lineage.
basophilic leukemia cell A rare type of leukemia in which basophils predominate; both acute and chronic varieties have been observed.
basophilic leukemia cell line
basophilic myelocyte Myelocytes are further distinguished according to the type of granules that develop, i.e., neutrophilic myelocyte (60%), eosinophilic myelocyte, basophilic myelocyte (3%).
bbm cell Bos taurus bone marrow normal cell line.
bc-1 cell PEL cell line carrying the Epstain-Barr virus (EBV) infection.
bc-2 cell PEL cell line carrying the Epstain-Barr virus (EBV) infection.
bc-3 cell EBV negative PEL cell line.
bc3h1 cell Mouse brain tumor cell line. Established from a mouse tumor induced by nitrosoethylurea with properties characteristic of muscle; cells were described to synthesize adenylate and creatine phosphokinases.
bcbl-1 cell EBV negative PEL cell line.
bcp-1 cell EBV negative PEL cell line.
bcwm.1 cell Derived from a long-term culture of CD19(+) selected bone marrow lymphoplasmacytic cells isolated from an untreated patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.
be(2)-m17 cell Human caucasian neuroblastoma cell line. The cell line BE(2)-M17 was isolated from SK-N-BE(2) by limiting dilution.
beas-2b cell Epithelial cells were isolated from normal human bronchial epithelium obtained from autopsy of non-cancerous individuals.
bed nucleus of stria terminalis Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of forebrain and brainstem areas including the hippocampus, the lateral hypothalamus, the tegmentum, and the amygdala. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
bel-7402 cell Human liver cancer cell line.
ben cell Human lung carcinoma; established from the supraclavicular tumor cells-containing lymph node of a 71-year-old man with poorly differentiated carcinoma of the lung.
ben-men-1 cell Human benign meningioma cell line; established in 2003 from the meningothelial meningioma grade I attached to the parietal falx of a 68-year-old woman after surgical tumor resection; cells were immortalized by retroviral transduction with human telomerase reverse transcriptase.
bend3 cell Brain capillary endothelial cell line.
bergmann fiber Filamentous glia fibers traversing the cerebellar cortex perpendicular to the surface. These fibers are the processes of Golgi epithelial cells.
bergmanns glia A specialized form of astrocytes in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum.
berry A simple fruit (as a currant, grape, tomato, or banana) with a pulpy or fleshy pericarp.
beta-tc3 cell Murine insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells from an insulin producing tumour (insulinoma) in the pancreas.
beta-tc6 cell Mouse insulinoma cell line.
bewo cell Human placenta choriocarcinoma cell line.
bg-1 cell Ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line.
bgc-823 cell Human gastric cancer cell line.
bhk cell Baby hamster kidney cell line.
bhk-21 cell Syrian hamster kidney BHK-21 is a subclone (clone 13) of the parental line established from the kidneys of five unsexed, one-day-old hamsters in 1961; cells can be used for virus replication studies.
bht-101 cell Human thyroid carcinoma cell line; established from the lymph node metastasis of a 63-year-old woman with anaplastic papillary thyroid carinoma.
bhy cell Oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
bic-1 cell Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line.
biceps A muscle having two heads: as a: the large flexor muscle of the front of the upper arm b: the large flexor muscle of the back of the upper leg.
biceps brachii Biceps of the arm.
biceps femoris Biceps of the femur.
bile A fluid secreted by the liver and poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts. Important constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin diglucuronide, and electrolytes. Bile is alkaline due to its bicarbonate content, is golden brown to greenish yellow in color, and has a bitter taste. Bile secreted by the liver is concentrated in the gallbladder.
bile canaliculus Fine tubular canals running between liver cells, throughout the parenchyma, usually occurring singly between each adjacent pair of cells, and forming a three-dimensional network of polyhedral meshes, with a single cell in each mesh.
bile duct Any of the ducts that convey bile in and from the liver.
bile duct cell line
bile duct epithelium The irregularly shaped proliferating bile ducts are lined by normal cuboidal epithelium.
bile ductule One of the fine terminal elements of the bile duct system, leaving the portal canal, and pursuing a course at the periphery of a lobule of the liver. Rarely called bile capillary.
biliary epithelial cell
biliary epithelium Epithelium of the gallbladder and the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
biofilm A thin usually resistant layer of microorganisms (as bacteria) that form on and coat various surfaces (as of water pipes and catheters).
bipolar cell A type of neuron which has two extensions. Bipolar cells are specialized sensory neurons for the transmission of special senses. As such, they are part of the sensory pathways for smell, sight, taste, hearing and vestibular functions.
bj cell Human normal foreskin fibroblast cell line.
bjab cell The malignant human B-cell-line BJAB is a EBV-negative Burkitt-like lymphoma cell line.
bl-2 cell Burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell line.
bl-3 cell Bovine lymphoblastoid cell line.
bl-41 cell Human Burkitt lymphoma cell line; established from the tumor tissue of an 8-year-old Caucasian boy with Burkitt lymphoma.
bl-70 cell Human Burkitt lymphoma cell line; established from the tumor tissue at relapse of a 16-year-old Caucasian boy with Burkitt lymphoma.
bladder A membranous sac in animals that serves as the receptacle of a liquid or contains gas.
bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell Cancer that forms in transitional cells in the lining of the bladder.
bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line
bladder wall
blast cell In the monophyletic theory, the least differentiated, totipotential blood cell without commitment as to its particular series, from which all blood cells are derived, preceding a stem cell.
blastema A group of cells that give rise to a new individual, in asexual reproduction, or to an organ or part, in either normal development or in regeneration.
blastocyst The modified blastula of a placental mammal.
blastocyte An undifferentiated embryonic cell.
blastoderm The mass of cells produced by cleavage of a fertilized ovum, forming the hollow sphere of the blastula, or the cellular cap above a floor of segmented yolk in the discoblastula of telolecithal eggs.
blastodisc The embryo-forming portion of an egg with discoidal cleavage usually appearing as a small disc on the upper surface of the yolk mass.
blastomere A cell produced during cleavage of a fertilized egg.
blastopore During gastrulation cells on the surface of the embryo move into the interior to form the mesoderm and endoderm. The opening formed by this invagination of cells is the blastopore. It is an opening from the archenteron, the primitive gut, to the exterior. In some animals this opening becomes the anus, whilst in others it closes up and the anus opens at the same spot or nearby.
blastula The usually spherical structure produced by cleavage of a zygote, consisting of a single layer of cells (blastoderm) surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocoele).
blm cell The human melanoma cell line BLM has been established from surgically removed melanoma metastases.
blood 1: The fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins of a vertebrate animal carrying nourishment and oxygen to and bringing away waste products from all parts of the body. 2: A comparable fluid of an invertebrate.
blood cancer cell The major forms of blood cancer are lymphoma, leukemia and multiple myeloma. They affect the way a body makes blood and provides immunity from other diseases.
blood clot A semisolid gelatinous mass of coagulated blood that consists of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets entrapped in a fibrin network.
blood plasma The fluid portion of the blood in which the particulate components are suspended.
blood platelet A minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting.
blood serum The cell-free portion of the blood from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting.
blood vessel Any of the vessels through which blood circulates in the body.
blood vessel endothelium
blood vessel wall
blood-lymph Lymph exuded from the blood vessels and not derived from the fluid in the tissue spaces.
bloodstream form When living in the mammalian bloodstream T. brucei has neither a functional Krebs cycle nor oxidative phosphorylation nor does it store any carbohydrates. In the bloodstream form. Its metabolism is restricted to the glycolytic pathway alone.
bmmc cell Bone marrow culture-derived mast cells.
bmn cell Silkworm, Bombyx mori, cell line derived from ovary.
bnl cl.2 cell Mus musculus BALB/c liver cell line; established from an embryo.
body wall The portion of an animal body that consists of ectoderm and mesoderm, forms the external body surface, and encloses the body cavity.
body wall muscle A worm's body wall has two kinds of muscles that it uses to crawl. Circular muscles surround the worm's body and can make the body shrink or spread out. Longitudinal muscles run the length of the body and can shorten or lengthen the worm. Setae (bristles) prevent the worm from slipping.
bon-1 cell Human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell line.
bone The hard form of connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton of most vertebrates; it consists of an organic component (the cells and matrix) and an inorganic, or mineral, component; the matrix contains a framework of collagenous fibers and is impregnated with the mineral component, chiefly calcium phosphate (85 per cent) and calcium carbonate (10 per cent), which imparts the quality of rigidity to bone.
bone cancer cell Cancer cell of the skeleton. Cancers that begin in bone are rare but it is not unusual for cancers to spread (metastasize) to bone from other parts of the body. This is not called bone cancer, but is named for the organ or tissue in which the cancer begins.
bone cancer cell line
bone cell line
bone marrow The soft, fatty, vascular tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of red blood cells and many white blood cells.
bone marrow cancer cell
bone marrow cell The soft, fatty, vascular tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of red blood cells and many white blood cells.
bone marrow cell line
bone marrow endothelial cell line
bone marrow stem cell Bone marrow stem cells are the most primitive cells in the marrow. From them all the various types of blood cells are descended.
bone marrow stromal cell
bone marrow stromal cell line
bone marrow stromal stem cell Bone marrow stromal stem cells are known to be able to transform into liver, nerve, muscle and kidney cells.
bone marrow-derived dendritic cell
bone marrow-derived macrophage Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) are primary macrophage cells, derived from bone marrow cells in vitro in the presence of growth factors.
bony labyrinth The bony part of the internal ear.
bpaec cell Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell line.
bph cell Human benign prostatic hyperplasia cell.
bph-1 cell Human benign prostate hyperplasia; prostate epithelial cells from a 68-year-old man with benign prostate hyperplasia; cells were immortalized with SV-40 large T-antigen; cells were described to express cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19 (but not 14) and to metabolize prostatic androgens.
bract A small modified leaf in a flower cluster.
bradyzoite A small, comma-shaped form of Toxoplasma gondii, found in clusters enclosed by an irregular wall (pseudocyst) in the tissues, chiefly muscles and the brain, in chronic (latent) toxoplasmosis; considered to be the slow-growing form.
brain 1: The portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that constitutes the organ of thought and neural coordination, includes all the higher nervous centers receiving stimuli from the sense organs and interpreting and correlating them to formulate the motor impulses, is made up of neurons and supporting and nutritive structures, is enclosed within the skull, and is continuous with the spinal cord through the foramen magnum. Also named encephalon. 2: A nervous center in invertebrates comparable in position and function to the vertebrate brain.
brain cancer cell Cancer cell of the central information processing center of the body. Tumors in the brain can be malignant or benign, and can occur at any age. Only malignant tumors are cancerous. Primary brain tumors cancer initially forms in the brain tissue. Secondary brain tumors cancers are cancers that have spread to the brain tissue (metastasized) from elsewhere in the body. Secondary brain cancer is named for the organ or tissue in which the cancer begins, such as lung cancer with secondary brain metastasis.
brain cancer cell line
brain capillary endothelial cell line
brain cell line
brain cortex cell line
brain endothelial cell
brain endothelium
brain endothelium cell line
brain microvascular endothelial cell
brain microvascular endothelial cell line
brain microvessel endothelial cell
brain myelin
brain stem The part of the brain composed of the mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata and connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum.
brain ventricle Any of the system of communicating cavities in the brain that are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.
branch A natural subdivision of a plant stem; especially: a secondary shoot or stem (as a bough) arising from a main axis (as of a tree).
branchial arch One of a series of bony or cartilaginous arches that develop in the walls of the mouth cavity and pharynx of a vertebrate embryo, consist typically of a curved segmented bar or rod on each side meeting the contralateral bar or rod at the ventral end, and correspond to the gill arches of fishes and amphibians.
breast The fore or ventral part of the body between the neck and the abdomen.
breast adenocarcinoma cell line
breast cancer cell Breast cancer is an uncontrolled growth of malignant breast tissue. Most breast cancers begin in the milk ducts: these are called intraductal cancers. A few, like lobular cancer, start in the milk sacs or lobes.
breast cancer cell line
breast cell line
breast epithelial cell
breast epithelium
breast fibroadenoma cell A common benign (not malignant) tumor of the breast. Usually called simply a fibroadenoma.
breast hyperplasia cell Hyperplasia or hypergenesis means abnormal cell proliferation of cells. It may result in the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes mixed with benign neoplasia/ benign tumor.
breast invasive ductal carcinoma cell Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is one of several recognized specific patterns of cancer of the breast. It is so named because it begins in the cells forming the ducts of the breast. It is the most common form of breast cancer, comprising 65-85% of all cases.
breast lobe The 15 to 20 separate portions of the mammary gland that radiate from the central area deep to the nipple like wheel spokes and comprise the body of the mammary gland; each is drained by a single lactiferous duct.
brl cell Buffalo rat liver cell line.
brl-3a cell Rat liver cell line. Established from the buffalo strain of rattus norvegicus.
brockmann body Certain teleost fish have large anatomically discrete islet organs called Brockmann bodies (BBs).
brodmann area 26 In the human this area is called ectosplenial area 26. It is a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. It is a narrow band located in the isthmus of cingulate gyrus adjacent to the fasciolar gyrus internally. It is bounded externally by the granular retrolimbic area 29.
brodmann area 36 Ectorhinal area 36 is a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. With its medial boundary corresponding approximately to the rhinal sulcus it is located primarily in the fusiform gyrus.
bronchial bud An outgrowth from the stem bronchus giving rise to the air passages of its respective pulmonary lobe.
bronchial cancer cell
bronchial epithelial cell A normal cell of the bronchial epithelium.
bronchial epithelial cell line
bronchial epithelium
bronchial mucosa The mucous lining of the bronchial tubes.
bronchial smooth muscle Smooth muscle that is present continuously around the bronchi.
bronchial smooth muscle cell
bronchioalveolar carcinoma cell A variant type of adenocarcinoma of the lung, with columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells lining the alveolar septa and projecting into alveolar spaces in branching papillary formations.
bronchiolar epithelium
bronchiole A minute thin-walled branch of a bronchus.
bronchoalveolar lavage A technique by which cells and fluid from bronchioles and lung alveoli are removed for diagnosis of disease or evaluation of treatment. A bronchoscope is wedged into a bronchus and sterile saline is pumped in and then removed along with the fluid and cells to be analyzed.
bronchoalveolar stem cell
bronchoalveolar system System pertaining to a bronchus and alveoli.
bronchogenic carcinoma cell Any of a large group of carcinomas of the lung, so called because they arise from the epithelium of the bronchial tree. Four primary subtypes are distinguished: adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
bronchus Either of the two primary divisions of the trachea that lead respectively into the right and the left lung.
brown adipose tissue A mammalian heat-producing tissue occurring especially in human newborns and in hibernators.
bsc cell Immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line.
bsc-40 cell Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) epithelial kidney cell line.
bt-20 cell Human, Caucasian, breast, carcinoma cell line. Morphology: epithelial-like; species: human, Caucasian female 74 years old; tissue: breast; tumor: carcinoma.
bt-325 cell Human glioma cell line.
bt-474 cell Human breast ductal carcinoma cell line; established from a solid, invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast; obtained from a 60-year-old woman; cells were reportedly tumorigenic in athymic mice and were found to be susceptible to mouse mammary tumor virus.
bt-549 cell Human breast ductal carcinoma cell line. The BT-549 line was isolated in 1978 by W.G. Coutinho and E.Y. Lasfargues. Source tissue consisted of a papillary, invasive ductal tumor which had metastasized to 3 of 7 regional lymph nodes.
buccal epithelial cell
buccal epithelium
buccal mucosa The inner lining of the cheeks and lips.
bud Any small part of the embryo or adult metazoon more or less resembling the bud of a plant and presumed to have potential for growth and differentiation.
bulb A resting stage of a plant (as the lily, onion, hyacinth, or tulip) that is usually formed underground and consists of a short stem base bearing one or more buds enclosed in overlapping membranous or fleshy leaves.
bulbil A small bulb that develops from an aerial bud. Bulbils are easily detached and function as a means of vegetative propagation. They may form from lateral buds, as in the lesser celandine (Ranunculus ficaria), or develop in place of flowers, as in many species of Allium. Certain forms of apomixis give rise to bulbils, as seen in the lesser bulbous saxifrage (Saxifraga cernua). The term is also applied to various outgrowths formed by lower plants that become detached and develop into new plants. For example, the fern Asplenium bulbiferum produces bulbils on the upper surface of its fronds and Lycopodium selago has bulbils in the axils of the uppermost leaves.
bulbourethral gland Either of two small racemose glands that are located below the prostate and discharge a component of the seminal fluid into the urethra. They are homologous to the Bartholin's glands in the female.
bundle sheath Sheath of parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells surrounding the vascular bundles in leaves.
bundle sheath cell Cells surrounding the vascular bundle in C4 plants.
burkitt lymphoma cell Malignant tumour cell of lymphoblasts derived from B-lymphocytes. Most commonly affects children in tropical Africa: both Epstein-Barr virus and immunosuppression due to malarial infection are involved.
burkitt lymphoma cell line
bursa copulatrix A thin fan or bell-shaped expansion of the cuticle of the tail of many male nematode worms that functions as a copulatory structure.
bursa of fabricius A lymphoid organ that opens into the cloaca of birds and functions in B-cell production.
bv-2 cell Murine microglial cell line.
bv173 cell B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
bw-5147 cell Mouse AKR/J thymic lymphoma cell line.
bw-5147.3 cell This line is a clone of the BW5147 cell line which was established from a spontaneous AKR/J thymoma.
bxpc-3 cell Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, established from a 61 year old human female.
byssus A mass of strong, silky filaments by which certain bivalve mollusks, such as mussels, attach themselves to rocks and other fixed surfaces.
c 108 cell Mouse, C57BL/6,Lewis lung carcinoma cell line.
c-10 cell A line of murine alveolar type II lung epithelial cells.
c-127 cell Murine mammary tumor line from a female mus musculus.
c-1300 cell Mouse neuroblastoma cell line.
c-28/i2 cell Immortalized human chondrocyte cell line.
c-33a cell Cervical cancer cell line.
c-81 cell HTLV-1-infected human T-cell line; established from patients with T-cell leukemia.
c127i cell Mouse mammary gland cell line. C127I cells are suitable hosts for transformation with bovine papilloma virus DNA plasmids.
c1r cell The HLA-A,B negative mutant cell line C1R is widely used as a transfection recipient in functional studies of class I MHC genes. It was derived from a normal B cell line.
c2c12 cell This is a subclone of the mouse myoblast cell line. The C2C12 cell line differentiates rapidly, forming contractile myotubes and producing characteristic muscle proteins. Treatment with bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) cause a shift in the differentiation pathway from myoblastic to osteoblastic.
c3h10t1/2 cell Mouse embryonic mesenchymal stem cell line.
c57mg cell Normal murine mammary gland cell line.
c6 glioma cell The glial cell strain, C6, was cloned from a rat glial tumor induced by N-nitrosomethylurea by Benda et al after a series of alternate culture and animal passages. Tissue: brain; glial cell; glioma. Morphology: fibroblast.
c666-1 cell A cell line from undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This cell line consistently carries the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in long-term cultures. C666-1 is a subclone of its parental cell line, C666, derived from an NPC xenograft of southern Chinese origin.
c81-61 cell Human melanoma cell line.
ca-46 cell Human Burkitt's lymphoma, established from the ascites fluid of a patient with American-type Burkitt's lymphoma.
ca-77 cell Rat medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line.
ca-hpv-10 cell Human prostate cancer cell line.
ca9-22 cell Human gingival carcinoma cell line.
caba i cell Human ovarian cancer cell line; established from ascitic fluid obtained from a patient with papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary prior to drug treatment.
caco-2 cell Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, established from the primary colon tumor (adenocarcinoma) of a 72-year-old Caucasian man in 1974.
caco-2/15 cell Human colon carcinoma cell line.
caco-2/bbe cell The C2BBe1 (brush border expressing) cell line was cloned in 1988 from the Caco-2 cell line by limiting dilution.
caco-2/tc7 cell Caco-2/TC7 cell line was established from the parental human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell line.
cad cell A CNS catecholaminergic cell line.
cag cell CAG cell line; established from a bone marrow aspirate of a patient with myeloma.
caki-1 cell Human renal cancer cell line, established from a 49-years-old male.
cal-27 cell Human tongue squamous cell carcinoma established from the poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue removed from a 56-year-old man before treatment in 1982.
cal-51 cell Human breast carcinoma established from the pleural effusion metastasis of a 45-year-old woman with progressive breast adenocarcinoma (after radio-, chemotherapy and surgery) in 1985; rare example of tumor cell line with normal karyotype.
cal-62 cell Human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, established from the thyroid gland (right lobe) of a 70-year-old woman with thyroid anaplastic carcinoma in 1988; described as being tumorigenic in heterotransplanted nude mice.
cal-72 cell Human osteosarcoma cell line, established from a chemotherapy-resistant tumor sample obtained from the left knee of a 10-year-old boy with anaplastic osteoblastic sarcoma (Rosen grade IIB) in 1989.
calcaneal bone The irregular quadrangular bone at the back of the tarsus.
callus Undifferentiated tissue that develops on or around an injured or cut plant surface or in tissue culture.
callus culture The callus culture is a technique of tissue culture, it is usually carried out on solidified gel medium in the presence of growth regulators and initiated by inoculation of small explants or sections from established organ or other cultures (the inocula). Plant cell calluses may be made to differentiate into the specialized tissues of a whole new plant, with the addition of a number of hormones or enzymes. This is an ability known as totipotency. Callus cultures can be indefinitely maintained through regular sub-culturing.
calo cell HPV18 positive human uterine cervix carcinoma cell line; established from stage IIB squamous cell cervical carcinoma explants from Mexican female at the National University of Mexico.
calu-1 cell Human epidermoid lung carcinoma grade III cell line, established from a Caucasian male 47 years old.
calu-3 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line; established from a 25-year-old caucasian male.
calu-6 cell Human anaplastic carcinoma cell line, probably from lung. Established from a 62-years-old caucasian female.
calvarium An incomplete skull:especially: the portion of a skull including the braincase and excluding the lower jaw or lower jaw and facial portion.
calyx The usually green outer whorl of a flower consisting of sepals.
cama-1 cell Human mammary gland breast adenocarcinoma cell line, derived from metastatic site: pleural effusion.
cambium A thin formative layer between the xylem and phloem of most vascular plants that gives rise to new cells and is responsible for secondary growth; A lateral meristem in vascular plants, including the vascular cambium and cork cambium, that forms parallel rows of cells resulting in secondary tissues.
canal trophoblast giant cell
cancellous bone Bone substance made up of thin intersecting lamellae, usually found internal to compact bone.
cancer stem cell Cancer stem cells are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are tumorigenic.
caov-3 cell Human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line, established from a 54-year-old caucasian female.
capan-1 cell Human pancreas adenocarcinoma cell line; established from the liver metastasis of a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a 40-year-old Caucasian man in 1974.
capan-2 cell Human pancreas adenocarcinoma cell line; established from the tumor of a 56-year-old Caucasian man with pancreas adenocarcinoma in 1975.
capillary A capillary tube; especially: any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules and forming networks throughout the body.
capillary endothelial cell A cell of the capillary endothelium.
capillary endothelium The walls of capillaries are composed of only a single layer of cells, the endothelium.
capillary pericyte A cell with several slender processes that embraces the capillary wall in amphibia.
capsular epithelium The outer, or parietal, layer of the renal glomerular capsule, composed of simple squamous epithelium, and separated from the inner, or visceral, layer by the capsular space.
caput epididymis The head of the epididymis.
car-1 cell Human rectal carcinoma cell line.
carapace A bony or chitinous case or shield covering the back or part of the back of an animal (as a turtle or crab).
carb cell Mouse skin carcinoma cell line.
carcass A dead body.
carcinoid cell A cell of a benign or malignant tumor arising especially from the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract.
carcinoma cell A cell of malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases.
carcinoma cell line
carcinosarcoma cell A cell of a malignant tumor that is a mixture of carcinoma (cancer of epithelial tissue, which is skin and tissue that lines or covers the internal organs) and sarcoma (cancer of connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat).
cardia The opening of the esophagus into the stomach; also: the part of the stomach adjoining this opening.
cardiac muscle The principal muscle tissue of the vertebrate heart made up of striated fibers that appear to be separated from each other under the electron microscope but that function in long-term rhythmic contraction as if in protoplasmic continuity.
cardiac muscle cell line
cardiac muscle fiber Cardiac muscle fibers contain one or sometimes two nuclei and myofibrils and are separated from one another by an intercalated disk; although striated, cardiac muscle fibers branch to form an interlacing network.
cardiac purkinje cell Cells of the Purkinje fibers of the heart; they are large, clear, tightly packed cells with many gap junctions between them and thus conduct impulses rapidly.
cardiac purkinje fiber One of the specialized cardiac muscle fibers, part of the impulse-conducting network of the heart, that rapidly transmit impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles.
cardiac stomach In starfishes the cardiac stomach is connected to a pyloric stomach which is located above it. Food can be brought into the stomach through the mouth or, in many species, the cardiac stomach can be extended out through the mouth to digest food outside the body. Suspension-feeding starfish use their tube feet to pass food to the mouth.
cardinal vein Any of four longitudinal veins of the vertebrate embryo running anteriorly and posteriorly along each side of the spinal column with the pair on each side meeting at and discharging blood to the heart through the corresponding duct of Cuvier.
cardiofibroblast A cardiac fibroblast is a connective tissue cell in the heart which secretes an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
cardiomyocyte cell line
cardiovascular system The system of heart and blood vessels.
carotid artery A key artery located in the front of the neck that carries blood from the heart to the brain. Cholesterol plaques on the inner wall of the carotid artery can lead to stroke.
carotid artery endothelial cell
carotid artery endothelium
carotid atherosclerotic plaque Cholesterol plaques on the inner wall of the carotid artery can lead to stroke.
carotid body A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
carotid sinus nerve Carotid branch of glossopharyngeal nerve.
carpel The female reproductive part of a flower, consisting of stigma, style, and ovary.
cartilage A specialized, fibrous connective tissue, forming most of the temporary skeleton of the embryo, providing a model in which most of the bones develop, and constituting an important part of the growth mechanism of the organism. It exists in several types, the most important of which are hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Also used as a general term to designate a mass of such tissue in a particular site in the body.
caryopsis Simple, dry, indehiscent fruit with a single seed that is fused to the ovary wall, example: wheat.
caski cell Human cervical carcinoma cell line; established from a 40 years old caucasian female.
catecholaminergic neuron Neuron activated by or secreting catecholamines.
cauda epididymis The tail of the epididymis.
caudate nucleus One of the centrally-located portions of the brain affected by Huntington's Disease. Speech and swallowing problems arise when this region and another region called the putamen are affected.
caudate putamen A centrally-located portion of the brain affected by Huntington's Disease. The putamen is structurally similar to the caudate nucleus together with which it composes what is termed the striatum.
cauline leaf Of, having, or growing on a stem. Used especially of leaves arising from the upper part of a stem.
caulonema The secondary, bud-generating part of the filamentous moss protonema, typically reddish-brown, having few chloroplasts and consisting of long cells with oblique end walls.
cavernous artery Any of several small branches of the internal carotid artery that supply the trigeminal ganglion and the walls of the cavernous and petrosal sinuses.
cavum septum pellucidum Space enclosed within the laminae of the septum pelludicum, the membranous partition that seperates the frontal horns of the ventricle.
cbrh-7919 cell Rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.
ccd-13lu cell Human normal lung fibroblast cell line established from a black 71-years-old human male. Derived from normal tissue from a patient with pancreatic carcinoma.
ccd-18co cell Human normal colon fibroblast cell line established from a black 2.5-months-old human female.
ccd-19lu cell Human normal lung fibroblast cell line; established from a 20-years-old caucasian female.
ccd-25lu cell Human normal lung fibroblast cell line established from a caucasian 7-years-old human male. The line was established from the lung of a patient who died of glioma of the brain stem.
ccd-8lu cell Human normal lung fibroblast cell line established from a caucasian 48-years-old human male. Derived from normal tissue from patient who died of cerebral thrombosis.
cce cell CCE is a mouse embryonic stem cell line derived from 129/Sv mouse strain and has been provided for research use only.
ccf-sttg1 cell Human brain grade IV astrocytoma cell line; established from a 68-years-old caucasian female.
ccl-39 cell Cricetulus griseus (chinese hamster) lung fibroblast cell line.
cclp1 cell Human cholangiocarcinoma cell line.
ccrf-cem cell Peripheral blood, T lymphoblast, acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. CCRF-CEM is a T lymphoblastoid cell line derived by G.E. Foley, et al. Cells were obtained in November, 1964 from peripheral blood buffy coat of a 4-year-old Caucasian female with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
ccrf-hsb-2 cell Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
cecal epithelium
cecum The first part of the large intestine, forming a dilated pouch into which open the ileum, colon, and appendix vermiformis.
cecum cancer cell line
cecum mucosa
cell culture Cells taken from a living organism and grown under controlled conditions (in culture). Methods used to maintain cell lines or strains.
cell lysate The cellular debris and fluid produced by lysis.
cell property
cell suspension culture Particles floating in (not necessarily on) a liquid medium, or the mix of particles and liquid itself.
cem cell CEM is a camptothecin (CPT) resistant derivative of the human T cell leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM. The cell line was selected and subcloned in 1991 for resistance to CPT. Established from an 4-year-old caucasian female.
cem-adr5000 cell Doxorubicin-resistant human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CEM/ADR5000.
cem-vbl100 cell The CEM-VBL100 cell line is a multidrug-resistant variant of the derivative of the CCRF-CEM cell line.
cem-vcr r cell Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, resistant to vincristine.
cement gland Typical barnacles, common name of the sedentary crustacean marine animals constituting the subclass Cirripedia, attach to the substrate by means of an exceedingly adhesive cement, produced by a cement gland, and secrete a shell, or carapace, of calcareous (limestone) plates, around themselves.
cementum The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament.
cend cell Human brain endothelial cell line cEND.
central amygdaloid nucleus A nucleus in the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid body, providing the major relay for projections from the amygdala to the brainstem and also receiving numerous return projections.
central medial thalamic nucleus Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the thalamus. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.
central nervous system The central nervous system is that part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. The other is the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which is outside the brain and spinal cord.
centrum semiovale The white matter of the cerebral hemispheres which underlies the cerebral cortex and which, in horizontal sections superior to the corpus callosum, has a semioval shape; it contains projection, commissural, and association fibers.
cephalothorax The united head and thorax of an arachnid or higher crustacean.
ceratobranchial A long, deep, endochondral bone in the middle portion of the gill arches between the epibranchials and the hypobranchials. There are usually 5 pairs of ceratobranchials, absent in some Anguillidae, Polypterus and Calamoichthys. The fifth pair of ceratobranchialas are modified in Cypriniformes and Siluriformes into a strong, tooth-bearing bone called the inferior pharyngobranchial bone.
cerebellar cortex The superficial gray matter of the cerebellum. It consists of three layers, the stratum moleculare, stratum granulosum, and stratum purkinjense.
cerebellar granule cell Granule cells found within the granular layer of the cerebellum.
cerebellar nucleus Four accumulations of gray substance embedded in the white substance of the cerebellum, comprising the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
cerebellar purkinje cell Large neurons in the cerebellar cortex that have piriform cell bodies in the Purkinje layer (the stratum purkinjense cerebelli) and large branching dendrite trees going through the outer (molecular) layer towards the surface.
cerebellum A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum , and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe.
cerebral artery Any of the arteries supplying blood to the cerebral cortex.
cerebral cortex The surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that functions chiefly in coordination of sensory and motor information.
cerebral cortical neuron One of the nerve cells that make up the cortex of the brain.
cerebral ganglion The cerebral ganglia are primarily sensual centres, that compute information from the eyes as well as from the tactile and position sensors (statocystes). Besides coordination they also serve the locational memory of a snail.
cerebral giant cell A pair of symmetrical, giant, serotonin-containing neurones have been found in the cerebral ganglia of the pulmonate molluscs Limax, Ariolimax, Helix, Planorbis and Helisoma and the opisthobranch molluscs Aplysia, Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea and in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.
cerebral granule cell Granule cells found within the layer 4 of cerebral cortex.
cerebral gray matter Brownish-gray nerve tissue, especially of the brain and spinal cord, composed of nerve cell bodies and their dendrites and some supportive tissue.
cerebral gyrus One of the convolutions of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres caused by infolding of the cortex.
cerebral hemisphere Either of the two hollow convoluted lateral halves of the cerebrum.
cerebral lobe The well defined areas of the cerebral cortex, demarcated by fissures, sulci, and arbitrary lines, including the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes.
cerebral peduncle Either of two large bundles of nerve fibers passing from the pons forward and outward to form the main connection between the cerebral hemispheres and the spinal cord.
cerebral subcortex That part of the brain substance underlying the cerebral cortex.
cerebral white matter Whitish nerve tissue, especially of the brain and spinal cord, consisting chiefly of myelinated nerve fibers.
cerebrospinal fluid The serumlike fluid that circulates through the ventricles of the brain, the cavity of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space, functioning in shock absorption. A liquid that is comparable to serum but contains less dissolved material, that is secreted from the blood into the lateral ventricles of the brain by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles to the spaces between the meninges about the brain and spinal cord, and is resorbed into the blood through the subarachnoid sinuses, and that serves chiefly to maintain uniform pressure within the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrovascular cell A cell of the vascular system and blood supply of the brain.
cerebrovascular endothelial cell Endothelial cell of or involving the cerebrum and the blood vessels supplying it.
cerebrovascular endothelium
cerebrovascular system System pertaining to blood vessels in the brain.
cervical adenocarcinoma cell
cervical adenocarcinoma cell line
cervical canal In the anatomy of the female reproductive system, the canal of the cervix is the spindle-shaped, flattened canal of the cervix, the neck of the uterus. It communicates with the uterine cavity via the internal orifice of the uterus, and with the vagina via the external orifice.
cervical cancer cell line
cervical carcinoma cell A cancer cell of the uterine cervix (the neck of the uterus).
cervical cell line
cervical epithelial cell
cervical epithelium
cervical ganglion Any of three sympathetic ganglia on each side of the neck.
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cell Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the potentially premalignant transformation and abnormal growth (dysplasia) of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. CIN is not cancer, and is usually curable. Most cases of CIN remain stable, or are eliminated by the host's immune system without intervention. However a small percentage of cases progress to become cervical cancer, usually cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), if left untreated.
cervical mucosa Lining of the head of the uterus (cervix); contains large branched glands; does not undergo sloughing.
cervical mucus A substance produced by the cervix and endocervical glands.
cervical spine That portion of the spine comprising the cervical vertebrae. The neck area of the spine.
cervical squamous cell carcinoma cell
cervical squamous cell carcinoma cell line
cervicovaginal fluid The fluid of the uterine cervix and the vagina.
cess cell A human lymphoblastoid B-cell line expressing the cell surface marker CD43 (leukocyte sialoglycoprotein sialophorin). The cell line was established from peripheral blood cells of a patient with myelomonocytic leukemia and immortalized by transformation with Epstein Barr virus.
cestode Any of a class (Cestoda) of bilaterally symmetrical flatworms parasitic especially in the intestines of vertebrates.
cfpac-1 cell This line was derived from a pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (liver metastasis) from a patient with cystic fibrosis.
cfsc cell Immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line.
cgr-8 cell Mouse embryonic stem cell line. The germ-line competent cell line CGR8 was established from the inner cell mass of a 3.5 day male pre-implantation mouse embryo; mus musculus, strain 129.
cgth-w1 cell Follicular thyroid cancer cell line.
cgth-w3 cell Papillary thyroid cancer cell line.
ch-1 cell Human ovarian carcinoma cell line.
ch-27 cell Human lung squamous carcinoma cell line.
chago-k-1 cell Human lung bronchus carcinoma cell line, derived from a bronchogenic carcinoma of a 45-year-old male.
chalazal cell A cell of the region of an ovule that is opposite the micropyle, where the integuments and nucellus are joined.
chamber of the eye One of he various spaces in the eyeball.
chang cell Human normal hepatic cell line with epithelial-like morphology. Originally established from liver, HeLa-contaminated.
cheek The fleshy part of either side of the face below the eye and between the nose and ear.
cheek pouch A pocketlike fold of skin in the cheeks of various animals, such as squirrels, gophers, and monkeys, that functions as a means of carrying food.
chela A pincerlike claw of a crustacean or arachnid, such as a lobster, crab, or scorpion.
chemostat culture Culture using an apparatus in which the environment is so controlled that bacterial populations are maintained in a steady state of continuous cell division in a constant environment.
chloragocyte A chloragogen cell.
chloragogen cell Yellowish-brown or greenish cells that surround the intestine of annelids that function in intermediary metabolism, similar to the role of the liver in vertebrates.
chlorenchyma Chlorophyll-containing parenchyma of plants.
chloronema The primary photosynthetic part of the moss protonema, typically green, having numerous chloroplasts and consisting of short cells with perpendicular end walls.
cho cell Chinese hamster ovary cell line, that was initiated from an ovary biopsy of an adult Chinese hamster in 1957.
cho-aa8 cell This line is a derivative of the CHO-K1 cell line. The AA8 line has 21 chromosomes and is heterozygous at the aprt locus.
cho-em9 cell This line is a derivative of the CHO-K1 cell line. EM9 is a repair deficient mutant derived from AA8.
cho-k1 cell Chinese hamster ovary cells, subclone from parental CHO cell line that was initiated from an ovary biopsy of an adult Chinese hamster in 1957.
cho-ly-b cell Chinese hamster ovary cells strain with defective serine palmitoyltransferase.
cho-mg cell A mutant of CHO cells resistant to the drug, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG).
choanomastigote A term, in the series used to describe developmental stages of the parasitic flagellates, denoting the barleycorn form of the flagellate in the genus Crithidia characterised by a collarlike extension surrounding the anterior and through which the single flagellum emerges.
cholangiocarcinoma cell An adenocarcinoma arising from the epithelium of the intrahepatic bile ducts, composed of eosinophilic cuboidal or columnar epithelial cells arranged in tubules or acini with abundant fibrous stroma; mucus may be secreted but not bile.
cholangiocarcinoma cell line
cholangiocyte The epithelial cell that lines the bile ducts; Biliary epithelial cells or cholangiocytes line a complex tree-like 3-dimensional network of conduits within the liver that form the biliary tract.
cholangioma cell A rare type of hepatocellular carcinoma arising from the cholangioles, composed of tumor cells resembling the epithelial cells of the cholangioles arranged in cords consisting of two layers of cells surrounding a minute lumen.
cholesteatoma tissue A benign condition involving an expanding mass of cholesterol crystals and keratinised skin in the middle ear space of unknown cause. Symptoms of hearing loss, ear fullness and pain are common.
cholinergic neuron Nerves which synthesize the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in their terminals; they include alpha-motor neurons of the spinal cord, cranial nerves innervating skeletal muscle, preganglionic sympathetic and postganglionic parasympathetic neurons.
chondroblast An immature cartilage-producing cell.
chondroblastoma cell Any cell of a usually benign tumor derived from immature cartilage cells, occurring primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents; it is characterized by fine, matrix-like calcifications arranged hexagonally, often resembling chicken wire, around closely packed cells.
chondroclast A giant cell of the class that is believed associated with the absorption of cartilage.
chondrocyte Cartilage cells. They make the structural components of cartilage.
chondrocyte cell line
chondrogenic cell
chondrosarcoma cell Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor derived from cartilage cells or their precursors, but lacking direct osteoid formation; it occurs predominantly in the pelvis, femur, and shoulder girdle in middle-aged to older adults. It may be primary, arising from cartilage cells, or secondary to a pre-existing benign lesion.
chondrosarcoma cell line
chop cell Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing polyoma LT antigen.
chorioallantois A vascular fetal membrane composed of the fused chorion and adjacent wall of the allantois that in the hen's egg is used as a living culture medium for viruses and for tissues.
choriocarcinoma cell A cell of an epithelial malignancy of trophoblastic cells, formed by the abnormal proliferation of cuboidal and syncytial cells of the placental epithelium, without the production of chorionic villi. Almost all cases arise in the uterus, developing from hydatidiform mole, following abortion, or during normal pregnancy. The remainder occur in ectopic pregnancies and genital (ovarian and testicular) and extragenital teratomas.
choriocarcinoma cell line
choriodecidua A fetal membrane.
chorion The outer membrane of the two membranes enclosing the embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals. In placental mammals it contributes to the development of the placenta.
chorion frondosum The part of the chorion where the villi persist, forming the foetal part of the placenta.
chorionic cell line
chorionic epithelium
chorionic plate That portion of the chorionic wall in the region of its uterine attachment, which gives rise to chorionic villi; it consists of the mesoderm that lines the chorionic vesicle and, on the maternal side, of the trophoblast that lines the intervillous spaces; in the last half of gestation, the mesodermal connective tissue is largely replaced by fibrinoid material, and the amnionic membrane is adherent to the fetal side of the plate.
chorionic villus One of the minute vascular projections of the fetal chorion that combines with maternal uterine tissue to form the placenta.
choroid The dark-brown vascular coat of the eye between the sclera and the retina.
choroid plexus The choroid plexus is tissue located in the spaces inside the brain called ventricles. The choroid plexus makes the fluid that fills the ventricles and surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
chp-100 cell Human neuroblastoma cell line.
chrb-30 cell Multidrug resistant chinese hamster ovary cell line.
chromaffin cell A type of amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells that stain readily with chromium salts, their cytoplasmic granules taking on a characteristic brown color; they are found especially in cells of the adrenal medulla and in paraganglia of the coccygeal gland and carotid gland, along the sympathetic nerves, and in various organs. They contain chromaffin granules.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell Cell of a neoplastic disease of middle or old age, characterized by excessive numbers of circulating lymphocytes of normal, mature appearance, usually B-lymphocytes; presumably a neoplastic transformation of lymphoid stem cells.
chronic myelogenous leukemia progenitor cell A leukemic stem cell.
chronic myeloid leukemia cell Neoplasia of myeloid stem cells, commonest in middle-aged or elderly people, characterized by excessive numbers of circulating leucocytes, most commonly neutrophils (or precursors), but occasionally eosinophils or basophils.
chronic myeloid leukemia cell line
ciliary body Tissue that includes the group of muscles that act on the eye lens to produce accommodation and the arterial circle of the iris. The inner ciliary epithelium is continuous with the pigmented retinal epithelium, the outer ciliary epithelium secretes the aqueous humour.
ciliary epithelium
ciliary muscle One of the muscles that relax the zonules to enable the lens to change shape for focusing. The zonules are fibers that hold the lens suspended in position and enable it to change shape during accommodation.
cingulate cortex A part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. It is extended from the corpus callosum below to the cingulate sulcus above, at least anteriorly.
cingulate gyrus Cingulate gyrus (belt ridge in english) is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. It partially wraps around the corpus callosum and is limited above by the cingulate sulcus. The cortical part of the cingulate gyrus is referred to as cingulate cortex.
circular smooth muscle The inner layer of the muscular coat.
cl1 lung adenocarcinoma cell The human lung cancer cell line CL1 was established from a 64-yr-old man with a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
cl1-0 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
cl1-3 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
cl1-4 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
cl1-5 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
clara cell Clara cells are specialized non-ciliated epithelial cells in the terminal bronchioles of mammals and in the upper airways of some species such as mice.
claustrum The one of the four basal ganglia in each cerebral hemisphere that consists of a thin lamina of gray matter between the lentiform nucleus and the insula.
claw 1. A sharp, curved, horny structure at the end of a toe of a mammal, reptile, or bird. 2. A chela or similar pincerlike structure on the end of a limb of a crustacean or other arthropod. 3. A limb terminating in such a structure.
clear cell adenocarcinoma cell A rare malignant tumor of the female genital tract, resembling a renal cell carcinoma and containing tubules or small cysts with some cells that are hobnail-shaped and others whose cytoplasm is clear, containing abundant glycogen and inconspicuous stroma. It may occur in the ovary, uterus, cervix, or vagina.
clitoral gland The preputial glands of female animals are sometimes called clitoral glands.
clitoral smooth muscle
clitoris A small erectile organ at the anterior or ventral part of the vulva homologous to the penis.
clove One of the small bulbs (as in garlic) developed in the axils of the scales of a large bulb.
cmk cell Human acute megakaryocytic leukemia; established from the peripheral blood of a 10-month-old boy with Down's syndrome and acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AML M7) at relapse in 1985.
cmt-93 cell Mouse rectum polyploid carcinoma cell line from a 19-months old female Mus musculus strain C57BL/icrf.
cmt93/69 cell Mouse C57BL/1CRF rectum carcinoma.
cn1.4 cell Immortilized embryonic mouse neuronal brain cortex cell line.
cne-2 cell Human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line.
cnidoblast A cell in the epidermis of coelenterates in which a nematocyst is developed.
cns cell line
coagulating gland
cob The central axis/core of the ear (distal end of the lateral branch/ear shoot) upon which the kernels (caryopses) are borne. The cob is similar to the central spike of the tassel (male inflorescence) in that it produces multiple rows of paired spikelets (polystichous phyllotaxy).
cochlea A division of the bony labyrinth of the inner ear of higher vertebrates that is usually coiled like a snail shell and is the seat of the hearing organ.
cochlear duct A spirally arranged membranous tube in the bony canal of the cochlea along its outer wall, lying between the scala tympani below and the scala vestibuli above.
cochlear ganglion The sensory ganglion located within the spiral canal of the modiolus. It consists of bipolar cells that send fibers peripherally through the foramina nervosa to the spiral organ and centrally through the internal acoustic meatus to the cochlear nuclei of the brain stem.
cochlear labyrinth The part of the membranous labyrinth that includes the perilymphatic space and the cochlear duct.
coculture Growth of distinct cell types in a combined culture. In order to get some cells to grow at low (clonal) density it is sometimes helpful to grow them together with a feeder layer of macrophages or irradiated cells. The mixing of different cell types in culture is otherwise normally avoided, although it is possible that this could prove an informative approach to modelling interactions in vivo.
coelom The cavity within the body of all animals higher than the coelenterates and certain primitive worms, formed by the splitting of the embryonic mesoderm into two layers. In mammals it forms the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities.
coelomic fluid Coelomic fluid probably aids in oxygen transport and may contain some cells with hemoglobin.
coelomocyte 1: Corpuscles (usually amoebocytes) in the coelomic or pseudocoelomic fluids of invertebrates. 2:(Annelida) amoebocytes and elaeocytes. 3: (Echinodermata) The spindle-shaped cells, phagocytes, and crystal cells. 4: (Nematoda) The mesenchymatous cells in the body cavity.
coleoptile The first leaf of a monocotyledon forming a protective sheath about the plumule.
collecting duct The arcuate renal tubule, straight collecting tubule, and papillary duct considered together.
collecting duct cell line
colleterial gland A gland in female insects that secretes a cement by which the eggs are glued together or attached to an external object.
colo-16 cell Human squamous carcinoma cell line.
colo-201 cell Human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line.
colo-205 cell Human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Isolated from ascitic fluid of a 70-year-old Caucasian male with carcinoma of the colon.
colo-206f cell
colo-320 cell Human colorectal cancer cell line.
colo-357 cell Human pancreatic cancer cell line.
colo-38 cell Human melanoma cell line.
colo-678 cell
colo-699 cell Non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
colon The part of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum.
colon ascendens The portion of the colon between the cecum and the right colic flexure.
colon descendens The portion of the colon between the left colic flexure and the sigmoid colon at the pelvic brim; the portion of the descending colon lying in the left iliac fossa is sometimes called the iliac colon.
colon muscle
colon sigmoideum The S-shaped part of the colon which lies in the pelvis, extending from the pelvic brim to the third segment of the sacrum, and continuous above with the descending (or iliac) colon and below with the rectum.
colon transversum The portion of the colon that runs transversely across the upper part of the abdomen, from the right to the left colic flexure.
colon-26 cell Poorly differentiated murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line.
colonic adenocarcinoma cell A cell of an adenocarcinoma of the colon is a malignant neoplastic epithelial lesion, arising from the colonic mucosa.
colonic adenocarcinoma cell line
colonic adenoma cell
colonic cancer cell A malignant tumour arising from the inner wall of the large intestine.
colonic cancer cell line
colonic cell line
colonic epithelial cell
colonic epithelium
colonic epithelium cell line
colonic mucosa
colorectal adenocarcinoma cell Adenocarcinoma cell related to the colon and/or rectum.
colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line
colorectal adenoma cell
colorectal cancer cell
colorectal cancer cell line
colorectal cell line
colorectal mucosa
colorectum The colon and rectum considered as a unit.
columnar cell An elongated epithelial cell.
commercial preparation
common cardinal vein Either of a pair of large transverse venous sinuses that conduct blood from the cardinal veins to the sinus venosus of the vertebrate embryo.
common penile artery The artery that serves blood to the penis. It subdivides into three arteries, the bulbourethral artery, the dorsal artery of the penis and the cavernosal artery.
companion cell A specialized parenchyma cell, located in the phloem of flowering plants and closely associated in development and function with a sieve-tube element.
compound eye An eye (as of an insect) made up of many separate visual units.
conceptus A fertilized egg, embryo, or fetus.
cone A mass of ovule-bearing or pollen-bearing scales or bracts in trees of the pine family or in cycads that are arranged usually on a somewhat elongated axis.
conjunctiva The mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and is continued over the forepart of the eyeball.
conjunctival epithelium
connecting stalk A bridge of mesoderm connecting the caudal end of the young embryo with the trophoblastic tissues; the precursor of the umbilical cord.
connecting tubule With respect to the renal corpuscle, the connecting tubule is the most proximal part of the collecting duct system. It is adjacent to the distal convoluted tubule, the most distal segment of the renal tubule. Connecting tubules from several adjacent nephrons merge to form cortical collecting tubules, and these may join to form cortical collecting ducts. Connecting tubules of some juxtamedullary nephrons may arch upward, forming an arcade. The connecting tubule derives from the metanephric blastema, but the rest of the system derives from the ureteric bud. Because of this, some sources group the connecting tubule as part of the nephron, rather than grouping it with the collecting duct system.
connecting tubule cell For the connecting tubules, the specific cell type is the connecting tubule cell.
connective tissue The tissue which binds together and is the support of the various structures of the body. It is made up of fibroblasts, fibroglia, collagen fibrils, and elastic fibrils. It is derived from the mesoderm and in a broad sense includes the collagenous, elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. Some also include the blood in this group of tissues. Connective tissue is classified according to concentration of fibers as loose (areolar) and dense, the latter having more abundant fibers than the former.
cord blood stem cell Blood from the placenta and umbilical cord that are left over after birth is one source of adult stem cells.
corm A rounded thick modified underground stem base bearing membranous or scaly leaves and buds and acting as a vegetative reproductive structure.
corn ear The ears are female inflorescences, tightly covered over by several layers of leaves, and so closed-in by them to the stem that they do not show themselves easily until the emergence of the pale yellow silks from the leaf whorl at the end of the ear, e.g. by Zea mays.
corn silk The styles and stigmas that appear as a silky tuft or tassel at the tip of an ear of corn, used as a diuretic in herbal medicine.
cornea The transparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior.
corneal cell line
corneal epithelial cell
corneal epithelium Posterior epithelium of cornea: the mesothelial layer covering the posterior surface of the posterior limiting lamina of the cornea; it was once believed to extend to the anterior surface of the stroma of the iris.
corneal fibroblast cell line
corneocyte The remains of a keratinocyte; it is shed by the stratum corneum.
cornu ammonis One of the two interlocking gyri composing the hippocampus, the other being the dentate gyrus.
corolla Collective term for the petals of a flower.
corona An appendage or series of united appendages on the inner side of the corolla in some flowers (as the daffodil, jonquil, or milkweed).
coronary artery Either of two arteries that arise one from the left and one from the right side of the aorta immediately above the semilunar valves and supply the tissues of the heart itself.
coronary artery endothelial cell
coronary artery endothelial cell line
coronary artery smooth muscle
coronary artery smooth muscle cell
coronary atherosclerotic plaque
corpora quadrigemina Two pairs of colliculi on the dorsal surface of the midbrain composed of white matter externally and gray matter within, the superior pair containing correlation centers for optic reflexes and the inferior pair containing correlation centers for auditory reflexes.
corpus albicans White fibrous tissue that replaces the regressing corpus luteum in the human ovary in the latter half of pregnancy, or soon after ovulation when pregnancy does not supervene.
corpus allatum One of a pair of separate or fused bodies in many insects that are sometimes closely associated with the corpora cardiaca and that secrete hormones (as juvenile hormone).
corpus amylaceum One of a number of small ovoid or rounded, sometimes laminated, bodies resembling a grain of starch and found in nervous Tissue, in the prostate, and in pulmonary alveoli; of little pathological significance, and apparently derived from degenerated cells or proteinaceous secretions.
corpus callosum The great band of commissural fibers uniting the cerebral hemispheres of higher mammals including humans.
corpus cardiacum A pair of neurohemal organs located on the walls of the aorta just behind the brain. The corpora cardiaca release their store of PTTH only after they receive a signal from neurosecretory cells in the brain.
corpus cavernosum clitoridis A column of erectile tissue on either side (right and left), the two fusing to form the body of the clitoris.
corpus cavernosum penis One of the columns of erectile tissue forming the dorsum and sides of the penis.
corpus epididymis The body of the epididymis.
corpus luteum A yellowish mass of progesterone-secreting endocrine tissue that forms immediately after ovulation from the ruptured graafian follicle in the mammalian ovary.
corpus striatum Either of a pair of masses of nervous tissue within the brain that contain two large nuclei of gray matter separated by sheets of white matter.
cortical amygdaloid nucleus A nucleus in the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid body.
cortical collecting duct The cortical collecting ducts receive filtrate from multiple initial collecting tubules and descend into the renal medulla to form medullary collecting ducts.
cortical collecting duct cell The cortical collecting ducts receive filtrate from multiple initial collecting tubules and descend into the renal medulla to form medullary collecting ducts.
corticotropic cell A small, irregularly stellate, acidophilic cell of the adenohypophysis, having small, sparsely distributed secretory granules and secreting corticotropin and beta-endorphin, which are cleaved from a large prohormone called pro-opiomelanocortin.
cos cell A cell line derived from the african green monkey and used for transfection and cloning. The cells are simian fibroblasts (cv 1 cells) transformed by sv40 that is deficient in the origin of replication region. They express large t antigen constitutively and if transfected with a vector containing a normal sv40 origin have all the other early viral genes necessary to generate multiple copies of the vector and thus to give very high levels of expression.
cos-1 cell African green monkey kidney cell line; established from CV-1 Simian cells (cercopithecus aethiops) which were transformed by an origin-defective mutant of SV-40; cells are host cells for the propagation of pure populations of recombinant SV virus.
cos-7 cell African green monkey kidney derived from CV-1, a simian cell line (cercopithecus aethiops), by transformation with an origin-defective mutant of SV-40; cells were described to support the growth of SV-40 viruses.
cotton fibre Each seed of a cotton plant is surrounded with downy fiber, white or creamy in color and easily spun. The fibers flatten and twist naturally as they dry.
cotyledon A seed leaf; the first leaf formed in a seed.
cranial ganglion
cranial nerve Any of several nerves that arise in pairs from the brainstem and reach the periphery through openings in the skull. There are 12 such pairs in mammals, birds, and reptiles and usually 10 pairs in amphibians and fish.
craniofacial region Relating to both the face and the cranium.
cranium 1: The skull of a vertebrate. 2: The portion of the skull enclosing the brain; the braincase.
cribriform plate The horizontal plate of the ethmoid bone perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity.
cro-ap/5 cell PEL cell line carrying the Epstain-Barr virus (EBV) infection.
crop A pouched enlargement of the gullet of many birds that serves as a receptacle for food and for its preliminary maceration; also: an enlargement of the gullet of another animal (as an insect).
crown gall A disease that affects many species of plants and is caused by a bacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) which forms tumorous enlargements just below the ground on the stem.
crypt A crypt is a deep pit that protrudes down into the connective tissue surrounding the small intestine. The epithelium at the base of the crypt is the site of stem cell proliferation and the differentiated cells move upwards and are shed 3-5 days later at the tips of the villi.
crystalline style The crystalline style, a gelatinous rod, projects into the stomach and stirs the contents as well as produces digestive enzymes to aid digestion.
csm14.1 cell Immortalized rat neuronal cell line.
ct-26 cell Murine colon carcinoma cell line.
ctll-2 cell Mouse, C57BL/6, T-lymphocyte cell line.
cuboid bone The cuboid bone.
culture condition
culture condition:-grown cell
culture condition:antigen-presenting cell An antigen-presenting cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen complex with major histocompatibility complex on its surface.
culture filtrate
culture fluid The liquid culture medium, obtained after filtration of the cell culture.
culture medium A substance, either solid or liquid, used for the cultivation, isolation, identification, or storage of microorganisms.
culture supernatant The clear fluid above a sediment or precipitate of a cell culture.
cuticle A layer of more or less solid substance which covers the free surface of an epithelial cell.
cv-1 cell Normal kidney cell line. The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of a male adult African green monkey by F.C. Jensen, et al in March, 1964 for use in Rous sarcoma virus transformation studies.
cw-2 cell Human colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor cell line.
cwr-22 cell Androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cell line.
cx-1 cell Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line; established from the tumor tissue of a 44-year-old woman with well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma in 1984; cell line is a subclone of cell line HT-29.
cyst A body resembling a cyst: as a 1: capsule formed about a minute organism going into a resting or spore stage; also: this capsule with its contents. 2: a resistant cover about a parasite produced by the parasite or the host.
cystadenocarcinoma cell A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognised.
cystadenocarcinoma cell line
cystadenoma cell Adenoma characterized by epithelium-lined cystic masses that contain secreted material, usually serous or mucinous; it generally occurs in the ovary, salivary glands, or pancreas.
cysticercus The larval form of any of the Taenia tapeworms.
cystocyte The insect equivalent of a blood platelet. At a site of injury, these cells will break down into threads around which plasma can gel, stopping the flow of haemolymph from the site.
cytotoxic t-lymphocyte Subset of T-lymphocytes (mostly CD8+) responsible for lysing target cells and for killing virus-infected cells.
cytotoxic t-lymphocyte cell line
cytotrophoblast The cellular (inner) layer of the trophoblast.
cytotrophoblast cell line
cytotrophoblastic cell Polygonal, mononucleate cells resembling the cells of the cytotrophoblast, having prominent nucleoli and clear, eosinophilic or cyanophilous cytoplasm; one of the two cell types that compose a choriocarcinoma.
d-283med cell Human medulloblastoma cell line.
d-407 cell Human retinal pigment epithelial cell line.
d-54mg cell Human glioma cell line.
d17 cell Canine osteosarcoma cell line.
daltons lymphoma ascites
daltons lymphoma ascites cell
daltons lymphoma cell Spontaneous T cell lymphoma.
dami cell Human megakaryocytic cell line.
daoy cell Human medulloblastoma cell line.
daphnid Any water flea, especially those in the genus Daphnia.
daudi cell Human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line; established from the Burkitt's lymphoma (left orbital biopsy) of a 16-year-old African boy in 1967; cells were described to be EBV-positive and to express mRNA for proto-oncogene bcl-2.
dc-3f cell Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line.
dc-3f/adx cell The MDR cell line DC-3F/ADX was originally selected from spontaneously transformed Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts DC-3F.
ddt1-mf-2 cell Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) ductus deferens smooth muscle cell line established from a leiomyosarcoma.
decidua 1: The part of the mucous membrane lining the uterus that in higher placental mammals undergoes special modifications in preparation for and during pregnancy and is cast off at parturition. 2: The part of the mucous membrane of the uterus cast off in the process of menstruation.
decidua basalis The area of endometrium between the implanted chorionic vesicle and the myometrium, which develops into the maternal part of the placenta.
decidua parietalis The part of the decidua in the pregnant human female lining the uterus.
decidual cell An enlarged, ovoid, connective tissue cell in the uterine mucous membrane that enlarges and specializes during pregnancy.
deciduoma cell 1: A cell of a mass of tissue formed in the uterus following pregnancy that contains remnants of chorionic or decidual tissue. 2: A cell of decidual tissue induced in the uterus (as by trauma) in the absence of pregnancy.
deep inguinal lymph node One of several small inconstant lymph nodes, proximal, intermediate and distal deep to the fascia lata and medial to the femoral vein; they receive lymph from the deep structures of the lower limb, from the glans penis and from superficial inguinal nodes; efferents pass to the external iliac nodes.
dendritic cell A special type of cell that is a key regulator of the immune system, acting as a professional antigen-presenting cell, APC, capable of activating naive T cells and stimulating the growth and differentiation of B cells. Dendritic cells are found, for example, in the lymph nodes and spleen. As an APC, a dendritic cell can retain antigen for long periods on its surface, present the antigen to a T or B cell and so influence their behavior.
dental follicle The structure within the developing alveolar bone of the jaws enclosing the tooth germ.
dental papilla A small mass of condensed mesenchymal tissue in the enamel organ, which differentiates into the dentin and dental pulp.
dental plaque A soft, thin film of food debris, mucin, and dead epithelial cells deposited on the teeth, providing the medium for the growth of various bacteria. The main inorganic components are calcium and phosphorus, with small amounts of magnesium, potassium, and sodium; the organic matrix consists of polysaccharides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other components. Plaque plays an important etiologic role in the development of dental caries and periodontal and gingival diseases and provides the base for the development of materia alba; calcified plaque forms dental calculus.
dental pulp The soft sensitive tissue that fills the central cavity of a tooth.
dentate gyrus A serrated strip of gray matter under the medial border of the hippocampus and in its depths; it is an archaeocortex which develops along the edge of the hippocampal fissure and which consists of molecular, granular, and polymorphic layers.
dentin The calcified tissue below the enamel, enclosing the cavity of the tooth containing the pulp chamber and root canals.
dermal dendritic cell A key cell type of the resident skin immune system is the dendritic cell, which in normal skin is located in two distinct microanatomical compartments: Langerhans cells (LC) mainly in the epidermis and dermal dendritic cells (DDC) in the dermis.
dermal fibroblast Dermal fibroblasts are the major cell type in dermis and are commonly accepted as terminally differentiated cells.
dermal microvascular endothelial cell
dermal papilla Any of the conical extensions of the collagen fibers, the capillary blood vessels, and sometimes the nerves of the dermis into corresponding spaces among the downward- or inward-projecting rete ridges on the under surface of the epidermis. On the forehead and ear these are less prominent; on the face, neck, and pubes the relations are reversed and rete pegs extend inward or downward into spaces among a network of dermal ridges.
dermatofibroma cell A slowly growing benign skin nodule consisting of poorly demarcated cellular fibrous tissue enclosing collapsed capillaries with scattered haemosiderin-pigmented and lipid macrophages. They are common, usually about 1 cm in diameter and occur in the dermis.
dermatofibroma cell line
dermis The sensitive vascular inner mesodermic layer of the skin.
detroit 562 cell Human, Caucasian female, pharynx, carcinoma cell line.
detrusor The outer largely longitudinally arranged musculature of the bladder wall.
deutocerebrum The median lobes of the brain of an insect.
dg-75 cell Human Burkitt lymphoma cell line; established from the pleural effusion of a 10-year-old boy with Burkitt's lymphoma (refractory, terminal) in 1975.
dhl-4 cell Diffuse large B cell lymphoma cell line.
dhl-9 cell Human histiocytic lymphoma cell line.
diagonal band A band of nerve fibers that forms the caudal zone of the anterior perforated substance where it adjoins the optic tract, which is continuous caudolaterally with the periamygdaloid area and rostromedially passes above the optic chiasm to blend with the paraterminal gyrus.
diaphragm The thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen.
diencephalon The posterior subdivision of the forebrain.
diffuse large b-cell lymphoma cell Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounting for about 2 in 5 of all cases. It is a cancer of the B-lymphocytes. Diffuse B-cell lymphoma can occur at any time between adolescence and old age. It is slightly more common in men than in women.
digestive cell Three cell types are present in tubules of the digestive gland of the marine prosobranch Maoricrypta monoxyla. Histochemistry, and feeding and starvation experiments established that the main type, the digestive cell, is involved in endocytotic uptake of food material from the lumen.
digestive gland A gland, such as the liver or pancreas, that secretes into the alimentary canal substances necessary for digestion.
digestive juice
digitum minimus pedis The fifth, and smallest, digit of the foot.
disc The central part of the flower head of a typical composite made up of closely packed tubular flowers.
distal tip The reproductive tract in the hermaphroditic nematode has two equivalent gonad arms. As it grows longer, that portion lying closer to the gonopore (vulva or cloaca) is termed the proximal arm, while the distal arm lies further away with the extreme end named the distal tip.
distal tip cell A somatic cell with several important functions within the gonad (ovary); it lies at the distal tip of the germline in the hermaphrodite.
distal tubular epithelium
dld-1 cell Human colon adenocarcinoma established from a colorectal adenocarcinoma.
do11.10 cell T cell hybridoma cell line that specifically expresses high levels of HDAC7, a class IIa histone deacetylase.
don cell Lung cell line, established from a 8-months-old male of Cricetulus griseus (hamster, Chinese).
dopaminergic neuron A dopaminergic neuron is a neuron that releases dopamine from its synapses. Dopaminergic neurons are present chiefly in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, substantia nigra pars compacta, and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. They are believed to be the primary neuron used in the reward system of the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra pars compacta.
dopaminergic system The system of nerve cells that uses dopamine as its neurotransmitter.
dorsal aorta The artery in vertebrate embryos that transports blood from the aortic arches to the trunk and limbs. In adult fish it is a major artery that carries oxygenated blood from the efferent branchial arteries to branches that supply the body organ. In adult tetrapods it arises from the systemic arch.
dorsal fin The unpaired fin located on the back of both bony fish and sharks. It may be single and soft-rayed, as in trout, or double with the anterior dorsal fin supported by fin spines, as in perch. In some species, e.g. eels, the dorsal fin is confluent with the tail fin.
dorsal globus pallidus
dorsal hypothalamic nucleus A nerve cell nucleus situated in the dorsal portion of the intermediate hypothalamic region.
dorsal lip The margin of the fold of blastula wall that delineates the dorsal limit of the blastopore, constitutes the primary organizer, and forms the point of origin of chordamesoderm.
dorsal nerve cord The dorsal tubular cord of nervous tissue above the notochord of a chordate that comprises or develops into the central nervous system.
dorsal raphe nucleus A large raphe nucleus extending from the anterior part of the pons through the mesencephalon; its neurons are serotoninergic.
dorsal striatum Those portions of the caudate nucleus and especially the putamen located generally superior to a plane representing the anterior commissure; also called the dorsal basal ganglia; may function in motor activities with cognitive origins.
dorsum The back; especially : the entire dorsal surface of an animal.
dov-13 cell Ovarian carcinoma cell line.
dried cell
dt-40 3ko cell
dt-40 cell Chicken B cell line; established in 1985 from a bursal lymphoma, which was induced by infection of a 1 day old chicken with Rous-associated virus type 1 (RAV-1), an avian leukosis retrovirus carrying no cell-derived oncogene.
du-145 cell Human prostate carcinoma, established from the tumor tissue removed from the metastatic central nervous system lesion of a 69-year-old man with prostate carcinoma in 1975.
dunn cell Murine osteosarcoma cell line.
duodenal adenocarcinoma cell Malignant neoplasms of the duodenum account for only 0.3-0.4% of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. 25-45% of malignant neoplasms within the small bowel occur within the duodenum. Duodenal adenocarcinomas are usually located in the periampullary and intraampullary regions; they very rarely involve the duodenal bulb. There is an association of duodenal adenocarcinoma with Gardner's syndrome, Peutz-Jegher's syndrome, celiac disease, and Crohn's disease.
duodenal gland Any of the compound racemose glands in the submucous layer of the duodenum that secrete alkaline mucus and a potent proteolytic enzyme.
duodenal juice
duodenal mucosa The duodenal mucosa (and that of the rest of the intestines) is classified as simple columnar. The cells rest on a basal lamina, which you may be able to make out in this image as a bright line underneath the cells. They sit over the lamina propria, the loose collagenous CT, filled with cells, that constitutes the core of each villus.
duodenum The first part of the small intestine extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.
dura mater The tough fibrous membrane covering the brain and the spinal cord and lining the inner surface of the skull. It is the outermost of the three meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord.
dx-3 cell Human melanoma cell line.
eahy 926 cell The EAhy 926 cell is a hybridoma line derived from human endothelium and A549/8 cells. They display stable endothelial characteristics and may provide an indication of how endothelial cells respond to photodynamic therapy.
ear The organ of hearing.
eb-1 cell Human Burkitt lymphoma cell line; established from the maxilla tumor lymph node of a 9-year-old black girl with Burkitt lymphoma in 1964; cells were described to be EBV-positive.
ebc-1 cell Human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line; established from a 68 year old male.
ebv-lcl cell Human B-lymphoblastoid cell line transformed by Epstein-Barr (EBV-LCLs) Virus.
ecc-1 cell An established epithelial cell line derived from an adenocarcinoma of human endometrial lining.
eccrine sweat gland An ordinary, or simple, sweat gland; they are of the merocrine type, unbranched, coiled, tubular glands that are distributed over almost all of the body surface, and promote cooling by evaporation of their secretion.
ectoderm The outer of the three germ layers of the embryo (the other two being mesoderm and endoderm). Ectoderm gives rise to epidermis and neural tissue.
ectoplacental cone The thickened trophoblast of the blastocyst in rodents that becomes the fetal portion of the placenta.
ecv-304 cell Human urinary bladder carcinoma (derivative of T-24); described as being spontaneously immortalized from the umbilical cord vein of a new-born Japanese boy in 1984; cells were described to have a high proliferative potential in the absence of any growth factors; however, DNA fingerprinting at DSMZ showed clearly that this cell line is in reality a derivative of human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line T-24.
efo-27 cell Human ovary adenocarcinoma cell line; established from the solid omental metastasis of a mucinous papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary of a 36-year-old woman in 1979.
egg The hard-shelled reproductive body produced by a bird and especially by the common domestic chicken; also: its contents used as food.
egg white Eggs are composed of 56 to 61% egg white and 27 to 32% egg yolk. The egg white is approximately 87 to 89% water and 9 to 11% protein, whereas the egg yolk contains 50% water, 32 to 35% lipid, and 16% protein. The predominant protein in the egg white is ovalbumin, comprising 54% of the protein present. Other major proteins in the egg white are ovotransferrin (12%), ovomucoid (11%), ovomucin (3.5%), and lysozyme.
egg yolk The yellow spheroidal mass of stored food that forms the inner portion of the egg of a bird or reptile and is surrounded by the white.
eggshell The hard exterior covering of an egg.
eheb cell Human chronic B cell leukemia cell line;established from the peripheral blood of a 69-year-old woman with B-CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) prior treatment by EBV-transformation in 1988; cell line may represent rather a B-lymphoblastoid cell line than a bona fide B-CLL cell line.
ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell Mouse cancer cell.
ej cell Human urinary bladder cancer cell line.
ej-1 cell Human urinary bladder cancer cell line.
ejaculatory duct Either of the paired ducts in the human male that are formed by the junction of the duct from the seminal vesicle with the vas deferens, pass through the prostate, and open into or close to the prostatic utricle.
ejaculatory duct epithelium The ejaculatory duct epithelium is composed of cuboidal to columnar cells between or through which project the terminal parts of the ducts of the unicellular prostate glands.
ekvx cell Non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
el-4 cell Mouse T-lymphocyte lymphoma cell line, established from a lymphoma induced in a C57BL mouse by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene.
electric organ A specialized tract of tissue (as in the electric eel) in which electricity is generated.
electrocyte Cells used by rays, electric eels and other electric fish for electrogenesis and electroreception. They are flat disk-like cells that are stacked in a sequence in a manner similar to a battery. Electric eels have several thousand of these cells stacked, each producing 0.15V. The cells function by pumping positive sodium and potassium ions out of the cell via transport proteins powered by adenosine triphosphate. Postsynaptically, electrocytes work much like muscle cells. They have nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These cells are used in research because of their resemblance to nerve-muscle junctions. Location: In the electric ray Torpedo, electroplax are found near the pectoral muscles and the gills. In all other fishes, it is often near the tail. In one fish genus, the Malaptaturus, the electric organs are not made of individual electroplax, but are built up from charges of the epithelium, specifically the skin.
elementary body The infectious form of chlamydiaceae. Infection occurs when the small, rigid-walled extracellular form (elementary body) enters the cell and changes into a larger, thin-walled form (initial body) that divides by fission. The daughter cells thus formed reorganize and condense to become elementary bodies that then infect other cells. The organisms are parasites of humans and other vertebrates, capable of producing a variety of diseases. They have also been found in arthropods. The family contains the genus Chlamydia.
eleocyte (Annelida) Free fatty globules, yellow or transparent, inodorous or evil-smelling, in the coelom; emitted by the dorsal pores when the worm is irritated.
elt-3 cell Eker rat uterine leiomyoma-derived cell line.
elytron One of the anterior wings in beetles and some other insects that serve to protect the posterior pair of functional wings.
embryo An animal in the early stages of growth and differentiation that are characterized by cleavage, the laying down of fundamental tissues, and the formation of primitive organs and organ systems; especially: the developing human individual from the time of implantation to the end of the eighth week after conception.
embryogenic cell line
embryoid body Embryoid bodies are structures resembling embryos, occurring in several types of germ cell tumors.
embryonic axis The main root or shoot body of a seedling. The embryo of mature seeds of Pisum sativum consists of the embryonic axis and the cotyledons.
embryonic blood
embryonic brain
embryonic brain cell line
embryonic brain cortex cell line
embryonic carcinoma cell line
embryonic cell line
embryonic cerebral cortex
embryonic fibroblast
embryonic fibroblast cell line
embryonic germ cell At the early fetal stage of development, the cells that later give rise to sperm or eggs cells. These cells are pluripotent.
embryonic hippocampal cell line
embryonic kidney cell line
embryonic neural stem cell Neural stem cells are the multipotent stem cells that generate nerve cells. However, since the early 1990s, neural stem cells have been isolated from the adult brain as well as fetal brain tissues. Stem cells in the adult brain are found in the areas called the subventricular zone and the ventricle zone. Another location of brain stem cells occurs in the hippocampus, a special structure of the cerebral cortex related to memory function. Stem cells isolated from these areas are able to divide and to give rise to nerve cells and neuron-supporting cell types in culture.
embryonic stem cell Totipotent cell cultured from early embryo. Have the advantage that following modification in vitrothey can be used to produce chimeric embryos and thus transgenic animals.
embryonic stem cell line
embryonic structure An anatomical structure that exists only before the organism is fully formed. In mammals, for example, a structure that exists only prior to the birth of the organism. This structure may be normal or abnormal.
empyema fluid The presence of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity.
emt-6 cell EMT6 is a transplantable mouse mammary tumor cell line.
enamel epithelium In the developing tooth, the inner or internal layer of cells (ameloblasts) of the enamel organ that deposit the organic matrix of enamel, plus the outer or external layer of cuboidal cells. The reduced enamel epithelium is the remains of both layers after enamel formation is complete.
enamel organ A circumscribed knoblike mass of ectodermal cells arising from the dental lamina; it produces the enamel cap from which the dental enamel develops.
encysting cell A cell beeing in the process of forming a cyst or becoming enclosed in a capsule.
endocardium A thin serous membrane lining the cavities of the heart.
endocarp The inner layer of the pericarp of a fruit (as an apple or orange) when it consists of two or more layers of different texture or consistency.
endocervix 1. The mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix uteri. 2. The region of the opening of the uterine cervix into the uterine cavity.
endochondral bone Refers to skeletal elements which are formed in cartilage and which later ossify. Also called replacement bone because it gradually replaces the pre-existing cartilage.
endocrine gland Any of various glands producing hormonal secretions that pass directly into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include the thyroid, parathyroids, anterior and posterior pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, pineal, and gonads.
endocrine pancreas That part of the pancreas that acts as an endocrine gland, consisting of the islets of Langerhans, which secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and sometimes pancreatic polypeptide directly into the bloodstream.
endocuticle The inner layer of the procuticle in certain crustaceans and arthropods, which is almost entirely composed of protein and chitin.
endoderm A germ layer lying remote from the surface of the embryo that gives rise to internal tissues such as gut.
endodermis The innermost tissue of the cortex in many roots and stems.
endogenous progenitor cell Circulating endogenous progenitor cells are isolated from human peripheral blood and are capable of vascular repair.
endomesoderm An embryonic blastomere or cell layer not yet differentiated into mesoderm and endoderm but destined to give rise to both.
endometrial cancer cell line
endometrial cell line
endometrial gland The mucous secreting gland associated with the epithelium lining the uterus. These glands develop and secrete each menstrual cycle and are thought to provide initial blastocyst nutrition prior to implantation.
endometrial spiral artery In women, rats and mice, the endometrial vessels are coiled and known as spiral arteries.
endometrial stromal cell
endometrioid carcinoma cell Ovarian carcinoma cell which resembles typical carcinoma of the endometrium and may be seen with a synchronous endometrial carcinoma. When they appear together, both tend to be of low stage.
endometrioma cell Circumscribed mass of ectopic endometrial tissue in endometriosis.
endopeduncular nucleus A small nucleus in the internal capsule of the hypothalamus adjacent to the medial edge of the globus pallidus.
endosperm A triploid nutritive tissue resulting from the fusion of a haploid sperm nucleus with the two haploid polar nuclei in the ovule of angiosperms.
endostyle An endostyle is a longitudinal ciliated groove on the ventral wall of the pharynx which produces mucus to gather food particles. It is found in urochordates and cephalochordates, and in the larvae of lampreys. It aids in transporting food to the esophagus. The endostyle in larval lampreys (ammocetes) metamorphoses into the thyroid gland in adults, and is regarded as being homologous to the thyroid gland in vertebrates.
endothelial cell The main type of cell found in the inside lining of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the heart.
endothelial cell line
endothelial progenitor cell A controversial and hypothetical population of rare cells believed to circulate in the blood with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, the cells that make up the lining of blood vessels.
endothelioma cell A tumor developing from endothelial tissue.
endothelioma cell line
endothelium An epithelium of mesodermal origin composed of a single layer of thin flattened cells that lines internal body cavities.
enrichment culture An enrichment culture is a medium with specific and known qualities that favors the growth of a particular microorganism. The enrichment cultures environment will support the growth of a selected microorganism, while inhibiting the growth of others.
enteric muscle Muscle cells of the posterior gut and rectum. There are four specialized muscle cells in this region that operate in the defecation cycle; the L/R stomatointestinal muscles (also called the intestinal muscles) , the anal sphincter muscle (also called the anal dilator or rectal muscle) and the anal depressor muscle (also called the depressor ani muscle). These three sets of muscles are jointly called enteric muscles and each send an arm to the DVB neuron along dorsal surface of the preanal ganglion.
enteric nervous system Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation.
enteric plexus A plexus of autonomic nerve fibers within the wall of the digestive tube, and made up of the submucosal, myenteric, and subserosal plexuses; it contains visceral afferent fibers, sympathetic postganglionic fibers, parasympathetic preganglionic and postganglionic fibers, and parasympathetic postganglionic cell bodies.
enterochromaffin-like cell Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cells found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, particularly in the vicinity of parietal cells. They are also considered a type of enteroendocrine cell.
enterocyte Cell of the intestinal epithelium.
enteroendocrine cell A group of APUD cells found scattered along the walls of the gastrointestinal tract; their secretions affect motility, secretion of pancreatic enzymes and bile, and growth of the gastrointestinal tract epithelium, and are regulators of other endocrine substances in the intestines.
entorhinal area The inferior and posterior parts of the piriform area, including the caudal part of the parahippocampal gyrus.
entorhinal cortex The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important memory center in the brain. In rodents, the EC is located at the caudal end of the temporal lobe. In primates it is located at the rostral end of the temporal lobe and stretches dorsolaterally. It is usually divided into medial and lateral regions with three bands with distinct properties and connectivity running perpendicular across the whole area.
eol-1 cell Human eosinophilic leukaemia cell line.
eoma cell Mus musculus hemangioendothelioma cell line. The EOMA cell line was originally derived in 1980 from a mixed hemangioendothelioma arising in an adult mouse.
eont cell Immortalized epithelial ovarian nontumoral normal cell line.
eosinophil A white blood cell or other granulocyte with cytoplasmic inclusions readily stained by eosin.
eosinophilic leukemia cell A form of granulocytic leukemia cell line characterized by abnormal numbers of or a predomination of eosinophilic granulocytes in the tissues and blood.
eosinophilic leukemia cell line A form of granulocytic leukemia cell line characterized by abnormal numbers of or a predomination of eosinophilic granulocytes in the tissues and blood.
eosinophilic myelocyte Myelocytes are further distinguished according to the type of granules that develop, i.e., neutrophilic myelocyte (60%), eosinophilic myelocyte, basophilic myelocyte (3%).
ependymal epithelium Ependymal epithelium lining the ventricular cavities and canals of the CNS is simple, columnar or cuboidal.
ependymocyte An ependymal cell, the cells of the ependyma.
ependymoma cell A neoplasm composed of differentiated ependymal cells; most ependymomas are slow growing and benign, but malignant varieties occur.
epiblast The upper layer of the bilaminar embryonic disc present during the second week of a blastula that gives rise to the ectoderm after gastrulation.
epibranchial A deep cartilage bone on the upper part of the gill arch below the uppermost element, the pharyngobranchial. May occur on arches 1, 2, 3, 4 and be covered with toothed pads.
epicotyl Portion of the shoot of an angiosperm embryo or seedling above the cotyledons.
epicuticle An outermost waxy layer of the insect exoskeleton.
epidermal cell Cell of epidermis in animals.
epidermal cell line
epidermal stem cell The epidermal stem cells give rise to keratinocytes, which migrate to the surface of the skin and form a protective layer.
epidermis The outer epithelial layer of the external integument of the animal body that is derived from the embryonic epiblast; specifically: the outer nonsensitive and nonvascular layer of the skin of a vertebrate that overlies the dermis.
epididymal clear cell Cell with empty-appearing cytoplasm; seen normally in the sweat glands, the parathyroid glands, the collecting tubules of the kidneys, and the epididymis; they also appear in some types of cancer.
epididymal fluid The fluid from the epididymis.
epididymis A system of ductules emerging posteriorly from the testis that holds sperm during maturation and that forms a tangled mass before uniting into a single coiled duct which is continuous with the vas deferens.
epiglottis Thin leaf-shaped cartilage, covered with mucous membrane, at the root of the tongue, which folds back over the entrance to the larynx, covering it, during the act of swallowing.
epimastigote Any of the bodies representing the morphologic (crithidial) stage in the life cycle of certain trypanosomatid protozoa resembling the typical adult form of members of the genus Crithidia, in which the kinetoplast and basal body are located anterior to the central vesicular nucleus of the slender elongate cell and the flagellum is attached to the body up to the anterior end by a short undulating membrane before becoming free-flowing.
epineurium The external connective-tissue sheath of a nerve trunk.
epiphyseal growth plate The disk or plate of cartilage interposed between the epiphysis and the shaft of the bone during the period of growth; by its growth the bone increases in length.
epiphysis A part or process of a bone that ossifies separately and later becomes ankylosed to the main part of the bone; especially: an end of a long bone.
epipodite The outer branch of the legs in certain Crustacea.
epithalamus The caudal part of the roof and the adjoining lateral walls of the third ventricle of the diencephalon, comprising the habenular nuclei and their commissure, pineal body, and commissure of the epithalamus.
epithelial cell Cell that cover the surface of the body and line its cavities.
epithelial cell line
epithelial ovarian cancer cell Cancer that occurs in the cells on the surface of the ovary.
epithelial stem cell Epithelial stem cells in the lining of the digestive tract occur in deep crypts and give rise to several cell types: absorptive cells, goblet cells, paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells.
epithelioma cell A neoplasm cell of epithelial origin, ranging from benign (adenoma and papilloma) to malignant (carcinoma).
epithelioma cell line
epithelium A membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of an animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation.
epitrochlearis Pertaining to muscles associated with the humeral epichondyle.
epitrochlearis muscle Rat foreleg skeletal muscle.
er-1 cell The ER-1 weakly malignant clonal cell line was derived from a mammary adenocarcinoma that developed spontaneously in a female SHR rat.
erpp cell ER-1 cells converted into highly tumorigenic and metastatic cells, ERpP, by subcutaneous co-inoculation with plastic plates.
erythroblast Any of the nucleated cells normally found only in bone marrow that develop into erythrocytes.
erythrocyte Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood.
erythrocytic stage Merozoites from the liver infect red blood cells and replicate asexually through schizogony. This is the erythrocytic stage.
erythroid cell Cell that will give rise to erythrocytes.
erythroid progenitor cell Committed, erythroid stem cells derived from myeloid stem cells. The progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (bfu-e) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (cfu-e). Bfu-e differentiate into cfu-e on stimulation by erythropoietin, and then further differentiate into erythroblasts when stimulated by other factors.
erythroleukemia cell Cancer cell of the blood-forming tissues in which large numbers of immature, abnormal red blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.
erythroleukemia cell line
es-2 cell Human clear cell ovarian carcinoma cell line.
es-d3 cell Mus musculus pluripotent embryonic stem cell line.
es-e14 cell Mouse embryonic stem cell line.
esophageal cancer cell Tumor cell or cancer cell of the esophagus.
esophageal cancer cell line
esophageal cell line
esophageal epithelium
esophageal gland One of the racemose glands in the walls of the esophagus that in humans are small and serve principally to lubricate the food but in some birds secrete a milky fluid on which the young are fed.
esophageal mucosa The mucous coat (membrane) lining the esophagus.
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of esophageal cancer, accounting for 95% of all esophageal cancers worldwide.
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line
esophageal squamous epithelium
esophagus A muscular tube that in humans is about nine inches (23 centimeters) long and passes from the pharynx down the neck between the trachea and the spinal column and behind the left bronchus where it pierces the diaphragm slightly to the left of the middle line and joins the cardiac end of the stomach.
ethmoid bone An irregularly shaped, spongy bone that provides the floor of the front part of the skull and the roof of the nose. The ethmoid bone consists of two masses of thin plates enclosing air cells and looks like a sieve.
etiolated plant tissue Etiolation: growth habit adopted by germinating seedlings in the dark. Involves rapid extension of shoot and/or hypocotyl and suppression of chlorophyll formation and leaf growth.
eue cell Human embryonic epithelial cell line.
ewing's family tumor cell The Ewing's family of tumors includes Ewing's tumor of bone, extraosseus Ewing's sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and Askin's tumor. All of these tumors are derived from the same primordial stem cell, the primitive nerve cell.
ewing's sarcoma cell A malignant primary bone tumour that arises most commonly in the first three decades of life.
ewing's sarcoma cell line A malignant primary bone tumour that arises most commonly in the first three decades of life.
ewing's sarcoma family tumor cell line Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) belong to the group of neoplasms commonly referred to as small, round, blue-cell tumors of childhood.
excretory canal The H-shaped excretory cell is the largest cell in Caenorabditis elegans.
excretory gland A gland that discharges its secretion through a duct opening on an internal or external surface of the body, as a lacrimal gland.
exocarp The outermost layer of the pericarp of a fruit. The skin or rind of a fruit.
exocrine acinar cell
exocrine gland An externally secreting gland, such as a salivary gland or sweat gland that releases its secretions directly or through a duct.
exocrine glandular secretion Secretion discharged by an exocrine gland to an external or internal surface of the body.
exocrine pancreas That part of the pancreas that acts as an exocrine gland, consisting of the pancreatic acini, which produce pancreatic juice and secrete it into the duodenum to aid in protein digestion.
exocuticle The outer layer of the procuticle of certain crustaceans and arthropods, which contains cuticulin, chitin, and phenolic substances that are oxidized to produce the dark pigment of the cuticle; The hard and usually darkened layer of the cuticle lying between the endocuticle and epicuticle.
exodermis A layer of the outer living cortical cells of plants that takes over the functions of the epidermis in roots lacking secondary thickening.
exoerythrocytic stage The spozoites move to the liver, enter liver cells and replicate asexually through schizogony. This is the exoerythrocytic stage.
exoskeleton Exoskeleton or shell, including those of mollusks, turtles, insects and crustaceans.
extensor A muscle that, upon contraction, tends to straighten a limb. The antagonist of a flexor muscle.
extensor digitorum brevis A muscle on the dorsum of the foot that extends the toes.
extensor digitorum communis A muscle on the back of the forearm that extends the fingers and wrist.
extensor digitorum longus A pennate muscle on the lateral part of the front of the leg that extends the four small toes and dorsally flexes and pronates.
external carotid artery In human anatomy, the external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. It arises from the common carotid artery when it bifurcates into the external and internal carotid artery.
external female genital organ The external genitalia of the female, comprising the pudendum femininum, clitoris, and urethra.
external gill External gills are the gills of an animal, most typically an amphibian, that are exposed to the environment, rather than set inside the pharynx and covered by gill slits, as they are in most fishes.
external iliac artery The outer branch of the common iliac artery on either side of the body that passes beneath the inguinal ligament to become the femoral artery.
external male genital organ The external genitalia in the male, comprising the penis, scrotum, and urethra.
external plexiform layer The external plexiform layer contains the passing dendrites of mitral cells and a few tufted cells, which are similar in size to mitral cells. Some of the granule cell dendrites in the plexiform layer contact mitral cell dendrites through a specialized dendrodendritic synapse, which also is termed a reciprocal synapse. Tufted cells also receive granule cell input through dendrodendritic and dendrosomatic contact.
extraembryonic tissue The structure outside the embryonic body; e.g., those membranes involved with the embryos protection and nutrition which are discarded at birth without being incorporated in its body.
extraglomerular mesangial cell One of the three cellular components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
extraocular muscle Any of six small voluntary muscles that pass between the eyeball and the orbit and control the movement of the eyeball in relation to the orbit.
extraosseus ewing's sarcoma cell Tumor growing outside of the bone.
extrastriate cortex The term visual cortex refers to the primary visual cortex and extrastriate visual cortical areas such as V2, V3, V4, and V5. The extrastriate cortical areas consist of Brodmann area 18 and Brodmann area 19. There is a visual cortex for each hemisphere of the brain. The left hemisphere visual cortex receives signals from the right visual field and the right visual cortex from the left visual field.
extravillous trophoblast The outermost layer of trophoblast, produced by cytotrophoblast where there is direct contact with maternal decidua rather than blood. The EVT cells travel into the decidua, reacting with NK cells and invading maternal blood vessels feeding the placenta, softening the walls and replacing the lining with fetal tissue, a process called conversion.
eye An organ of sight; especially: a nearly spherical hollow organ that is lined with a sensitive retina, is lodged in a bony orbit in the skull, is the vertebrate organ of sight, and is normally paired.
eye cancer cell A cell of a cancerous growth in any part of the eye.
eyelid Either of the movable folds of skin and muscle that can be closed over the eyeball.
eyestalk One of the movable peduncles bearing an eye at the tip in a decapod crustacean.
f-9 cell Mouse embryonal carcinoma, initiated from a testicular teratocarcinoma of a strain 129 mouse.
f5 meningioma cell Human malignant meningioma cell line.
f9-12 cell The yeast genomic DNA from the strain F9 was transferred to the established mouse fibroblast cell line L A-9 by fusion with yeast spheroplasts followed by selection with G418 to select for cells which had taken up yeast DNA. Seventeen independent cell lines, called F9-1 to F9-17, were grown up from colonies on separate plates.
face That part of the head, especially of man, in which the eyes, cheeks, nose, and mouth are situated.
fadu cell Human squamous cell carcinoma cell line of the hypopharynx.
fanconi anemia disease specific cell type Fanconi's anemia is a disease passed down through families (inherited) that mainly affects the bone marrow. It results in decreased production of all types of blood cells. Fanconi's anemia is different from Fanconi syndrome, a rare kidney disorder.
fanconi anemia lymphoid cell line
fao cell Rat, liver, hepatoma, H-35 Reuber cell line.
fascia A sheet of connective tissue covering or binding together body structures as muscles.
fascia dentata The fascia dentata is the earliest stage of the hippocampal circuit. The fascia dentata and the hilus together make up the dentate gyrus.
fascicle A bundle of thin leaves of pines.
fasciolar gyrus A posterior and upward extension of the dentate gyrus, forming a transitional area between the dentate gyrus and the indusium griseum.
fast muscle The paler-colored muscle tissue of some mammals, composed of fast twitch muscle fibers.
fast twitch muscle fiber Paler-colored muscle fibers of larger diameter than slow twitch fibers, and having less sarcoplasm and more prominent cross-striping; used for forceful and rapid contractions over short periods of time.
fat body A fatty tissue especially of nearly mature insect larvae that serves as a food reserve.
fat pad An accumulation of adipose tissue (fat cells) enclosed in fibrous tissue.
faza cell Rat hepatoma cell line.
fb-1 cell A human anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line, derived from a 68-year-old woman who underwent surgery for anaplastic thyroid cancer.
fd-2 cell Farber disease dermal fibroblast cell line.
fdcp-1 cell Mouse bone marrow cell line, established from the long-term bone marrow culture of B6D2F1 mice; cells are IL-3-dependent; their differentiation is blocked; this subclone is responsive to G-CSF.
feather Any of the light horny epidermal outgrowths that form the external covering of the body of birds and that consist of a shaft bearing on each side a series of barbs which bear barbules which in turn bear barbicels commonly ending in hooked hamuli and interlocking with the barbules of an adjacent barb to link the barbs into a continuous vane.
feather calamus The hollow basal portion of a feather below the vane.
feather vane The flattened part of the feather that is attached on either side of the rachis. Each feather has two vanes.
female cone In conifers, the reproductive parts are housed within the cones. A conifer has two kinds of cones. Seed, or female cones are the larger, hard cones. Each of the scales that make up a seed cone has two ovules. Every ovule produces a spore that grows into a female gametophyte and this tiny plant produces egg cells. The wind usually delivers the pollen grains from the pollen cone to the seed cone, this is the yellow haze often seen in the spring in coniferous forest areas.
female pudendum That portion of the female genitalia comprising the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule of the vagina, bulb of the vestibule, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and vaginal orifice. Commonly used to denote the entire external female genitalia.
female reproductive gland
female reproductive system The internal and external reproductive organs in the female.
female urethra The tube through which urine leaves the body. It empties urine from the bladder.
femoral artery The main artery of the thigh, supplying blood to the groin and lower extremity.
femoral muscle Origin: anterior and lateral surfaces of femur; insertion: patella, common tendon of quadriceps femoris; innervation: femoral; action, extends leg.
femorotibial joint One of the two primary bendings of a typical leg, pertains to the femur and the tibia.
femur The bone that extends from the pelvis to the knee, being the longest and largest bone in the body; its head articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone, and distally, the femur, along with the patella and tibia, forms the knee joint.
fetal cell line
fetal membrane Any membrane that functions for the protection or nourishment of respiration or excretion of a developing fetus.
fetal serum
fetus An unborn or unhatched vertebrate especially after attaining the basic structural plan of its kind; specifically: a developing human from usually three months after conception to birth.
fhc cell Human normal colon cell line from a 13 weeks gestation.
fiber An elongated tapering thick-walled plant cell void at maturity that imparts elasticity, flexibility, and tensile strength.
fibre tract A bundle of nerve fibers (axons) having a common origin, termination, and function.
fibrillar flight muscle Insect flight muscle responsible for indirect flight. A single nerve impulse results in many cycles of flight muscle contraction and relaxation.
fibroadenoma cell A cell of adenoma containing fibrous tissue.
fibroblast A connective-tissue cell of mesenchymal origin that secretes proteins and especially molecular collagen from which the extracellular fibrillar matrix of connective tissue forms.
fibroblast cell line
fibroblast-like synoviocyte Human synoviocytes (HS), the predominant cell type of healthy synovial tissue, are fibroblast-like cells.
fibroblastoma cell A cell of a tumor arising from fibroblasts, divided into fibromas and fibrosarcomas.
fibrocarcinoma cell A hard, slow-growing carcinoma composed primarily of fibrous tissue.
fibroma cell A cell of a tumor composed mainly of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.
fibrosarcoma cell Fibrosarcoma is a malignant tumour derived from connective tissue fibroblast.
fibrosarcoma cell line
fibula The outer and smaller of the two bones of the leg, which articulates proximally with the tibia and distally is joined to the tibia in a syndesmosis.
fiddlehead The coiled young frond of any of various ferns, some of which are considered a delicacy when cooked.
filament Part of the stamen in a flower that supports the anther. A chainlike series of cells, as in many algae.
fin An external membranous process of an aquatic animal as a fish used in propelling or guiding the body.
final leaf The last leaf to emerge in a determinate plant, also referred to as the flag leaf in cereal crops.
fine root Primary roots usually <2 mm diameter that have the function of water and nutrient uptake. They are often heavily branched and support mycorrhizas. These roots may be short lived, but are replaced by the plant in an ongoing process of root 'turnover'.
finger Any of the five terminating members of the hand, a digit of the forelimb.
fl cell Human amnion epithelial cell line.
fl-318 cell Cell line established from effusion cells of two Japanese patients manifesting the transformed histology of follicular lymphoma.
fl5.12 cell FL5.12 cells are a murine pro-B-cell line derived from fetal liver, which undergo apoptotic cell death following IL-3 deprivation.
flag leaf The final leaf to emerge in a cereal plant.
flagellate A flagellate protozoan or alga.
flavedo Oil exists in the yellow layer of the peel of the lemon which is known as the flavedo. It is found in balloon-like cells called oil glands.
flexor A muscle that when contracted acts to bend a joint or limb in the body.
flexor digitorum longus A muscle of the tibial side of the leg that flexes the terminal phalanx of each of the four small toes.
flexor digitorum profundus A deep muscle of the ulnar side of the forearm that flexes especially the terminal phalanges of the four fingers.
flight muscle
flk cell Fetal lamb kidney cell line.
floor plate The unpaired ventral longitudinal zone of the neural tube, forming the floor of that tube.
floral meristem A meristem that gives rise to a flower.
floral primordium Immediately next to the growing inflorescence tip is the floral primordium, which is a bump of cells representing the very youngest stage of a flower.
floret 1. A small or reduced flower, especially one of the grasses and composite plants, such as a daisy. 2. Any of the tight, branched clusters of flower buds that together form a head of cauliflower or broccoli.
flower The reproductive structure of the anthophyta or angiosperms.
flower bud A bud that will develop into a flower.
flower stalk
fm3a cell Mouse mammary carcinoma cell line.
fo-1 cell Human melanoma cell line.
foam cell A swollen vacuolated phagocytic cell filled with lipid inclusions that often accummulates along arterial walls and is characteristic of some conditions of disturbed lipid metabolism.
follicular adenoma cell Adenoma of the thyroid in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles.
follicular dendritic cell A cell of the immune system found in lymph follicles.
follicular dendritic cell line
follicular fluid Follicular fluid is a liquid which fills the follicular antrum and surrounds the ovum in an ovarian follicle. This fluid is rich in hyaluronic acid.
follicular lymphoma cell
follicular lymphoma cell line
follicular stem cell The follicular stem cells can give rise to both the hair follicle and to the epidermis.
follicular thyroid cancer cell
follicular thyroid cancer cell line
foot 1: The terminal part of the vertebrate leg upon which an individual stands. 2: An invertebrate organ of locomotion or attachment; especially: a ventral muscular surface or process of a mollusk.
foot muscle
foot sole The underside of the foot.
forearm The part of the arm between the elbow and the wrist; also: the corresponding part in other vertebrates.
forebrain The anterior of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes especially the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus and that especially in higher vertebrates is the main control center for sensory and associative information processing, visceral functions, and voluntary motor functions.
foregut 1: The anterior part of the embryonic alimentary canal of a vertebrate from which the pharynx, lungs, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and duodenum develop. 2: The first part of the alimentary canal of an arthropod or annelid, which includes the buccal cavity, esophagus, crop, and gizzard.
foreign-body giant cell Syncytium formed by the fusion of macrophages in response to an indigestible particle too large to be phagocytosed for example talc, silica or asbestos fibres. Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells, but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
forelimb A limb as an arm, wing, fin, or leg that is situated anteriorly.
forelimb muscle A muscle of a limb (as an arm, wing, fin, or leg) that is situated anteriorly.
foreskin fibroblast cell line
forestomach Any of the first three stomachs of a ruminant, i.e., the rumen, reticulum, or omasum.
fourth ventricle The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. The fourth ventricle extends from the cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) to the obex, and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The fourth ventricle has a characteristic diamond shape in cross-sections of the human brain. It is located within the pons or in the upper part of the medulla.
fpmi-cf-203 cell The FPMI-CF-203 cell line, was developed from spruce budworm midgut tissues.
free-living state
friend erythroleukemia cell line
frond A large leaf (especially of a palm or fern) usually with many divisions.
frontal gland In Isoptera, a large median gland beneath the integument of the head in certain soldier-termites, opening through the fontanelle or frontal pore, which produces secretions.
frontal lobe Front part of the brain, involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of higher cognitive functions including behavior and emotions.
frtl-5 cell Rat thyroid gland cell line, derived from FRTL cell line.
fruit The mature ovary or ovaries of a seed-bearing plant, together with accessory parts, containing the seeds and occurring in a wide variety of forms.
fruit body Any specialized structure which bears or contains sexually or asexually derived spores.
fruit capsule A simple fruit that develops from a compound ovary with two or more carpels; capsules dehisce in many ways, example: cotton.
fruit juice Juice produced by squeezing or crushing fruit.
fruit peduncle
ftc-133 cell Human thyroid carcinoma cell line; obtained from a lymph node metastasis of a follicular thyroid carcinoma from a 42-year-old male.
ftc-236 cell Human thyroid cancer neck lymph node metastasis cell line.
fto-2b cell Rat hepatoma cell line.
fundic mucosa
fungus Any of a major group (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms including molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts.
fungus form
g cell Endocrine cells found in the pyloric gland mucosa (antral mucosa) of the stomach and responsible for the secretion of gastrin.
g-292 cell Human osteosarcoma cell line.
g-361 cell Homo sapiens (human); skin; malignant melanoma cell line; established from a 31 year old caucasian male.
g-401 cell Human caucasian kidney cell line. G-401 was deposited as a cell line derived from a Wilms tumor. Due to a change in the classification of such tumors, the cell line was examined by Garvin et al and found to be more appropriately classified as derived from a rhabdoid tumor of the kidney.
gall bladder A small, pear-shaped muscular sac, located under the right lobe of the liver, in which bile secreted by the liver is stored until needed by the body for digestion.
gall bladder cancer cell
gall bladder cancer cell line
gall bladder cell line
gall bladder epithelium
gametangium A structure in which gametes are produced.
gametocyte A cell from which gametes develop by meiotic division, especially a spermatocyte or an oocyte.
gametophore A structure, as in liverworts and mosses, on which gametangia are borne.
gametophyte The individual or generation of a plant exhibiting alternation of generations that bears sex organs.
gamg cell Human glioblastoma cell line.
gamma-motoneuron A smaller neuron whose cell body is found in the ventral horn of the spinal cord that innervates intrafusal fibers.
ganglioglioma cell A ganglioneuroma in the central nervous system.
ganglion A group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system. The term is occasionally applied to certain nuclear groups within the brain or spinal cord, such as the basal ganglia.
ganglion cell layer The innermost nuclear layer of the retina.
ganglioneuroma cell A benign neoplasm composed of nerve fibers and mature ganglion cells; regarded by many as a fully differentiated neuroblastoma.
garland cell The garland cell of Drosophila is a nephrocyte which takes up waste products from the haemolymph.
gas bladder A thin membranous, sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. May be one, two or three chambered. May be connected to the gut by a tube, the ductus pneumaticus (then called physostomous) or unconnected (then called physoclistous). May function as one or more of:- hydrostatic organ, sound producing organ, sound receptor, respiratory organ. Found in Actinopterygii. Often lacking in bottom fishes.
gastric adenocarcinoma cell A cell of any of a group of common stomach cancers, usually located in the antrum; it may present as a bulky mass with central ulceration invading the wall, a mass that narrows the antral lumen, a polypoid lesion, or a tumor that spreads superficially over the mucosal surface. It is common in Japan, Chile, Iceland, and Finland but the incidence is decreasing in North America and elsewhere. There may be links to certain dietary substances such as nitrosamines and benzpyrene.
gastric adenocarcinoma cell line
gastric antrum The dilated portion of the pyloric part of the stomach, between the body of the stomach and the pyloric canal.
gastric cancer cell Gastric cancer is a cancer of the stomach.
gastric cancer cell line
gastric cell line
gastric corpus That part of the stomach between the fundus and the pyloric part.
gastric corpus mucosa
gastric epithelial cell
gastric epithelium Epithelium of the stomach.
gastric epithelium cell line
gastric fundus That part of the stomach to the left and above the level of the entrance of the esophagus.
gastric gland Any of various glands in the walls of the stomach that secrete gastric juice.
gastric juice A thin watery acid digestive fluid secreted by glands in the mucous membrane of the stomach.
gastric mucosa The mucous coat of the stomach.
gastric pit Any of he numerous pits in the gastric mucosa marking the openings of the gastric glands.
gastric ulcer A peptic ulcer of the gastric mucosa.
gastrinoma cell A tumor cell that secretes gastrin; most are islet cell tumors of non-beta cells in the pancreas, but some are found at sites such as the antrum of the stomach, the hilus of the spleen, or regional lymph nodes. This is the usual cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
gastrocnemius The largest and most superficial muscle of the calf of the leg arising by two heads from the condyles of the femur and attaching to a tendon that becomes part of the Achilles tendon.
gastrodermis The tissue lining the gut cavity of an invertebrate, which is responsible for digestion and absorption.
gastroduodenal mucosa
gastroesophageal cancer cell
gastroesophageal junction The junction between the stomach and the esophagus; the place where the esophagus connects to the stomach.
gastrointestinal cancer cell
gastrointestinal endocrine cell Cells found throughout the lining of the gastrointestinal tract that contain regulatory peptide hormones and/or biogenic amines. The substances are located in secretory granules and act in an endocrine or paracrine manner. Some of these substances are also found in neurons in the gut. There are at least 15 different types of endocrine cells of the gut. Some take up amine precursors and have been called APUD CELLS. However, most endocrine cells of the gut apparently have endodermal rather than neuroectodermal origin, so the relationship with APUD cells is not clear.
gastrointestinal smooth muscle
gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell A type of tumor that usually begins in cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be benign or malignant.
gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract includes both stomach and intestine.
gastrula An early metazoan embryo in which the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm are established either by invagination of the blastula (as in fish and amphibians) to form a multilayered cellular cup with a blastopore opening into the archenteron or by differentiation of the blastodisc (as in reptiles, birds, and mammals) and inward cellular migration.
gbc-sd cell Human gallbladder carcinoma cell line.
gbm-8401 cell Human brain glioblastoma multiform cell line.
genital chamber A copulatory invagination. In females, sometimes forms a tubular vagina that is often developed to form a bursa copulatrix. In males, a ventral invagination containing the phallic organs.
genital mucosa
genital pore A small opening on the side of the head in some gastropods through which the penis is protruded.
genital primordium
geo cell Human colon cancer cell line.
ger cell Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line.
germ A small mass of living substance capable of developing into an organism or one of its parts.
germ cell 1. A gamete (as an egg or sperm cell) or one of its antecedent cells. 2. A mature male or female germ cell usually possessing a haploid chromosome set and capable of initiating formation of a new diploid individual by fusion with a gamete of the opposite sex.
germ cell cancer cell
germ layer A layer of cells produced during the process of gastrulation during the early development of the animal embryo, which is distinct from other such layers of cells, as an early step of cell differentiation. The three types of germ layers are the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm.
germarium Each ovariole consists of a germarium and a series of ovarial follicles. The germarium is a mass of undifferentiated cells that form oocytes, nurse cells, and follicular cells.
germinal center The area in the center of a lymph node containing aggregations of actively proliferating lymphocytes.
germinal disc A flattish area in a blastocyst in which the first traces of the embryo are seen, visible early in the second week in human development.
germinal epithelium Epithelium covering the embryonic genital ridges and the gonads that develop from them.
germinated grain After germination, the grain of barley is called green malt.
gfshr-17 cell Immortalized cell line of primary granulosa cells, isolated from 25-day-old immature rats and transfected with SV40 DNA, Ha-as, and FSH receptor expression plasmid.
gh3 cell Rat pituitary tumor, derived in 1965 from a pituitary tumor induced in a female Wistar/Furth rat ollowing repeated transplantation with the MtT/W5 tumor (originally induced in a female F/Fu rat by cranial X-irradiation).
gh4-c1 cell Rat pituitary tumor cell line; established from a pituitary tumor of a 7-month-old female Wistar/Furth rat. Cell line GH4 was subcloned in order to obtain a cell line secreting high amounts of growth hormones.
ghost A red blood cell that has lost its hemoglobin.
giant cell carcinoma cell A poorly differentiated, highly malignant, epithelial neoplasm containing numerous very large, multinucleated tumor cells, such as occurs in the lungs.
giant cell carcinoma cell line
giant cell tumor cell line Human fibrous histiocytoma cell line, established from a 29 years old male.
gill A paired respiratory organ in fishes consisting of gill filaments on the gill arch in the posterior portion of the head and usually providing the primary exchange of gases between the blood and the surrounding water.
gill arch The endochondral skeletal support of the gill which bears the gill filaments and the gill rakers. Consists of pharyngobranchials, epibranchials, ceratobranchials and hypobranchials. Usually 4 in teleosts, can be as many as 16 in some Cyclostomata.
gill filament The thread-like, soft, red respiratory and excretory structure projecting outward from the gill arch.
gill raker One of a series of variously shaped bony or cartilaginous projections on the inner side of the branchial arch. The rakers have epithelial denticles and both their gross and fine structure serves to retain food particles in the mouth. The gill raker count normally includes all rakers, even the rudiments, and is made on the front half of the first arch. Upper and lower gill raker counts may be presented as the upper and the lower (including the central raker), e.g. 9 + 17; or as upper rakers, central raker, and lower rakers, e.g. 9 + 1 + 16. The most anterior and posterior rakers are often small and delicate, easily torn or lost if the arch is removed. Plankton feeders have numerous, crowded, elongate and fine rakers while predators have few, separated, short and stubby rakers.
gingiva The tissue that surrounds the necks of teeth and covers the alveolar parts of the jaws; broadly: the alveolar portion of a jaw with its enveloping soft tissues.
gingival cancer cell line
gingival cell line
gingival epithelium A stratified squamous epithelium consisting of a basal layer; it is keratinized or parakeratinized.
gingival fibroblast A formative cell that moderates wound healing and healing after treatment.
gingival fluid Fluid containing plasma proteins, which is present in increasing amounts in association with gingival inflammation.
gitter cell A microglial cell that is globular and swollen after having phagocytized debris from cells destroyed pathologically in the central nervous system.
gizzard 1: The muscular enlargement of the alimentary canal of birds that has usually thick muscular walls and a tough horny lining for grinding the food and when the crop is present follows it and the proventriculus. 2: A thickened part of the alimentary canal in some animals (as an insect or an earthworm) that is similar in function to the crop of a bird.
gizzard smooth muscle
gland A cell, group of cells, or organ of endothelial origin that selectively removes materials from the blood, concentrates or alters them, and secretes them for further use in the body or for elimination from the body.
glandular epithelium Epithelium composed of secretory cells.
glandular stomach Stomach found in horses; includes cardiac, proper gastric and pyloric glandular zones.
glans clitoridis Erectile tissue at the end of the clitoris, which is continuous with the intermediate part of the vestibulovaginal bulbs.
glans penis The cap-shaped expansion of the corpus spongiosum at the end of the penis.
glc-4 cell Human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line.
glc-4/adr cell Subline of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line (GLC4) with in vitro acquired resistance to adriamycin (GLC4/ADR).
glc-82 cell Lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
glhr-15 cell Immortalized cell line of primary granulosa cells, isolated from 25-day-old immature rats and transfected with SV40 DNA, Ha-ras, and LH/CG receptor expression plasmid.
glia The delicate network of branched cells and fibers that supports the tissue of the central nervous system.
glial cell As glia they build the delicate network of branched cells and fibers that supports the tissue of the central nervous system.
glial cell line
glioblastoma cell Glioblastoma is a general term for malignant forms of astrocytoma.
glioblastoma cell line
glioblastoma multiforme cell A type of tumor that forms from glial (supportive) tissue in the brain. It is highly malignant, grows very quickly, and has cells that look quite different from normal glial cells. Early symptoms may include sleepiness, headache, and vomiting.
glioma cell A tumor cell originating in the neuroglia of the brain or spinal cord.
glioma cell line
globus pallidus The smaller and more medial part of the lentiform nucleus of the brain, separated from the putamen by the lateral medullary lamina. In official anatomic nomenclature, it is divided by the medial medullary lamina into two parts, lateral and medial, both of which have extensive connections with the corpus striatum, thalamus, and mesencephalon. The paleostriatum is the phylogenetically older part of the corpus striatum represented by the globus pallidus.
globus pallidus lateralis Globus pallidus lateral segment: the larger, lateral part of the globus pallidus, separated from the putamen by the lateral medullary lamina and from the smaller, medial part of the globus pallidus by the medial medullary lamina.
globus pallidus medialis Globus pallidus medial segment: the smaller, medial part of the globus pallidus, separated from the larger, lateral part by the medial medullary lamina.
glomerular endothelial cell
glomerular endothelium The glomerular endothelium sits on a very thick glomerular basement membrane.
glomerular epithelium The inner, or visceral, layer of the renal glomerular capsule, overlying the capillaries, composed of podocytes, and separated from the outer, or parietal, layer by the capsular, Bowman,s space.
glomerular layer The glomerular layer is the most superficial layer, consisting of mitral cell dendritic arborizations (glomeruli), olfactory nerve fibers, and periglomerular cells. Periglomerular cells contact multiple mitral cell dendrites within the glomeruli and provide lateral inhibition of neighboring glomeruli while allowing excitation of a specific mitral cell dendritic tree. Each mitral cell is contacted by at least 1000 olfactory nerve fibers.
glossopharyngeal nerve The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth (IX) of twelve pairs of cranial nerves. It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve.
glottis The middle part of the larynx; the area where the vocal cords are located.
glucagonoma cell A type of islet cell tumor cell of the alpha cells that secretes glucagon; some are malignant.
glume One of the two chaffy basal bracts of a grass spikelet.
gluteal muscle Any one of three large skeletal muscles that form the buttock and move the thigh.
glycogen cell The junctional zone of the mouse placenta consists of two main trophoblast populations, spongiotrophoblasts and glycogen cells (GCs), but the development and function of both cell types are unknown.
goblet cell A unicellular mucous gland found in the epithelium of various mucous membranes, especially that of the respiratory passages and intestines. Droplets of mucigen collect in the upper part of the cell and distend it, while the basal end remains slender, and the cell assumes the shape of a goblet.
gonad A reproductive gland (as an ovary or testis) that produces gametes.
gonadotrophic cell A basophil of the adenohypophysis whose granules secrete follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Called also delta basophil, delta cell, and gonadotrope or gonadotropic cell.
gonocyte The primordial germ cell.
goto cell Human glioblastoma cell line.
gracilis muscle The Gracilis is the most superficial muscle on the medial side of the thigh. It is thin and flattened, broad above, narrow and tapering below. It arises by a thin aponeurosis from the anterior margins of the lower half of the symphysis pubis and the upper half of the pubic arch. The fibers run vertically downward, and end in a rounded tendon, which passes behind the medial condyle of the femur, curves around the medial condyle of the tibia, where it becomes flattened, and is inserted into the upper part of the medial surface of the body of the tibia, below the condyle.
granular insular cortex The insular cortex has regions of variable cell structure or cytoarchitecture, changing from granular in the posterior portion to agranular in the anterior portion.
granulation tissue Highly vascularized tissue that replaces the initial fibrin clot in a wound. Vascularization is by ingrowth of capillary endothelium from the surrounding vasculature. The tissue is also rich in fibroblasts (that will eventually produce the fibrous tissue) and leucocytes.
granule cell In neuroscience, granule cells refer to tiny neurons (a type of cell) that are around 10 micrometres in diameter. Granule cells are found within the granular layer of the cerebellum, layer 4 of cerebral cortex, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and in the olfactory bulb.
granule cell layer The granule cell layer contains multiple small round neurons that lack axons. Long dendritic processes of the neurons reach the more superficial layers and inhibit mitral cells and tufted cells. Small distal processes make contacts with the exiting mitral cell axons.
granulocyte A polymorphonuclear white blood cell with granule-containingcytoplasm. In humans the granulocytes are also classified as polymorphonuclear leucocytes and are subdivided according to the staining properties of the granules into eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils, some invertebrate blood cells are also referred to, not very helpfully, as granulocytes.
granulosa cell One of the estrogen-secreting cells of the epithelial lining of a graafian follicle or its follicular precursor.
granulosa cell line
granulosa-theca cell tumor cell An ovarian tumor predominantly composed of either granulosa cells (follicular cells) or theca cells, and often associated with excessive production of estrogen, with hyperplasia and carcinoma of the endometrium. When luteinized, i.e., having cells resembling those of the corpus luteum, it is known as luteoma.
gravid adult Containing a developing embryo, fetus, or unborn offspring within the body.
great saphenous vein The great saphenous vein goes from the foot all the way up to the saphenous opening, an oval aperture in the broad fascia of the thigh, a fibrous membrane through which the vein passes.
gref-x cell Immortalized human hepatic stellate cell line.
grey cell Canine osteosarcoma cell line.
groin In anatomy, the area where the upper thigh meets the trunk. More precisely, the fold or depression marking the juncture of the lower abdomen and the inner part of the thigh.
ground meristem The part of a primary apical meristem remaining after differentiation of protoderm and procambium.
growth phase culture The characteristic periods in the growth of a bacterial culture, as indicated by the shape of a graph of viable cell number versus time.
grx cell Immortalized murine hepatic stellate cell line.
gt1 cell GT1 cells belong to an immortalized line of mouse hypothalamic GnRH secreting neurons that exhibit a pulsatile secretion of GnRH.
gt1-1 cell Immortalized GnRH secreting mouse neuronal cell line.
gt1-7 cell Immortalized female rat hypothalamus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons.
guard cell One of the two crescent-shaped epidermal cells that border and open and close a plant stoma.
gubernaculum testis The fetal ligament attached to the inferior end of the epididymis and testis and, at its other end, to the bottom of the scrotum; it is present during, and is thought to guide, the descent of the testis into the scrotum and then atrophies.
gut 1: The alimentary canal or a portion thereof, especially the intestine or stomach. 2: The embryonic digestive tube, consisting of the foregut, the midgut, and the hindgut.
gut cavity
gut epithelium
gut juice
gut mucosa
gut wall
gynecophoral canal The ventral slot in which the male schistosome carries the female.
gynoecium The female reproductive organs of a flower; the pistil or pistils considered as a group.
h-10 cell Immortalized neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.
h-59 cell Highly invasive Lewis lung carcinoma subline.
h-7721 cell Human hepatocarcinoma cell line.
h2.35 cell Mouse epithelial-like hepatoma cell line derived from a primary hepatocyte culture from the livers of 6 week old female BALB/c mice.
h4 neuroglioma cell Human brain neuroglioma H4 cell line, established from a 37 years old caucasian male.
h4-ii-e-c3 cell Rat hepatoma cell line.
h9 cell Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
h9c2 cell Rat DB1X heart myoblast cell line.
ha22t/vgh cell The HA22T/VGH cell line was established from a surgical specimen of hepatocellular carcinoma obtained from a 56-year-old Chinese male.
habenula A component of the epithalamus, being the small eminence on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus, just in front of the dorsal commissure on the lateral edge of the habenular trigone.
habenular nucleus The gray matter of the habenula, composed of a small-celled medial and a larger-celled lateral habenular nucleus; both nuclei receive fibres from basal forebrain regions (septum, basal nucleus, lateral preoptic nucleus); the lateral habenular nucleus receives an additional projection from the medial segment of the globus pallidus. Both nuclei project by way of the retroflex fasciculus to the interpeduncular nucleus and a medial zone of the midbrain tegmentum.
habenular trigone A small triangular area on the posteromedial surface of the thalamus at the caudal end of the medullary stria, corresponding to the underlying habenula.
hac cell Human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line.
haca-4 cell Mouse skin squamous carcinoma cell line.
hacat cell HaCaT is a spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte cell line.
hair 1: A slender threadlike outgrowth of the epidermis of an animal; especially: one of the usually pigmented filaments that form the characteristic coat of a mammal. 2: The hairy covering of an animal or a body part; especially: the coating of hairs on a human head.
hair cell Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in all vertebrates. In mammals, the auditory hair cells are located within the organ of Corti on a thin basilar membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear.
hair follicle The tubular epithelial sheath that surrounds the lower part of the hair shaft and encloses at the bottom a vascular papilla supplying the growing basal part of the hair with nourishment.
hair follicle bulge The bulge is located in the outer root sheath at the insertion point of the arrector pili muscle. It houses several types of stem cells, which supply the entire hair follicle with new cells, and take part in healing the epidermis after a wound.
hair follicle bulge stem cell The putative bulge stem cells can contribute to the epidermis, outer root sheath, inner root sheath, hair shaft and sebaceous gland.
hair follicle inner root sheath The cells of the inner root sheath are interlocked with those of the cuticle of the hair, firmly anchoring the hair in the follicle. The inner root sheath must grow at the same rate as the hair, or faster as it molds and guides the shaft in its passage outward.
hair follicle outer root sheath It surrounds the hair follicle like a sleeve all the way to the bulb. The outer root sheath is essentially a stratified epithelium that is contiguous with the epidermis.
hair medulla The medulla is the inner most layer of the hair shaft.
hair root The enlarged basal part of a hair within the skin.
hair shaft The non-growing portion of a hair which protrudes from the skin, i.e., from the follicle.
hairy cell leukemia cell A form of chronic leukemia marked by splenomegaly and the large, mononuclear, villus-covered cells called hairy cells in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and peripheral blood.
hairy cell leukemia cell line A form of chronic leukemia marked by splenomegaly and the large, mononuclear, villus-covered cells called hairy cells in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and peripheral blood.
hairy root A phase of crown gall (especially in apples) during which there is abnormal development of fine fibrous roots.
hairy root culture A relatively new type of plant culture, which consists of highly branched roots of a plant, covered with a mass of tiny root hairs.
hallux The first digit of the foot.
hamstring muscle Any of three muscles at the back of the thigh that function to flex and rotate the leg and extend the thigh.
hand 1. The terminal part of the vertebrate forelimb when modified, as in humans, as a grasping organ. 2. A part serving the function of or resembling a hand as the hind foot of an ape or the chela of a crustacean.
harderian gland An accessory lacrimal gland on the inner side of the orbit in reptiles and birds but usually degenerate in mammals.
hatching gland A transversely oriented set of cells located deep to the enveloping layer on the pericardial membrane, especially prominent during pharyngula period because of the brightly refractile cytoplasmic granules (containing hatching enzymes) of the principal cells of the gland; The fish hatching gland is a unicellular holocrine gland. Although it has recently been found that the precursors or immature forms of the gland cells considerably migrate in the embryonic body during development (see later), the final location of the hatching gland cells in fish is generally restricted to anterior and/or dorsal regions of a well-grown prehatching embryo. In medaka, the final location is somewhat unique: The giant gland cells are mostly localized in the inner surface of the buccal (or pharyngeal) cavity.
hatching liquid
hb1.f3 cell Human neural stem cell line.
hb4a cell Mammary epithelial cell line; derived by the immortalization of highly-purified preparations of normal human mammary luminal epithelium.
hbe cell Human bronchial epithelial cell line.
hbe-1 cell Cultured human bronchial epithelial cell line.
hbl-100 cell Human mammary gland breast carcinoma cell line, established from a 27 years old caucasian female.
hbl-2 cell Human diffuse large B cell lymphoma cell line.
hbl-3 cell Precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
hbl-4 cell Human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line(HBL-4 was established from a patient with small noncleaved cell lymphoma (Burkitt's type). The HBL-4 cell line is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative.
hbl-5 cell Human Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines HBL-5 was established from a patient with small noncleaved cell lymphoma (Burkitt's type). The HBL-5 cell line is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive.
hbl-8 cell Human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, negative for Epstein-Barr virus genome.
hc-11 cell Mouse mammary epithelial cell line.
hca-7 cell HCA-7 cell line was originally derived from human colonic carcinoma.
hca-f cell Murine hepatocarcinoma cell line.
hcaec cell Human coronary artery endothelial cell line.
hcc-1937 cell A primary ductal breast carcinoma cell line, initiated from a primary ductal carcinoma on October 13, 1995. The tumor was classified as TNM Stage IIB, grade 3.
hcc-2998 cell HCC2998 is a highly differentiated human colon carcinoma cell line.
hcc-827 cell Non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
hce cell Human corneal epithelial cell line.
hce-7 cell Human esophageal SCC cell line.
hcmec/d3 cell Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line.
hcn-1a cell A human cortical neuronal cell line, established from a 18 months old female patient that suffered from unilateral megalencephaly.
hcn-2 cell A human cortical neuronal cell line, established from a 7 years old female.
hct-115 cell Human colon cancer cell line.
hct-116 cell Human colon colorectal carcinoma cell line from a male organism. Human colon carcinoma cell line; established from the primary colon carcinoma of an adult man.
hct-15 cell
hct-166 cell Human colon carcinoma cell line.
hct-8 cell Human colonic cancer cell line.
hd-11 cell Avian (chicken) macrophage cell line.
head The upper or anterior division of the animal body that contains the brain, the chief sense organs, and the mouth.
head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
head capsule The insect's head is sometimes referred to as the head-capsule, and is the insect's feeding and sensory centre. It supports the eyes, antennae and jaws of the insect.
head kidney The kidney of the channel catfish is completely separated into the head and trunk kidneys. The head kidney is involved in endocrine and hemopoietic functions and the trunk kidney functions primarily as part of the excretory system.
head muscle
headfoot The head-foot is the part you see most easily in slugs and snails. It is mostly a muscular organ covered in cilia and rich in mucous cells, which the mollusc uses to move around, it normally tapers to a tail at one end and has a head incorporated in the front. The head includes a mouth, eyes and tentacles, the last two may be much reduced or even absent. In those species with shells the head-foot can be drawn into the shell.
heart 1: A hollow muscular organ of vertebrate animals that by its rhythmic contraction acts as a force pump maintaining the circulation of the blood. 2: A structure in an invertebrate animal functionally analogous to the vertebrate heart.
heart endothelial cell The endothelium, the layer of flat cells lining the closed spaces of the body such as the heart.
heart endothelium The endothelium, the layer of flat cells lining the closed spaces of the body such as the heart.
heart primordium
heart valve A structure especially in a vein or lymphatic that closes temporarily a passage or orifice or permits movement of fluid in one direction only.
heart ventricle A chamber of the heart which receives blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries.
hec-1-a cell This line was isolated in 1968 and associates from a patient with stage IA endometrial cancer.
hec-1-b cell This is a substrain of HEC-1-A.
hei-193 cell Human schwannoma cell line.
hei-oc1 cell House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 cell line.
hek-293 cell Established from a human primary embryonal kidney transformed by adenovirus type 5.
hek-293 tet-on 3g cell HEK 293 Tet-On 3G is a transformed human embryonic kidney-derived cell line that expresses the tetracycline (Tet)- regulated transactivator Tet-On 3G.
hek-293-ebna cell Human embryonic kidney cell line, expressing EBNA.
hek-293-trkb cell HEK-TrkB cells are derived from HEK-293 cells, engineered to express the brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor, TrkB.
hek-293a cell The QBI-HEK 293A cell line is an immortalized line of primary human embryonic kidney cells transformed by sheared human Ad5 DNA. QBI-HEK 293A cell line is a superior sub-clone of HEK 293 cells and strongly adheres to plastic dishes.
hek-293f cell The 293-F cell line is derived from the 293 cell line.
hek-293ft cell The 293FT cell line is a fast-growing, highly transfectable clonal isolate derived from human embryonal kidney cells transformed with the SV40 large T antigen.
hek-293h cell 293-H cell line is derived from 293 cell line.
hek-293t cell A highly transformed human renal epithelial line expressing two viral oncogenes, adenovirus E1a and SV40 large T antigen.
hek-ad293 cell A derivative of the commonly used HEK293 cell line, with improved cell adherence and plaque formation properties from Stratagene.
hel cell Human erythroleukemia, established from the peripheral blood of a 30-year-old man with erythroleukemia (AML M6) in relapse (after treatment for Hodgkin's disease) in 1980; cells were described to be capable of spontaneous and induced globin synthesis.
hel-92.1.7 cell Human erythroleukemia cell line; established from a 30 years old caucasian male.
hela cell Human cervix carcinoma established from the epitheloid cervix carcinoma of a 31-year-old black woman in 1951. Later diagnosis changed to adenocarcinoma, first aneuploid, continuously cultured human cell line.
hela-229 cell Human epitheloid cervix carcinoma cell line from a black female.
hela-magi cell CD4 positive HeLa cell line that contains an integrated HIV-1 promoter.
hela-s3 cell Human cervix carcinoma cell line is a subclone of its parent HELA derived in 1955.
helf cell Human embryonic lung fibroblast cell line.
helper t-lymphocyte A T-cell that participates in an immune response by recognizing a foreign antigen and secreting lymphokines to activate T cell and B cell proliferation, that usually carries CD4 molecular markers on its cell surface, and that is reduced to 20 percent or less of normal numbers in AIDS.
hemangioendothelioma cell A true neoplasm of vascular origin, characterized by proliferation of endothelial cells in and about the vascular lumen; it is usually considered to be intermediate in grade between hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma but sometimes is used to denote the latter.
hemangioendothelioma cell line
hematopoietic cell A blood cell.
hematopoietic cell line
hematopoietic stem cell A blood cell progenitor or mother cell representing a slightly later stage than the blast cell; it has the capacity for both replication and differentiation, and has pluripotentiality, giving rise to precursors of various different blood cell lines, such as the proerythrocyte and myeloblast, which cannot self-replicate and must differentiate into more mature daughter cells.
hematopoietic system The tissues concerned in production of the blood, including the bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus.
hemn cell Primary human epidermal melanocytes isolated from neonatal foreskin.
hemocyte A blood cell especially of an invertebrate animal.
hemocyte cell line
hemolymph The circulatory fluid of various invertebrate animals that is functionally comparable to the blood and lymph of vertebrates.
henles loop The long U-shaped part of the renal tubule, extending through the medulla from the end of the proximal convoluted tubule. It begins with a descending limb comprising the proximal straight tubule and the thin tubule, followed by the ascending limb the distal straight tubule, and ending at the distal convoluted tubule.
henles loop cell line
hep-2 cell Human Caucasian larynx carcinoma cell line with HeLa Characteristics.
hep-3 cell Human epidermoid-carcinoma cell line that expresses urokinase-type plasminogen activator u-PA and u-PAR.
hep-3b cell Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line; established from the tumor tissue of an 8-year-old black boy in 1976; description: cells contain integrated hepatitis B virus genome; cells were described to produce a variety of proteins, e.g. alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, alpha2-macroglobulin, alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin and others.
hep-3b2 cell Human hepatocarcinoma cell line.
hep-g2 cell Human hepatocellular carcinoma, established from the tumor tissue of a 15-year-old argentine boy with hepatocellular carcinoma in 1975.
hep-g2/c3a cell Cultured hepatoma cells derived from Hep-G2.
hepa 1-6 cell Mouse hepatoma cell line; derived from the BW7756 tumor that arose in a C57L mouse.
hepa-1 cell Murine hepatoma cell line. The Hepa-1 cell line was originally derived from a transplantable tumor carried in C57 leaden/J mice.
hepa-1c1c7 cell Mouse hepatoma cell line. This is a derivative of the BW7756 mouse hepatoma that arose in a C57/L mouse.
hepatic artery An artery that distributes blood to the liver, pancreas and gallbladder as well as to the stomach and duodenal portion of the small intestine.
hepatic cecum A ventral evagination extending anteriorly in the mid-portion of the intestine in Amphioxi probably homologous with the liver of other chordates.
hepatic primordium
hepatic stellate cell Hepatic stellate cells are pericytes found in the perisinusoidal space (a small area between the sinusoids and hepatocytes) of the liver. The stellate cell is the major cell type involved in liver fibrosis, which is the formation of scar tissue in response to liver damage.
hepatic stellate cell line
hepatoblastoma cell A malignant intrahepatic tumor occurring in infants and young children and consisting chiefly of embryonic hepatic tissue.
hepatoblastoma cell line
hepatocyte The major cell type of the liver. They are arranged in folded sheets facing blood-filled spaces called sinusoids. Hepatocytes are responsible for the synthesis, degradation, and storage of a wide range of substances. They are the site of synthesis of all the plasma proteins, except for antibody, and are the site of storage of glycogen.
hepatoma ascites cell
hepatoma ascites cell line
hepatoma cell Primary carcinoma of the liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumour difficult to distinguish from normal hepatocytes to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic or may form giant cells. Several classification schemes have been suggested. Hepatocellular carcinoma is very rare in the united states and western europe, but it is one of the most common cancers in eastern asia and sub-saharan africa. The cases are preponderantly male and, racially, whites have the lowest rates.
hepatoma cell line
hepatopancreas Digestive gland of crustaceans with functions approximately analogous to liver and pancreas of vertebrates - enzyme secretion, food absorption and storage.
het-1a cell Human esophageal cell line; derived in 1986 from human esophageal autopsy tissue by transfection with plasmid pRSV-T consisting of the RSV-LTR promoter and the sequence encoding the simian virus 40 large T-antigen.
hey cell Human ovarian carcinoma cell line.
hfk cell Human fetal kidney primary culture.
hfl-1 cell Human lung fibroblast cell line; established from a caucasian fetus.
hfob 1.19 cell Human fetal osteoblast cell line.
hfob cell Immortalized human fetal osteoblastic cell line.
hgc-27 cell This human gastric carcinoma cell line was established by culture of the metastatic lymph node from a gastric cancer patient diagnosed histological as undifferentiated carcinoma.
hgec cell Immortalized human glomerular endothelial cell line.
hgf cell Human gingival stroma cell line.
hi-5 cell Insect cell line from Trichoplusia ni (embryo) egg cells.
hig-82 cell Oryctolagus cuniculus synoviocyte cell line derived from the intrarticular soft tissue from the knee joint of a 6-months-old female rabbit.
high endothelial venule Specialized area of vascular endothelium found in lymphoid organs, which express a variety of cell-adhesion molecules and is involved in lymphocyte extravasation.
high vocal center HVC is a nucleus in the brain of the songbirds (order passeriformes) necessary for both the learning and the production of bird song. It is located in the lateral caudal nidopallium and has projections to both the direct and the anterior forebrain pathways.
hindbrain The posterior of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata, and in mammals the pons and that controls autonomic functions and equilibrium.
hindgut The caudal portion of the embryonic alimentary canal in vertebrates.
hindlimb Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a femur, tibia and fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and toes.
hinge joint A joint that allows motion around an axis.
hip The laterally projecting region of each side of the lower or posterior part of the mammalian trunk formed by the lateral parts of the pelvis and upper part of the femur together with the fleshy parts covering them.
hip joint The articulation between the femur and the innominate bone.
hippocampal cell line
hippocampal pyramidal layer A well-defined double layer of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus; their dendrites extend from the stratum oriens to the stratum moleculare.
hippocampus A curved elongated ridge that extends over the floor of the descending horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain and consists of gray matter covered on the ventricular surface with white matter; The hippocampus is a part of the temporal lobe, which has a well established role in learning, memory and emotion.
hippocampus minor The lower of two elevations on the medial wall of the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain, caused by the depth of the calcarine sulcus.
histiocyte A nonmotile macrophage of extravascular tissues and especially connective tissue.
histiocytic lymphoma cell The most common aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It occurs in both diffuse and nodular form. The large cells may have cleaved and non-cleaved nuclei.
hit-t15 cell Pancreatic beta cell line.
hk-1 cell EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line.
hk-2 cell An immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney.
hke-3 cell Clonal derivative from HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell line, that lacks the mutant k-ras allele.
hkesc-1 cell Human esophageal cancer cell line, established from a primary moderately-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus from a 47-year-old Hong Kong Chinese man.
hl-1 cell A cardiac muscle cell line from the AT-1 mouse atrial cardiomyocyte tumor lineage; established from an adult female Jackson Laboratory-inbred C57BLy6J mouse.
hl-60 cell Human acute myeloid leukemia established from the peripheral blood of a 35-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia (AML FAB M2) in 1976.
hl-60/mx-2 cell Acute promyelocytic leukemia resistant to mitoxantrone.
hl60/adr cell Acute promyelocytic leukemia resistant to Adriamycin.
hl60/dnr cell Acute promyelocytic leukemia resistant to daunorubicin.
hlac-78 cell Human larynx squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
hle-b3 cell Human lens epithelial cell line.
hlec-sra 01/04 cell Human lens epithelial cell line.
hm-1 es cell Murine embryonic stem cell line.
hmc cell Human mesangial cell line.
hmc-1 cell Human mast cell line.
hmcb cell Human bowes melanoma cell line of the skin.
hme cell Human mammary epithelial cell line.
hmec-1 cell Human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line 1.
hmepc cell Human Mammary Epithelial Cells (HMEpC) are derived from normal adult mammary glands.
hmpos cell Canine osteosarcoma cell line.
hmt-3522 cell Non-tumorigenic immortalized human breast epithelial cell line, derived from a fibrocystic breast lesion.
hmv-ii cell Human vaginal malignant melanoma cell line.
hn cell Oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
hn-12 cell Head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line.
hn-30 cell Head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line.
hn9.10e cell Embryonic hippocampal cell line.
ho-1 cell Human melanoma cell line.
hodgkin lymphoma cell A disease of the lymph nodes named after the English physician Thomas Hodgkin.
hodgkin lymphoma cell line A disease of the lymph nodes named after the English physician Thomas Hodgkin.
hog cell Human oligodendroglioma cell line.
holocrine gland A gland whose discharged secretion contains entire secreting cells.
honey A sweet viscid material elaborated out of the nectar of flowers in the honey sac of various bees.
honey sac A distension of the esophagus of a bee in which honey is elaborated.
hoof A hoofed foot especially of a horse.
hoof lamina The tissues which attach the third phalanx to the hoof wall.
hop-62 cell Non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
horizontal cell Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons in the outer plexiform layer of the retina of mammalian eyes. They help integrate and regulate the input from multiple photoreceptor cells. Among their functions, horizontal cells are responsible for allowing eyes to adjust to see well under both bright and dim light conditions.
hos cell Homo sapiens bone osteosarcoma cell line; established from a 13-years-old caucasian female.
hos-te85 cell Human, Caucasian, bone, osteosarcoma cell line; established from a 13-years old caucasian female.
hose cell Human ovarian surface epithelial cell line.
hpac cell A pancreatic adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line derived in 1985 from a nude mouse xenograft of a primary tumor removed from the head of the pancreas of a woman with moderate to well differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma of ductal origin.
hpaec cell Human pulmonary artery endothelial cell line.
hpaf-2 cell HPAF-II is a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line derived from peritoneal ascitic fluid of a 44 year old Caucasian male with primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma and metastases to the liver, diaphragm and lymph nodes.
hpb-all cell Human T cell leukemia cell line; established from the peripheral blood of a 14-year-old Japanese boy with ALL and thymoma at diagnosis in 1973.
hpec cell Vascular endothelial cell line from human placenta.
hpk1a cell Established human keratinocyte cell line.
hra cell Human ovarian carcinoma cell line; derived from serous cystadenocarcinoma.
hrt-18 cell Human, rectum-anus, adenocarcinoma cell line.
hs-294t cell Human melanoma cell line.
hs-5 cell Human bone marrow stromal cell line.
hs-578bst cell Human breast epithelial cell line from normal breast tissue of an 74 years-old caucasian female peripheral to an infiltrating ductal carcinoma which was the source for Hs 578T cell line.
hs-578t cell Human breast cancer cell line; established from a 74-years-old caucasian female with infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
hs-68 cell Hs68 is one of a series of human foreskin fibroblast lines developed at the Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) in Oakland, CA. The material was obtained from an apparently normal Caucasian newborn male in February, 1969.
hs-683 cell Human brain glioma cell line. Hs 683 was isolated from explant cultures of a glioma taken from the left temporal lobe of a 76 year old male Caucasian.
hs-766t cell Human pancreatic cancer cell line.
hs-sultan cell Human Caucasian plasma cell plasmacytoma cell line. Derived from a plasmacytoma of a 56 year old with IgG multiple myeloma.
hsc-1 cell Human cutaneous squamous carcinoma cell line.
hsc-2 cell Human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line; established from a 69-years-old man.
hsc-3 cell Human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
hsc-4 cell Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line.
hsc-pq cell Immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line.
hsc-t6 cell Immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line.
hscc cell Human squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
hsdm1c1 cell Mouse Swiss Albino fibrosarcoma cell line.
hsvec cell Human saphenous vein endothelial cell line.
ht-1080 cell Human fibrosarcoma cell line; established from the biopsy from a fibrosarcoma of a 35-year-old Caucasian man in 1972; patient did not receive any chemo- or radiotherapy.
ht-115 cell Human colon carcinoma cell line.
ht-1197 cell Human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line, established from a 44 years old caucasian male.
ht-1376 cell Human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line; established from a transurethral resection of invasive, moderately pleomorphic (grade 3) bladder transitional cell carcinoma of a 58-year-old Caucasian woman who had not received chemo- or radiotherapy.
ht-144 cell Homo sapiens (human), morphology: fibroblast, tissue: metastatic site: subcutaneous tissue malignant melanoma, established from a 29-year-old caucasian men.
ht-2 cell This murine T-helper cell-derived CD35(+) cell line of BALB/c origin does not express CD4 or CD8.
ht-22 cell Mouse hippocampal cell line.
ht-29 cell Human colon adenocarcinoma, established from the primary tumor of a 44-year-old Caucasian woman with colon adenocarcinoma in 1964; described to be heterotransplantable forming well-differentiated grade I tumors.
ht-29 g cell A colon carcinoma cell line. A subpopulation derived from the HT-29 cell line containing cells committed to differentiation into enterocyte-like cells (HT-29 G).
ht-29-mtx cell A colon carcinoma cell line. A subpopulation derived from the HT-29 cell line containing cells committed to differentiation into mucin-secreting cells (HT-29 MTX).
ht-29/219 cell Human colorectal tumor cell line.
htau cell Immortilized embryonic brain cortex cell line overexpressing the human tau protein.
htc cell Rat hepatoma cell line. Derived from a rat ascites tumour, which in turn was derived from a solid hepatoma induced in male Buffalo rats by feeding them 0.04% N,N'-2,7fluorenyle-bis-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide for 12.4 months.
htc-4 cell Rat hepatoma cell line.
htert-rpe1 cell The hTERT-immortalized retinal pigment epithelial cell line, hTERT RPE-1, was derived by transfecting the RPE-340 cell line with the pGRN145 hTERT-expressing plasmid.
hth-74 cell Human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line.
htr-8/svneo cell Human trophoblast cell line; derived from first trimester of pregnancy extravillous trophoblast.
huaec cell Human neonatal umbilical artery endothelial cell line.
hucct-1 cell Human liver bile duct carcinoma cell line.
huh-6 cell Human hepatoblastoma cell line.
huh-7 cell Human hepatoma cell line.
huh-7.5 cell Human hepatoma cell line.
huma-7 cell Normal human breast cell line.
human amniotic epithelial cell
human aortic endothelial cell Human aortic endothelial cell line.
human bladder microvascular endothelial cell
human bone marrow endothelial cell line
human brain microvascular endothelial cell
human cardiac microvascular endothelial cell HCMEC are isolated from heart ventricles from a single donor.
human iliac artery endothelial cell Human arterial endothelial cells, HAECs, are isolated from adult human iliac arteries of transplant donors by mechanically removing the endothelial layer and are cultured.
human lens epithelial cell line Human lens epithelial cell line.
human lung microvascular endothelial cell
husk A usually dry or membranous outer covering (as a pod or hull or one composed of bracts) of various seeds and fruits.
hut-78 cell Human, peripheral blood, cutaneous, T cell lymphoma cell line.
huvec cell A convenient source of human endothelial cells are those that line the large vein in the umbilical cord which is usually discarded together with the placenta after childbirth. The cells can be removed as a fairly pure suspension by mild enzymatic treatment of the vein followed by some mechanical distraction and will grow relatively easily in culture, retaining their differentiated characteristics for several passages.
hyalocyte A cell occurring in the peripheral part of the vitreous body that may be responsible for production of hyaluronic acid and possibly of collagen.
hyalocyte cell line
hybridoma cell A cell hybrid in which a tumour cell forms one of the original source cells. In practice, confined to hybrids between T- or B-lymphocytes and appropriate myeloma cell lines.
hybridoma cell line
hydathode A specialized pore on the leaves of higher plants that functions in the exudation of water.
hypanthium The ringlike, cup-shaped, or tubular structure of a flower on which the sepals, petals, and stamens are borne, as in the flowers of the rose or cherry.
hyperpallium Birds have a unique pallial structure known as the hyperpallium, once called the hyperstriatum.
hyperpallium apicale
hyperpallium densocellulare
hypnozoite Exoerythrocytic schizozoite of Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium Ovale in the human liver, characterised by delayed primary development; thought to be responsible for malarial relapse.
hypobranchial One of a series of deep, paired endochondral bones on the lower part of the gill arch between the ceratobranchials and the basibranchials. May occur on arches 1, 2, 3, 4 and bear dentigerous plates. Salmonidae have only 3 pairs. In Chondrichthyes they are the most ventral paired cartilages.
hypocotyl The part of the axis of a plant embryo or seedling below the cotyledon.
hypodermal seam cell A group of hypodermal cells in worms that lie along the apical midline of the hypodermis, at the extreme left and right sides between nose and tail.
hypodermis The outer cellular layer of the body of invertebrates which secretes the cuticular exoskeleton.
hypoglossal nerve The hypoglossal nerve enervates the muscles of the tongue.
hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line
hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line
hypopharynx The portion of the pharynx that lies below the upper edge of the epiglottis and opens into the larynx and esophagus.
hypophysis A small oval endocrine organ that is attached to the infundibulum of the brain, consists of an epithelial anterior lobe joined by an intermediate part to a posterior lobe of nervous origin, and produces various internal secretions directly or indirectly impinging on most basic body functions.
hypothalamic nucleus
hypothalamus The ventral part of the diencephalon that forms the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Anatomically, it includes the preoptic area, optic tract, optic chiasm, mammillary bodies, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, and neurohypophysis, but for physiological purposes the neurohypophysis is considered a distinct structure. The hypothalamus may be divided into five regions or areas (area hypothalamica rostralis, area hypothalamica dorsalis, area hypothalamica intermedia, area hypothalamica lateralis and area hypothalamica posterior) or into three longitudinal zones (periventricular zone, medial zone, and lateral zone). The hypothalamic nuclei constitute that part of the corticodiencephalic mechanism that activates, controls and integrates the peripheral autonomic mechanisms, endocrine activity, and many somatic functions, e.g., a general regulation of water balance, body temperature, sleep, and food intake, and the development of secondary sex characteristics. The hypothalamus secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary, as well as many releasing factors (hypophysiotropic hormones), by means of which it exerts control over functions of the adenohypophysis.
i-cell An abnormal fibroblast containing a large number of dark inclusions that fill the central part of the cytoplasm except for the juxtanuclear zone; seen in mucolipidosis II.
ib3-1 cell Immortalized cell line created in 1992 from a primary culture of bronchial epithelial cells isolated from a patient with cystic fibrosis.
ic-21 cell Mouse peritoneal macrophage, SV40 transformed. The IC-21 cell line was derived by transformation of normal C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal macrophages with SV40.
idioblast A plant cell committed to develop into a cell type that differs from the surrounding tissue.
iec-18 cell A nontransformed rat small intestine cell line.
iec-6 cell Rat normal small intestine cell line. Normal rat epithelial cells from the small intestine; cells were described to synthesize fibronectin and collagen.
igrov-1 cell Human ovary carcinoma cell line.
iic9 cell Chinese hamster embryonic fibroblast cell line.
ileal carcinoid cell
ileal mucosa
ileocecum The ileum and cecum considered as one organ.
ileum The last division of the small intestine extending between the jejunum and large intestine.
iliac artery Either of the large arteries supplying blood to the lower trunk and hind limbs and arising by bifurcation of the aorta which in humans occurs at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra to form one vessel for each side of the body.
iliac artery endothelial cell
iliac artery endothelial cell line
iliac artery endothelium
iliopsoas muscle Two muscles that lie together low down in the rear of the abdomen; A compound muscle, consisting of the iliacus musculus and psoas major musculus.
im-9 cell Human B lymphoblastoid cell line (from patient with multiple myeloma); established from the bone marrow of a woman with multiple myeloma in 1967. Although derived from the blood of a patient with multiple myeloma, this line has been shown to be an EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell line.
imaginal disc A group of undifferentiated cells in an insect larva that develops into a specific adult structure.
imago An insect in its sexually mature adult stage after metamorphosis.
imcd cell Renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cell line.
immature cell Not fully grown or developed.
immature ovarian follicle Primary ovarian follicles: immature ovarian follicles, each comprising an immature ovum and the specialized epithelial cells (follicle cells) that surround it.
immobilized cell Cells are immobilized by embedding them for example in Calcium-alginate.
immune stem cell Hematopoietic stem cell.
implantation fossa At the base of the head is a ball-and-socket articulation which serves to attach the neck and the rest of the spermatozoon to the head.
imr-32 cell Human neuroblastoma, established from an abdominal mass (diagnosed as neuroblastoma) of a 1-year-old caucasian boy in 1967.
imr-90 cell Normal lung fibroblast cell line from a human female. The human diploid fibroblast strain IMR-90 was derived by W.W. Nichols and associates from the lungs of a 16-week female fetus.
ina-6 cell A human myeloma cell line established from patient with IgG-kappa plasma cell leukemia .
incisor A tooth adapted for cutting or gnawing, located at the front of the mouth along the apex of the dental arch.
infected cell
inferior cervical ganglion An inconstant ganglion formed in place of the usual cervicothoracic ganglion by fusion of the lower two cervical ganglia in instances where the first thoracic ganglion remains separate.
inferior frontal gyrus A gyrus of the frontal lobe of the human brain. Its superior border is the inferior frontal sulcus, its inferior border the lateral fissure, and its posterior border is the inferior precentral sulcus. Above it is the middle frontal gyrus, behind it the precentral gyrus.
inferior mesenteric artery Origin: Abdominal aorta, branches, left colic, sigmoid, and superior rectal arteries. Distribution: descending colon, rectum.
inferior mesenteric vein The inferior (lower) mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein.
inferior olivary complex A folded band of gray matter that encloses a white core (hilum nuclei olivaris inferioris) and that produces the elevation called the oliva on the medulla oblongata. It is a nuclear complex that receives heavy projections from the spinal cord, mesencephalon, and cerebral cortex and projects fibers via the contralateral inferior cerebellar peduncle, mostly to the neocerebellum, with a few going to the vermis.
inferior olivary nucleus The inferior olivary nucleus is the largest nucleus situated in the olivary body, part of the medulla oblongata.
inferior vena cava The venous trunk for the lower extremities and for the pelvic and abdominal viscera; it begins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra by union of the common iliac veins, passes upward on the right of the aorta, and empties into the right atrium of the heart.
inferior vestibular nucleus The one of the four vestibular nuclei on each side of the medulla oblongata that is situated between the medial vestibular nucleus and the inferior cerebellar peduncle and that sends fibers down both sides of the spinal cord to synapse with motor neurons of the ventral roots.
inflammatory cell A cell (neutrophil, macrophage, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil) participating in the inflammatory response to a foreign substance.
inflorescence A flower cluster with a definite arrangement.
inflorescence apex The inflorescence apex produces inflorescence axes in the axils of all ventral bracts of two rows, and secondary inflorescences in the axils of the lower dorsal bracts of the other two rows.
inflorescence meristem The relatively undifferentiated, dividing plant tissue that gives rise to the inflorescence.
inflorescence stalk The inflorescence stalk is the main stem of the inflorescence that connects to the plant.
infralimbic cortex A cortical region in the medial prefrontal cortex which is important in tonic inhibition of subcortical structures and emotional responses, such as fear.
infundibular nucleus A nucleus of nerve cells in the posterior hypothalamic region, extending into the median eminence and almost entirely surrounding the base of the infundibulum.
infundibulum The hollow conical process of gray matter by which the pituitary gland is continuous with the brain.
ingluvial ganglion (Arthropoda: Insecta) Paired ganglion of the stomodeal nervous system at the posterior end of the foregut. The ingluvial ganglion, a major component of the stomatogastric nervous system, is known to innervate the foregut and anterior midgut.
initial collecting tubule The initial collecting tubule is a segment with a constitution similar as the collecting duct, but before the convergence with other tubules.
ink The black protective secretion of a cephalopod; The ink is composed mostly of melanin and has been used as the artists pigment, sepia.
ink gland The ink gland and ink sac are specializations of the rectal gland.
ink sac With the exception of nocturnal and very deep water cephalopods, all coeloids which dwell in light conditions have an ink sac, which can be used to expel a cloud of dark ink to confuse predators. This sac is a muscular bag which originated as an extension of the hind gut. It lies beneath the gut and opens into the anus, into which its contents - almost pure melanin - can be squirted.
inner chondrogenic layer of perichondrium The perichondrium consists of two separate layers: an outer fibrous layer and inner chondrogenic layer. The chondrogenic layer remains undifferentiated and can form chondroblasts or chondrocytes.
inner dental epithelium Inner enamel epithelium, the columnar epithelial layer of enamel matrix, secreting ameloblasts, of the odontogenic organ of a developing tooth.
inner ear The essential organ of hearing and equilibrium that is located in the temporal bone, is innervated by the auditory nerve, and includes the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea.
inner ear vestibulum The parts of the membranous labyrinth comprising the utricle and the saccule and contained in the cavity of the bony labyrinth.
inner hair cell Any of approximately 3,500 hair cells, situated in the organ of Corti, specialized as transducers of sound waves into nerve impulses and believed to encode information about the frequency of sound. So called because they are further from the outside of the cochlea than are the outer hair cells.
inner medullary collecting duct
inner medullary collecting duct cell For the inner medullary collecting duct, the specific cell type is the inner medullary collecting duct cell.
inner nuclear layer The layer of the retina composed of the cell bodies of bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and some of the cell bodies of amacrine cells.
inner plexiform layer The layer of the retina composed of the processes of bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and amacrine cells; a layer containing synaptic contacts.
inr1g9 cell InR1G9 cells are glucagon-producing islet cells, derived from a hamster glucagonoma.
ins-1 823/13 cell Subline of INS-1 rat insulinoma cell line with optimized glucose-sensitive insulin secretion.
ins-1 cell Pancreatic beta -cell line of rat origin.
ins-1e cell Rat insulinoma cell line, derived from parental strain INS-1.
insect labium A mouthpart of insects.
insect tracheal system The respiratory system of insects that consists of internal airfilled tubes.
insular cortex The insula is a portion of the cerebral cortex that is not visible until the margins of the lateral sulcus are opened up, or, as in this case, removed. The insular cortex is roughly triangular. Originally part of the superficial cortex, in higher mammals it became submerged beneath the expanding cortex around it, thereby remaining relatively close to the basal ganglia of the hemisphere. Complete submergence of the insular cortex is a feature of the human brain and is not found even in other primates.
insulinoma cell A cell of a usually benign tumor of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas.
integument Something that covers or encloses; especially: an enveloping layer (as a skin, membrane, or husk) of an organism or one of its parts.
interalveolar septum The tissue intervening between two adjacent pulmonary alveoli; it consists of a close-meshed capillary network covered on both surfaces by very thin alveolar epithelial cells, one of the bony partitions between the tooth sockets.
intercalated cell Each component of the collecting duct system contains two cell types, intercalated cells and a segment-specific cell type.
intercostal muscle Intercostal muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest wall. The intercostal muscles are mainly involved in the mechanical aspect of breathing. These muscles help expand and shrink the size of the chest cavity when you breathe.
interdigit The area of the hand or foot lying between adjacent digits.
interdigitating reticulum cell An antigen-presenting cell in the paracortex of lymph nodes, interacting with T lymphocytes.
intermediate muscle fiber Muscle fibers having characteristics intermediate between red and white muscle fibers.
internal carotid artery In human anatomy, the internal carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that helps supply blood to the brain.
internal female genital organ The various organs in the female that are concerned with reproduction, including the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina.
internal iliac artery The inner branch of the common iliac artery on either side of the body that soon breaks into several branches and supplies blood chiefly to the pelvic and gluteal areas.
internal male genital organ The internal organs in the male that are concerned with reproduction, including the testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, prostate, and bulbourethral gland.
internal plexiform layer
internal secretion A hormone; a substance secreted by an organ or structure of the endocrine system.
interneuron A neuron that conveys impulses from one neuron to another.
interrenal cell Interrenal cells in elasmobranchs and bony fishes represent the equivalent of the mammalian adrenal cortex. The interrenal cells' appearance varies greatly in response to stress and reproduction. These cells produce corticosteroids with cortisol being the most quantitatively important.
interrenal gland Structures in fishes homologous to the cortical tissue of the mammalian adrenal gland; they are in close proximity to or imbedded in the kidney.
intersegmental muscle The short intersegmental muscle is located between the prothorax and the mesothorax.
interstitial cell The cells of the connective tissue of the ovary and testis (Leydig cells), which furnish the internal secretion of those structures.
interstitial cell of cajal Pleomorphic cells having an oval nucleus and long, branching cytoplasmic processes that interlace with processes of adjacent cells, interspersed between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract and in the smooth muscle of the esophagus; they are thought to act as pacemakers.
interventricular septum The partition that separates the left ventricle from the right ventricle, consisting of a muscular and a membranous part.
intervertebral disc Any of the tough elastic disks that are interposed between the centra of adjoining vertebrae and that consist of an outer fibrous ring enclosing an inner pulpy nucleus.
intestinal cancer cell
intestinal cancer cell line
intestinal cell line
intestinal epithelium The endodermally-derived epithelium of the intestine varies considerably, but the absorptive epithelium of small intestine is usually implied.
intestinal gland Any of the tubular glands of the intestinal mucous membrane.
intestinal juice A fluid that is secreted in small quantity in the small intestine, is highly variable in constitution, and contains especially various enzymes (as erepsin, lipase, lactase, enterokinase, and amylase) and mucus.
intestinal mucosa The surface lining of the intestines where the cells absorb nutrients.
intestinal muscle
intestinal wall
intestine The tubular part of the alimentary canal that extends from the stomach to the anus.
intestine-407 cell Human Caucasian embryonic intestine, HeLa characteristics.
intramuscular adipose tissue Adipose tissue which is located throughout skeletal muscle and is responsible for the marbling seen in certain cuts of beef. In humans, excess accumulation of intramuscular fat is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
intraocular melanoma cell Cancer cell of the part of the eye called the uvea, which is composed of the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body (a muscle in the eye), and the choroid (a layer of tissue in the back of the eye). It is a type of MELANOMA and a very rare cancer, but the most common form of EYE CANCER in adults. If melanoma starts in the iris, there may be a dark spot on the iris. A symptom of melanoma in the ciliary body or choroid may be blurry vision.
intraparietal sulcus A horizontal sulcus extending back from the postcentral sulcus over some distance, then dividing perpendicularly into two branches so as to form, with the postcentral sulcus, a figure H. It divides the parietal lobe into superior and inferior parietal lobules.
invertebrate mandible Any of various mouth organs of invertebrates used for seizing and biting food, especially either of a pair of such organs in insects and other arthropods.
invertebrate muscular system
iomm-lee cell Malignant meningioma cell line.
iose cell Nontumorigenic immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cell line.
iris The circular pigmented membrane behind the cornea, perforated by the pupil; the most anterior portion of the vascular tunic of the eye, it is made up of a flat bar of circular muscular fibers surrounding the pupil, a thin layer of smooth muscle fibers by which the pupil is dilated, thus regulating the amount of light entering the eye, and posteriorly two layers of pigmented epithelial cells.
iris dilator muscle A name given fibers extending radially from the sphincter pupillae to the ciliary margin; innervation, sympathetic; action, dilates iris.
iris smooth muscle
iris sphincter muscle Circular fibers of the iris, innervated by the ciliary nerves (parasympathetic), and acting to contract the pupil.
ischial spine A bony process projecting backward and medialward from the posterior border of the ischium.
ishikawa cell The cell line Ishikawa was established from an endometrial adenocarcinoma from a 39-year-old Asian woman.
j-774 cell Mouse macrophage cell line.
j-774.1 cell Mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line.
j-774a.1 cell Mouse monocytes-macrophages, established from a tumor in a female BALB/c mouse in 1968; cells were described to synthesize lysozyme and interleukin-1 and to have receptors for immunoglobulin and complement.
j-82 cell Human bladder tumor (transitional cell carcinoma) cell line.
j-96 cell Human, Caucasian, peripheral blood, subacute leukemia cell line.
j.cam1.6 cell The J.CaM1.6 cell line is a derivative mutant of Jurkat.
j5 hepatoma cell Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line.
j558l cell Mouse, BALB/c, blood, myeloma cell line.
j7 hepatoma cell Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line.
j774.2 cell Mouse, BALB/c, blood, not defined tumor cell line. Recloned from J774.1 original ascites and solid tumour. Produces IL-1.
jar cell Human choriocarcinomacell line; established from the trophoblastic tumor of the placenta of a 24-year-old Caucasian woman.
jaw 1: Either of two bony or cartilaginous structures that in most vertebrates form the framework of the mouth and hold the teeth. 2: Any of various structures of invertebrates that have an analogous function to vertebrate jaws.
jb6 cell Mouse epidermal cell line.
jb6 cl41 cell Human colorectal cancer cell line.
jeg-3 cell